12,473 results match your criteria effects biogenesis


Insights Into Exosomal Non-Coding RNAs Sorting Mechanism and Clinical Application.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:664904. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Exosomes are natural nanoscale bilayer phospholipid vesicles that can be secreted by almost all types of cells and are detected in almost all types of body fluids. Exosomes are effective mediators of cell-cell signaling communication because of their ability to carry and transfer a variety of bioactive molecules, including non-coding RNAs. Non-coding RNAs have also been found to exert strong effects on a variety of biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Read More

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Piceatannol promotes hepatic and renal AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α mitochondrial pathway in rats exposed to reserpine or gamma-radiation.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211016194

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Egypt.

Human exposure to radio-therapeutic doses of gamma rays can produce late effects, which negatively affect cancer patients' quality of life, work prospects, and general health. This study was performed to explore the role of Piceatannol (PIC) in the process of "mitochondrial biogenesis" signaling pathway as possible management of disturbances induced in stressed animal model(s) either by gamma-irradiation (IR) or administration of reserpine (RES); as a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor. PIC (10 mg/kg BW/day; orally) were given to rats for 7 days, after exposure to an acute dose of γ-radiation (6 Gy), or after a single reserpine injection (1 g/kg BW; sc). Read More

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Fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, reduces hepatic fat accumulation through the upregulation of TFEB-mediated lipophagy.

Metabolism 2021 May 10:154798. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Transcription factors E3 (TFE3) and EB (TFEB) are master regulators of the transcriptional response of basic cellular processes such as lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Here, we investigated the role of fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, in promotion of intracellular lipid clearance by upregulation of TFEB/TFE3. Read More

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Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Stress on the Nucleolar Redox Environment and Pre-rRNA Maturation.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:678488. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, NJ, United States.

Identifying biologically relevant molecular targets of oxidative stress may provide new insights into disease mechanisms and accelerate development of novel biomarkers. Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental prerequisite for cellular protein synthesis, but how oxidative stress affects ribosome biogenesis has not been clearly established. To monitor and control the redox environment of ribosome biogenesis, we targeted a redox-sensitive roGFP reporter and catalase, a highly efficient HO scavenger, to the nucleolus, the primary site for transcription and processing of rRNA in eukaryotic cells. Read More

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Zafirlukast promotes mitochondrial respiration by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

J Mol Histol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, No. 71 Xinmin Street, Chaoyang District, Changchun, Jilin Province, 130021, China.

Lung diseases, including asthma, pose a serious global health issue. Loss of mitochondrial function and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of chronic lung diseases. Thus, maintaining mitochondrial function and homeostasis is an important treatment goal. Read More

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Biogenesis, cellular effects, and biomarker value of circHIPK3.

Authors:
Yihan Fu Hong Sun

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 11;21(1):256. Epub 2021 May 11.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) can indirectly regulate gene expression by competitively binding to microRNA(miRNA) through miRNA response elements (MREs) to affect miRNA-induced gene regulation, which is of great biological significance. Among them, circular RNA (circRNA) has become a hotspot due to its highest binding capacity. A specific circRNA discussed in this review, circHIPK3, has been studied for its biological characteristics, function, cellular effects and its relationship with tumors and various diseases. Read More

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Big eyes can't see microplastics: Feeding selectivity and eco-morphological adaptations in oral cavity affect microplastic uptake in mud-dwelling amphibious mudskipper fish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147445. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food, and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Microplastic contamination is a widespread global problem. Plastic pollution in the oceans has received a lot of news coverage, but there is a significant gap in our knowledge about its effect in estuarine areas and a profound regional bias in available information. Here, we estimated the degree of microplastic pollution, its impact on a selected fish, and its function as a vector for heavy metals in the Ulhas River estuary, which is one of the most fragile, polluted, and anthropogenically impacted estuaries in India. Read More

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Modulations of lipid metabolism and development of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry in response to egg-to-fry rearing conditions.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), Institute of Life, Earth & Environment, University of Namur (UNamur), 5000, Namur, Belgium.

In stocking program, the use of artificial incubation conditions in hatcheries from the fertilisation of eggs to the release of unfed fry could reduce their ability to adapt to the natural environment. This study evaluates the effects of three factors on the fitness and physiology of salmon fry at their emergence, the origin of water (river vs drilling), the type of support in the incubator (support matrix vs plastic sheets) and the type of incubators (Californian vs vertical trays), and compares them to a semi-natural incubation method in river. Key biological functions including nutritional and immune status were compared among experimental conditions using biometric parameters, lipid composition and gene expression analyses. Read More

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Mulberry leaf activates brown adipose tissue and induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats through regulating AMPK signaling pathway.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 11:1-31. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

The current epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly affects human health worldwide. Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Usnic acid suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting PD-L1 expression and enhancing T-lymphocyte tumor-killing activity.

Phytother Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, China.

The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is abnormally expressed in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade reduces the apoptosis and exhaustion of T cells and inhibits the development of malignant tumors. Usnic acid is a dibenzofuran compound originating from Usnea diffracta Vain and has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and anticancer activities. Read More

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Maternal high fructose diet induced early onset retinopathy via the suppression of synaptic plasticity mediated by the mitochondrial dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, Republic of Chinagrid.413804.a.

Retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, and there is currently no cure. Earlier identification of the progression of retinopathy could provide a better chance for intervention. Diet has profound effects on retinal function. Read More

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Cell-free exosome-laden scaffolds for tissue repair.

Nanoscale 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Psychological Healthcare & Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

With the development of regenerative medicine, tissue repair at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level has seen continuous improvements over traditional techniques. As the core of tissue repair, seed cells are widely used in various fields of regenerative medicine. However, their use is still associated with problems such as decreased cell survival and regeneration capacity after transplantation, immune rejection, and ethical concerns. Read More

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On-chip perivascular supporting stemness of patient-derived glioma cells in a serum-free, flowable culture.

Lab Chip 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK. and The Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, UK.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and the most aggressive type of primary brain malignancy. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) can migrate in vascular niches within or away from the tumour mass, increasing tumour resistance to treatments and contributing to relapses. To study individual GSC migration and their interactions with the perivasculature of the tumour microenvironment, there is a need to develop a human organotypic in vitro model. Read More

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Resveratrol Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis Function and Activates PGC-1α Pathway in a Preclinical Model of Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 22;8:620683. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Reproductive Medicine and Genetic Research, Department of Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in diseases. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic reagent, has powerful antioxidant properties and the ability to scavenge mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of central nervous system diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV on mitochondrial biogenesis in early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain poorly understood. Read More

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Is Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapy the Next Answer for Cartilage Regeneration?

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 23;9:645039. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

"Extracellular vesicles" (EVs) is a term gathering biological particles released from cells that act as messengers for cell-to-cell communication. Like cells, EVs have a membrane with a lipid bilayer, but unlike these latter, they have no nucleus and consequently cannot replicate. Several EV subtypes (e. Read More

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Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Inhibits Atrial Electrical Remodeling in a Tachypaced Rat Model.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:642398. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to rate-dependent atrial changes collectively defined as atrial remodelling (AR). Shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and decreased conduction velocity are among the hallmarks of AR. Pharmacological strategies to inhibit AR, thereby reducing the self-perpetual nature of AF, are of great clinical value. Read More

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CREG1 promotes lysosomal biogenesis and function.

Autophagy 2021 May 8:1-17. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

CREG1 is a small glycoprotein which has been proposed as a transcription repressor, a secretory ligand, a lysosomal, or a mitochondrial protein. This is largely because of lack of antibodies for immunolocalization validated through gain- and loss-of-function studies. In the present study, we demonstrate, using antibodies validated for immunofluorescence microscopy, that CREG1 is mainly localized to the endosomal-lysosomal compartment. Read More

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Population origin, maternal effects, and hydric conditions during incubation determine embryonic and offspring survival in a desert-dwelling lizard.

Oecologia 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

While the effects of incubation environment on embryonic development and offspring traits have been extensively studied in oviparous vertebrates, studies into how genetic inheritance (population origin), maternal effects, and incubation environment interact to produce varying phenotypes, are rare. To elucidate the interactive role of those three factors during incubation in shaping offspring phenotypes through hydric conditions, we conducted a fully factorial experiment [arid and semiarid populations × maternal dry and wet treatments (MDT and MWT) × embryonic dry and wet treatments (EDT and EWT)] with a desert-dwelling lacertid lizard (Eremias argus). Female lizards in dry conditions produced larger clutch sizes but smaller eggs. Read More

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Optogenetic stimulation of entorhinal cortex reveals the implication of insulin signaling in adult rat's hippocampal neurogenesis.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 6;111:110344. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Projections originating from entorhinal cortex, known as the perforant pathway, provide the main input to the dentate gyrus and promote neurogenesis. However, neuromodulators and molecular changes mediating neurogenic effects of this pathway are not yet fully understood. Read More

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Whole genome sequencing reveals high differentiation, low levels of genetic diversity and short runs of homozygosity among Swedish wels catfish.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The use of genetic markers in the context of conservation is largely being outcompeted by whole-genome data. Comparative studies between the two are sparse, and the knowledge about potential effects of this methodology shift is limited. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing data to assess the genetic status of peripheral populations of the wels catfish (Silurus glanis), and discuss the results in light of a recent microsatellite study of the same populations. Read More

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Effects of fluid flow shear stress to mouse muscle cells on the bone actions of muscle cell-derived extracellular vesicless.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0250741. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology and Regenerative Medicine, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

The interactions between skeletal muscle and bone have been recently noted, and muscle-derived humoral factors related to bone metabolism play crucial roles in the muscle/bone relationships. We previously reported that extracellular vesicles from mouse muscle C2C12 cells (Myo-EVs) suppress osteoclast formation in mice. Although mechanical stress is included in extrinsic factors which are important for both muscle and bone, the detailed roles of mechanical stress in the muscle/bone interactions have still remained unknown. Read More

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Stool dynamics after extrinsic nerve injury during right colectomy with extended D3-mesenterectomy.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: To improve oncological outcome in right colon cancer surgery, an extended mesenterectomy (D3) is under evaluation. In this procedure, all tissue anterior and posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels from the middle colic to ileocolic artery origin is removed, causing injury to the superior mesenteric nerve plexus. The aim was to study the effects of this injury on bowel dynamics and quality of life (QoL). Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals an Altered Hcy Metabolism in the Stria Vascularis of the Pendred Syndrome Mouse Model.

Neural Plast 2021 17;2021:5585394. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: mice exhibit severer defects in the development of the cochlea and develop deafness, while the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study was to investigate the potential mechanism linking deficiency to hearing loss.

Materials And Methods: RNA sequencing was applied to analyze the differential gene expression of the stria vascularis (SV) from wildtype and mice. Read More

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Multifaceted Roles of Adipose Tissue-Derived Exosomes in Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:669429. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Adipose tissue functions importantly in the bodily homeostasis and systemic metabolism, while obesity links to multiple disorders. Beyond the canonical hormones, growth factors and cytokines, exosomes have been identified to play important roles in transmission of information from adipose tissue to other organs. Exosomes are nanoscale membrane vesicles secreted by donor cells, and transfer the genetic information to the recipient cells where the encapsulated nucleic acids and proteins are released. Read More

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Daily full spectrum light exposure prevents food allergy-like allergic diarrhea by modulating vitamin D and microbiota composition.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2021 May 6;7(1):41. Epub 2021 May 6.

Liver Transplantation Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The importance of sun exposure on human health is well recognized, and a recent trend in the avoidance of sun exposure has led to the risk of missing the beneficial effects such as vitamin D biogenesis. Vitamin D insufficiency is one of the risk factors for the development of food allergies (FAs), and vitamin D status controls gut homeostasis by modulating the microbiota. This study aimed to explore the impact of daily full spectrum light exposure (phototherapy) on the pathogenesis of FAs. Read More

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Role of ILC2 in Viral-Induced Lung Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:675169. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Innate lymphoid type-2 cells (ILC2) are a population of innate cells of lymphoid origin that are known to drive strong Type 2 immunity. ILC2 play a key role in lung homeostasis, repair/remodeling of lung structures following injury, and initiation of inflammation as well as more complex roles during the immune response, including the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Remarkably, dysregulation of this single population has been linked with chronic lung pathologies, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrotic diseases (IPF). Read More

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Low levels of sulfur and cobalt during the pre- and periconceptional periods affect the oocyte yield of donors and the DNA methylome of preimplantation bovine embryos.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 May 4:1-13. Epub 2021 May 4.

Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. Read More

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Small molecule Y-320 stimulates ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and aminoglycoside-induced premature termination codon readthrough.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 3;19(5):e3001221. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Premature termination codons (PTC) cause over 10% of genetic disease cases. Some aminoglycosides that bind to the ribosome decoding center can induce PTC readthrough and restore low levels of full-length functional proteins. However, concomitant inhibition of protein synthesis limits the extent of PTC readthrough that can be achieved by aminoglycosides like G418. Read More

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Effects of Treadmill Exercise on the Expression Level of BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, TFAM, and PGC-1α in the Hippocampus of Thimerosal-Treated Rats.

Neurotox Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Amir-Almomenin Hospital, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Thimerosal (THIM) induces neurotoxic changes including neuronal death and releases apoptosis inducing factors from mitochondria to cytosol. THIM alters the expression level of factors involved in apoptosis. On the other hand, the anti-apoptotic effects of exercise have been reported. Read More

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Embryonic exposure to hyper glucocorticoids suppresses brown fat development and thermogenesis via REDD1.

Sci Bull (Beijing) 2021 Mar 28;66(5):478-489. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Nutrigenomics and Growth Biology Laboratory, Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Maternal stress during pregnancy is prevailing worldwide, which exposes fetuses to intrauterine hyper glucocorticoids (GC), programming offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in maintaining long-term metabolic health, impacts of prenatal hyper GC on postnatal BAT thermogenesis and underlying regulations remain poorly defined. Pregnant mice were administrated with synthetic GC dexamethasone (DEX) at levels comparable to fetal GC exposure of stressed mothers. Read More

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