190,460 results match your criteria effects described

Stand up to action: The postural effect of moral dilemma decision-making and the moderating role of dual processes.

Psych J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing rather than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent person and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent person and save five or more people. Read More

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Tissue Retraction for Head and Neck Radiotherapy in Edentulous Patients.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):261-266

Tissue retraction devices (TRDs) are used for head and neck radiotherapy to displace soft tissues and fixate the mandible. They can increase the accuracy of irradiation and reduce its side effects, such as oral mucositis. However, no method has been described for fabrication of TRDs in edentulous patients. Read More

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From Obesity to Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can Adipose Tissue Affect Renal Function?

Nephron 2021 Apr 21:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud, Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Obesity is directly associated with an increased risk of developing CKD, regardless of other comorbid conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms that link both diseases are not well established, the role of adipose tissue (AT) is becoming increasingly important in obesity-associated kidney damage. In the context of obesity, lipotoxicity and the alteration of AT secretion profile promote inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis in the kidney, which ultimately leads to impaired renal function. Read More

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Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Species in Allergic Rhinitis.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Since conventional allergy medication for asthma or allergic rhinitis (AR) can cause side effects which limit the patients' quality of life, it is of interest to find other forms of therapy. In particular, probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus species, have shown anti-allergic effects in various mouse and human studies. For instance, administration of some Lactobacillus species resulted in nasal and ocular symptom relief and improvement of quality of life in children and adults suffering from rhinitis. Read More

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Multivalent Aptamer-Functionalized Single-Strand RNA Origami as Effective, Target-Specific Anticoagulants with Corresponding Reversal Agents.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Apr 21:e2001826. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Anticoagulants are commonly utilized during surgeries and to treat thrombotic diseases like stroke and deep vein thrombosis. However, conventional anticoagulants have serious side-effects, narrow therapeutic windows, and lack safe reversal agents (antidotes). Here, an alternative RNA origami displaying RNA aptamers as target-specific anticoagulant is described. Read More

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Effects of multi-domain lifestyle interventions on sarcopenia measures and blood biomarkers: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older adults.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Mar 19;13(7):9330-9347. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Gerontology Research Programme, Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Few studies have comprehensively described changes in blood biomarkers of the physiological responses underlying sarcopenia reduction associated with lifestyle interventions. In this study, we performed secondary analyses of data in a randomized controlled trial of multi-domain lifestyle interventions (6-month duration physical exercise, nutritional enrichment, cognitive training, combination and standard care control) among 246 community-dwelling pre-frail and frail elderly, aged ≥65 years, with and without sarcopenia. Appendicular lean mass (ALM), lower limb strength, gait speed, and blood levels of markers of muscle metabolism, inflammation, anti-oxidation, anabolic hormone regulation, insulin signaling, tissue oxygenation were measured at baseline, 3-month and 6-month post-intervention. Read More

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A Weight-of-the-Evidence Approach for Evaluating, in Lieu of Animal Studies, the Potential of a Novel Polysaccharide Polymer to Produce Lung Overload.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

IFF, 200 Powder Mill Road, Bldg. 353, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, United States.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned about the respiratory effects caused by respirable particles of water-insoluble high molecular weight polymers. The EPA has proposed a tiered approach to evaluate polymer lung overload, a kinetic event. Kinetic polymer lung overload in itself is not necessarily adverse, however, inhalation of respirable particulate matter can have adverse effects (i. Read More

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β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae alleviates oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells via Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.

β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described to be effective antioxidants, but the specific antioxidation mechanism of β-glucan is unclear. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae could regulate oxidative stress through the Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Read More

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The Antiedematous Effect of Exogenous Lactate Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Physiological and Mechanistic Approach.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

UMR7275, Institut de Pharmacologie moléculaire et cellulaire, Valbonne, France.

Background: Sodium lactate (SL) has been described as an efficient therapy in treating raised intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the precise mechanism by which SL reduces intracranial hypertension is not well defined. An antiedematous effect has been proposed but never demonstrated. Read More

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ATP1A2- and ATP1A3-associated early profound epileptic encephalopathy and polymicrogyria.

Brain 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Constitutional heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2 and ATP1A3, encoding for two distinct isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) alpha-subunit, have been associated with familial hemiplegic migraine (ATP1A2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ATP1A2/A3), rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-progressive optic atrophy, and relapsing encephalopathy with cerebellar ataxia (all ATP1A3). A few reports have described single individuals with heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2/A3 associated with severe childhood epilepsies. Early lethal hydrops fetalis, arthrogryposis, microcephaly, and polymicrogyria have been associated with homozygous truncating mutations in ATP1A2. Read More

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The role of Nanotechnology in current COVID-19 outbreak.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 15:e06841. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine Commercialization Centre (NanoRegMed Ltd, UK), London BioScience Innovation Centre, London, NW1 0NH, United Kingdom.

COVID-19 has recently become one of the most challenging pandemics of the last century with deadly outcomes and a high rate of reproduction number. It emphasizes the critical need for the designing of efficient vaccines to prevent virus infection, early and fast diagnosis by the high sensitivity and selectivity diagnostic kits, and effective antiviral and protective therapeutics to decline and eliminate the viral load and side effects derived from tissue damages. Therefore, non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles (NPs) have been under development for clinical application to prevent and treat COVID-19. Read More

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IL-6 signaling in macrophages is required for immunotherapy-driven regression of tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Medical Oncology, Oncode institute, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

Background: High serum interleukin (IL-6) levels may cause resistance to immunotherapy by modulation of myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. IL-6 signaling blockade is tested in cancer, but as this inflammatory cytokine has pleiotropic effects, this treatment is not always effective.

Methods: IL-6 and IL-6R blockade was applied in an IL-6-mediated immunotherapy-resistant TC-1 tumor model (TC-1. Read More

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Management strategy and novel ophthalmological findings in neonatal severe hypertriglyceridemia: a case report and literature review.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Apr 20;20(1):38. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Neonatal severe hypertriglyceridemia is rarely reported in the literature and there is no consensus for hypertriglyceridemia management at this age group.

Methods: The index case is a 4-week-old male infant with severe hypertriglyceridemia accidentally discovered during a circumcision surgery. His clinical and genetic characteristics and his successful management strategy are described. Read More

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One-year incidence of low libido in women using levonorgestrel subdermal implant as contraception. Cohort study. Armenia, Colombia, 2014-2019

Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol 2021 03 30;72(1):33-42. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Hathor, Clínica Sexológica, Armenia (Colombia)..

Objective: To determine the incidence of low libido in women using the levonorgestrel (LNG) subdermal implant for contraception after 12 months and to identify other adverse effects. Materials and methods: Cohort study that included women over the age of 18, with no children or prior gestations and in a stable relationship, with an LNG implant inserted at least three months before in a private teaching hospital in Armenia (Quindío), Colombia, between 2014 and 2019. Women with a history of sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections in the past six months, weighing more than 89 kg and difficult to follow were excluded. Read More

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Are we measuring the right function outcomes for older adults in reviews by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group?

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Apr 3;51(3):523-529. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Bruyere Research Institute, 43 Bruyère Street, Ottawa K1N 5C8, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Musculoskeletal conditions are the leading cause of years lived with disability for older adults. Limitations in functional ability affect healthy aging for aging populations worldwide. Thus, it is important to assess effects of interventions on the multiple dimensions of function for older adults. Read More

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Narcolepsy Treatment: Voices of Adolescents.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Apr 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

: Narcolepsy, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, is a debilitating lifelong sleep disorder for which there is no cure. Current pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments directed toward symptom management may be suboptimal. This qualitative study explores the perspective of adolescents on therapeutic interventions for narcolepsy. Read More

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Lower Eyelid Xanthelasma Following Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injections to the Tear Troughs.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Women's College Hospital, Division of Dermatology, 76 Grenville St, Toronto, M5S 1B2.

Introduction: Adverse effects from dermal fillers are uncommon. We report a case of filler-induced xanthelasma at the bilateral infraorbital region in a 43-year-old woman after multiple injections of hyaluronic acid to correct tear trough depression.

Material And Methods: We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with a chief complaint of skin discoloration of the bilateral lower eyelids. Read More

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DECT in Detection of Vertebral Fracture-associated Bone Marrow Edema: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Emphasis on Technical and Imaging Interpretation Parameters.

Radiology 2021 Apr 20:203624. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 5165, Baltimore, MD 21287 (F.G.S., H.I.S., S.D.); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn (D.S., M.H.J.); Department of Radiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (J.F.); and Department of Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany (B.J.S.).

Background Dual-energy CT (DECT) shows promising performance in detecting bone marrow edema (BME) associated with vertebral body fractures. However, the optimal technical and image interpretation parameters are not well described. Purpose To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic performance of DECT in detecting BME associated with vertebral fractures (VFs), using different technical and image interpretation parameters, compared with MRI as the reference standard. Read More

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The , a massive transposon carrying meiotic drive genes.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Systematic Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

The genomes of eukaryotes are full of parasitic sequences known as transposable elements (TEs). Here, we report the discovery of a putative giant tyrosine-recombinase-mobilized DNA transposon, , from the model fungus Previously, we described a large genomic feature called the block which is notable due to the presence of meiotic drive genes of the gene family. The block ranges from 110 kb to 247 kb and can be present in at least four different genomic locations within , despite what is an otherwise highly conserved genome structure. Read More

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CRISPR Interference to Inducibly Repress Gene Expression in .

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985900 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198.

The ability to inducibly repress gene expression is critical to the study of organisms, like , with reduced genomes wherein the majority of genes are likely to be essential. We recently described the feasibility of a CRISPR interference system to inducibly repress gene expression in However, the initial system suffered from some drawbacks, primarily leaky expression of the anhydrotetracycline (aTc) inducible dCas9 ortholog and plasmid instability, that prevented population-wide studies (e.g. Read More

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The effect of Clofazimine Concentration on QT prolongation in patients treated for tuberculosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Clofazimine is classified as a WHO group B drug for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. QT prolongation, which is associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias, is caused by several anti-tubercular drugs, including clofazimine, but there are no data quantifying the effect of clofazimine concentration on QT prolongation.To describe the effect of clofazimine exposure on QT prolongationFifteen adults drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients received clofazimine mono-therapy as 300 mg daily for three days followed by 100 mg daily in one arm of a 2-week, multi-arm early bactericidal activity trial in South Africa. Read More

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Butyrate modulates adipose-derived stem cells isolated from polygenic obese and diabetic mice to drive enhanced immunosuppression.

Cytotherapy 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background Aims: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer promising therapeutic possibilities for immunomodulation. Butyrate (BA) exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects and exhibits multiple regulatory functionalities in adipose tissue (AT). The authors aimed to explore whether BA modulates ASCs to augment their immunosuppressive capabilities. Read More

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Hemodynamic Instability and Abnormal Vasopressor Responsiveness in the Setting of Severe Metabolic Acidosis Treated With Adapted Alkalinization and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Emergency Department.

J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 22;60(1):67-72. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Einstein Healthcare Network, Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Whereas laboratory data and clinical experience suggest that metabolic acidosis deleteriously affects certain cardiovascular functions and may contribute to hemodynamic compromise, treatment of acidemia itself with alkalinization therapy, predominantly in the form of bolus dosing of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, has not been shown to improve hemodynamics or patient-oriented outcomes in clinical trials. Detailed examination of the biochemical effects of standard sodium bicarbonate administration reveals a possible explanation: ionized serum hypocalcemia, serum hypercarbia, and a paradoxical decrease in intracellular pH occur when bicarbonate is given alone and rapidly, without adjustment in minute ventilation or calcium supplementation. "Adapted alkalinization" treatment countering these side effects through hyperventilation, calcium supplementation, and slower sodium bicarbonate infusion has been studied in animals, but not yet described in humans. Read More

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January 2021

Tansley Review No. 59 Leaf boundary layers.

P H Schuepp

New Phytol 1993 Nov;125(3):477-507

Department of Renewable Resources, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Studies of heat and mass exchange between leaves and their local environment are central to our understanding of plant-atmosphere interactions. The transfer across aerodynamic leaf boundary layers is generally described by non-dimensional expressions which reflect largely empirical adaptations of engineering models derived for flat plates. This paper reviews studies on leaves, and leaf models with varying degrees of abstraction, in free and forced convection. Read More

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November 1993

Predicting leaf gas exchange and δ C responses to the past 30000 years of global environmental change.

D J Beerling

New Phytol 1994 Nov;128(3):425-433

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, P.O. Box 601, Sheffield S10 2UQ, UK.

Theoretical developments in our understanding of leaf gas exchange processes and carbon isotope composition (δ C) mean that it should now be possible to model their responses to global environmental change. Such a model would be of use for process-based interpretations of historical changes in leaf δ C and for understanding the global stable carbon isotope balance. This paper describes the development and validation of a model towards this aim. Read More

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November 1994

Effects of exposure to ozone at different stages in the development of Plantago major L. on chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange.

New Phytol 1994 Nov;128(3):509-514

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Ridley Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

Similar ozone treatments were applied at different stages of growth to a population of Plantago major L., which is as sensitive to ozone as Bel-W3 tobacco. Plants were grown from seed for 8 wk in controlled-environment chambers and exposed to 70 μl O l 7 h d for the whole period or for 2-wk episodes during weeks 1 + 2, 3 + 4, 5 + 6 or 7 + 8. Read More

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November 1994

Late-glacial and Holocene vegetation history of the Flow Country, northern Scotland.

Daniel J Charman

New Phytol 1994 May;127(1):155-168

Department of Geographical Science, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

The vegetation history of an important conservation area, the Flow Country in northern Scotland, is described using the results of pollen analysis from two closely spaced cores from the Cross Lochs, eastern Sutherland. Buried lake sediments and shallower surface peats yield a continuous record covering the Devensian Late-glacial and the Holocene. The earliest Late-glacial pollen spectra recovered suggest a transition from open habitat to more stable communities, dominated by *Empetrum heath. Read More

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Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms.

New Phytol 1994 Aug;127(4):617-633

Biochemistry & Physiology Department, AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK.

Many secondary metabolites found in plants have a role in defence against herbivores, pests and pathogens. In this review, a few examples are described and discussed, and some of the problems in determining the precise role(s) of such metabolites highlighted. The role of secondary metabolites in defence may involve deterrence/anti-feedant activity, toxicity or acting as precursors to physical defence systems. Read More

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New Phytol 1987 Aug;106(4):657-666

Universität Bremen, Fachbereich Biologie, NW2, Leobenerstrasse, D-2800 Bremen 33, Federal Republic of Germany.

The effects of steady state salinities (150 to 700 mol m NaCl) on the growth rates and intracellular solutes of the prasinophyte algae Tetraselmis chui Butcher and Prasinocladus Kuckuck and the prymnesiophyte algae, Prymnesium parvum Carter and Ruttnera spectabilis Geitler, are described. Maximum growth rates were reached in media approximating to the NaCl concentration of oceanic waters (about 500 mol m ). The following intracellular organic solutes paralleled the increases of external salinity: the tertiary sulphonium compound β-dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in T. Read More

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Proteinase activity in mycorrhizal fungi: I. The effect of extracellular pH on the production and activity of proteinase by ericoid endophytes from soils of contrasted pH.

J R Leake D J Read

New Phytol 1990 Jun;115(2):243-250

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, U.K.

The effect of pH on the production and specific activity of the extracellular proteinase enzymes of two ecologically distinct ericoid mycorrhizal fungi is described. The proteinase of Hymenoscyphus ericae (Read), Korf & Kernan, isolated from roots of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull growing in soil of pH 35, was compared with a similar enzyme from an endophyte of the calcicolous alpine shrub Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L. Read More

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