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Effectiveness of Microcurrent Stimulation in Preserving Retinal Function of Blind Leading Retinal Degeneration and Optic Neuropathy: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Objectives: To systematically identify and summarize the effectiveness and the parameters of electrical stimulation (ES) for the preservation of visual function in major retinal degeneration and optic neuropathy.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review of clinical studies, using ES therapy in patients with blind leading retinal degenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, retinal vein occlusion (RVO), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and optic neuropathy was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for relevant interventional studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Read More

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Food antigens exacerbate intestinal damage and inflammation following the disruption of the mucosal barrier.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 11;96:107670. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biological Therapy Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Immunology, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Food antigens are closely related to progression of inflammatory bowel disease; however, details of how they induce intestinal immune responses and causes intestinal inflammation is not yet clear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of oral collagen on the intestinal mucosa, and elucidate the mechanism of food antigen-induced enteritis. Here, we provide evidence that Aspirin (a mucosal-damaging agent) and type II collagen (CII; a food antigen) acted synergistically to disrupt the intestinal mucosal barrier, and increase intestinal permeability, which resulted in a large amount of CII entered into the lamina propria, where it interacted with the intestinal immune system, promoted intestinal inflammation, and shaped innate and adaptive immune reactions into Th1-dominant. Read More

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Incorporation of simvastatin into lipid membranes: Why deliver a statin in form of inclusion complex with hydrophilic cyclodextrin.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 24;204:111784. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093, Warsaw, Poland; Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

In this work, the effects of simvastatin (SIM), (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and their complex (SIM:HPβCD) on the structure and properties of lipid membranes were investigated for the first time by Langmuir technique combined with PM-IRRAS spectroscopy. An improved understanding of the differences of the interactions between free SIM, and SIM in the form of an inclusion complex with HPβCD with the lipid membrane will improve the development of preparation methods for in vivo applications. Monolayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), cholesterol (Chol) and their mixture DMPC:Chol (7:3) served as simple models of one leaflet of the cell membrane. Read More

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Evaluation of strategic uprighting of the mandibular molars using an orthodontic miniplate and a nickel-titanium reverse curve arch wire: Preliminary cephalometric study.

Korean J Orthod 2021 May;51(3):179-188

Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the sagittal and vertical positions of mandibular molars after applying an orthodontic miniplate with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reverse curve arch wire (biocreative reverse curve [BRC] system).

Methods: A total of 30 female patients (mean age, 25.99 ± 8. Read More

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Applying time series analyses on continuous accelerometry data-A clinical example in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251544. Epub 2021 May 13.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Many clinical studies reporting accelerometry data use sum score measures such as percentage of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity which do not provide insight into differences in activity patterns over 24 hours, and thus do not adequately depict circadian activity patterns. Here, we present an improved functional data analysis approach to model activity patterns and circadian rhythms from accelerometer data. As a use case, we demonstrated its application in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-matched healthy older volunteers (HOV). Read More

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Auditory selective adaptation moment by moment, at multiple timescales.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2021 Apr;47(4):596-615

Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language.

Over the course of a lifetime, adults develop perceptual categories for the vowels and consonants in their native language, based on the distribution of those sounds in their environment. However, in any given listening situation, the short-term distribution of sounds can cause changes in this long-term categorization. For example, if the same sound (the "adaptor") is heard many times in a short period of time, listeners and become less prone to hearing that sound. Read More

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Parent ethnic-racial socialization during childhood protects against increases in bedtime sleep problems in Black adolescents.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):236-245

School of Social Work, University of Washington.

Racial disparities in sleep have been reported with Black adolescents showing the least amount of sleep relative to other youth. Yet, few within-group studies have examined factors that protect Black adolescents from sleep problems. To address this gap, we tested whether parent ethnic-racial socialization (i. Read More

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January 2021

Effects on smoking behavior of switching menthol smokers to non-menthol cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Introduction: Bans of menthol characterizing flavor in cigarettes have been implemented in some localities and have been proposed more broadly. One proposed benefit of such a ban is to increase cessation rates among current menthol smokers. There is currently relatively limited data regarding how smoking behavior changes if menthol smokers switch to non-menthol cigarettes. Read More

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Towards a standard operating procedure for revealing hidden volatile organic compounds in breath: the Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy case.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(14):4217-4224

Human breath contains a large amount of small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and could therefore be used as a carrier of metabolic information for medical diagnostics. Still, in spite of several promising techniques that have been applied during the last decades to study breath content, there is a lack of breath-based diagnostic tools available for physicians. Among several promising techniques, infrared (IR) spectroscopy has already proved its potential for reliable detection of VOCs in the breath. Read More

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Aerosolized nanoliposomal carrier of remdesivir: an effective alternative for COVID-19 treatment .

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, St. John's University, New York, NY 11439, USA.

To formulate an aerosolized nanoliposomal carrier for remdesivir (AL-Rem) against coronavirus disease 2019. AL-Rem was prepared using modified hydration technique. Cytotoxicity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, stability and aerodynamic characteristics of developed liposomes were evaluated. Read More

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Heme Detoxification in the Malaria Parasite: A Target for Antimalarial Drug Development.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

ConspectusOver the last century, malaria deaths have decreased by more than 85%. Nonetheless, there were 405 000 deaths in 2018, mostly resulting from infection. In the 21st century, much of the advance has arisen from the deployment of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapy. Read More

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[Current situation of nitrogen application and its effects on yield and quality of Chinese materia medica].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1883-1892

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. Read More

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A harmonized and standardized in vitro approach produces reliable results on silver nanoparticles toxicity in different cell lines.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Environment and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Despite the widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in different fields and the amount of investigations available, to date, there are many contradictory results on their potential toxicity. In the present study, extensively characterized 20-nm AgNPs were investigated using optimized protocols and standardized methods to test several toxicological endpoints in different cell lines. The agglomeration/aggregation state of AgNPs in culture media was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Read More

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Ecotoxicology of alpine streams in the West Carpathians-Alpine Bullhead (Cottus poecilopus) and high mountain flash flood effects.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of High Mountain Biology, University of Žilina, Tatranská Javorina 7, 059 56, Tatranská Javorina,, Slovakia.

Flash floods represent a serious threat to wildlife, water biota, and human life in pre-alpine regions, particularly in recent historical memory. The alpine bullhead is an established bioindicator of water quality in mountain streams, which can be adversely affected by an increased propensity for flash flooding. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flash flooding on the variation of chemical elements found in the skull of alpine bullheads, with a focus on inter-annual effects. Read More

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Dietary SFAs and ω-6 Fatty Acids Alter Incorporation of ω-3 Fatty Acids into Milk Fat of Lactating CD-1 Mice and Tissues of Offspring.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Background: Methods to increase the amount of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs in milk are desirable for neonatal health. The n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), can be elongated to EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). n-6 PUFAs suppress tissue n-3 PUFA incorporation, but the effect of SFAs is not clear. Read More

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Effects of physical activity on quality of life and physical function in postoperative patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

Phys Ther Res 2021 26;24(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, Japan.

Objectives: This study was to clarify changes in physical function and quality of life (QOL) for postoperative, and to examine the influence of the amount of physical activity on these variables.

Methods: This study included 29 patients who underwent gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The QOL measurement was used to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for preoperative and 2nd and 4th postoperative weeks. Read More

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October 2020

Antioxidant, histopathological and biochemical outcomes of short-term exposure to acetamiprid in liver and brain of rat: The protective role of N-acetylcysteine and S-methylcysteine.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Mar 21;29(3):280-289. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Science. University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and S-methyl- L-cysteine (SMC) against hepatic oxidative stress and brain damage induced by acetamiprid (ACP) in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes, measuring serum biomarkers and antioxidant defense systems. In this study, 42 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and administered by intraperitoneally for one week: the control group, the sham group (normal saline), ACP alone (5 mg/kg) (group1), NAC alone (160 mg/kg) (group2), ACP + SMC (100 mg/kg) (group3), ACP + NAC (group 4) and ACP + NAC + SMC (group 5). Our results showed that acetamiprid induces liver injures including infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion and altered histo-architecture and brain damages including gliosis, hyperemia and necrosis. Read More

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[The effects of writing and reading aloud the positive events that take place in the workplace on work engagement and the occupational stress of care workers in welfare facilities for long-term elderly care: A crossover trial].

Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Graduate School of Health and Nursing Science, Wakayama Medical University.

Objectives: A number of earlier studies have pointed out that care workers in nursing homes for the elderly experience high levels of stress. In recent years, work engagement has been attracting attention as a concept that focuses on the positive psychological aspects of workers. In this study, we examined whether writing and reading aloud positive events that take place in the workplace would be useful as a measure to improve work engagement and to reduce occupational stress among care workers in such facilities. Read More

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Amount of Green Fluorescent Protein in the Anterior Chamber after Intravitreal Injection of Triple-Mutated Self-Complementary AAV2 Vectors is Not Affected by Previous Vitrectomy Surgery.

J Nippon Med Sch 2021 ;88(2):103-108

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School.

Background: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising vector for ocular gene therapy. Surgical internal limiting membrane peeling before AAV vector administration is useful for efficient retinal transduction. However, no report has investigated localization of AAV vectors after administration into a post-vitrectomy eye. Read More

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January 2021

Auditory verbal hallucinations and childhood trauma subtypes across the psychosis continuum: a cluster analysis.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2021 May 13:1-19. Epub 2021 May 13.

Orygen, Melbourne, Australia.

A strong link between voice-hearing experience and childhood trauma has been established. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were unique clusters of childhood trauma subtypes in a sample across the clinical spectrum of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and to examine clinical and phenomenological features across these clusters. Combining two independent international datasets (the Netherlands and Australia), childhood trauma subtypes were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis. Read More

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Sensitivity of a widespread groundwater copepod to different contaminants.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 12;274:129911. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Groundwater is an indispensable resource for humankind and sustainable biomes functioning. Anthropogenic disturbance threatens groundwater ecosystems globally, but to which extent groundwater organisms respond to stressors remains poorly understood. Groundwater animals are rare, with small populations, difficult to find and to breed in the lab, which poses a main challenge to the assessment of their responses to pollutants. Read More

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Overall health impacts of a potential increase in cycle commuting in Stockholm, Sweden.

Scand J Public Health 2021 May 12:14034948211010024. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Aims: To estimate the overall health impact of transferring commuting trips from car to bicycle.

Methods: In this study registry information on the location of home and work for residents in Stockholm County was used to obtain the shortest travel route on a network of bicycle paths and roads. Current modes of travel to work were based on travel survey data. Read More

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[Features and choice of surgical strategy in patients with gastrointestinal fistulas].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2021 (5):58-62

Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia.

Objective: To evaluate the features and choice of surgical strategy in patients with gastrointestinal fistula based on classification of their types.

Material And Methods: There were 398 patients with gastrointestinal fistula. Fistula type 1 was found in 126 (31. Read More

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[Effect of morphological state of pancreatic parenchyma on the long-term outcome of surgery for chronic pancreatitis].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2021 (5):42-49

Vishnevsky National Medical Research Center of Surgery, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To determine the effect of baseline morphological state of the pancreas on the long-term outcomes of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR).

Material And Methods: The study included 104 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), who underwent DPPHR in 2014-2019. Pain syndrome, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and quality of life (QoL) were assessed in long-term postoperative period. Read More

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An update on emerging therapeutics to combat COVID-19.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, R.S Pura-181102, J & K, India.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has demanded effective therapeutic protocol from researchers and clinicians across the world. Currently, a large amount of primary data have been generated from several preclinical studies. At least 300 clinical trials are underway for drug repurposing against COVID-19; the clinician needs objective evidence-based medication to treat COVID-19. Read More

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In situ evaluation of desensitizing toothpastes for protecting against erosive tooth wear and its characterization.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.

Objective: This five-phase, single-blind, crossover in situ trial evaluated the effects of desensitizing or anti-erosive toothpastes on dentin erosive wear and tubule occlusion.

Materials And Methods: Some characteristics such as relative dentin abrasivity (RDA), viscosity (V), cytotoxicity, and fluoride and calcium (Ca) availability of the toothpastes were also tested. Samples were positioned on removable intraoral appliances from 15 volunteers (n=4), according to the groups, C-control (0 ppm fluoride), F-sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), A-MFP and arginine+calcium carbonate, CSP-calcium sodium phosphosilicate, and CS-MFP and calcium silicate+sodium phosphate. Read More

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Rainwater chemistry observation in a karst city: variations, influence factors, sources and potential environmental effects.

Authors:
Jie Zeng Guilin Han

PeerJ 2021 20;9:e11167. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China.

The rainwater chemistry and related air contaminants are used to investigate the rainwater ions sources, variations, and influence factors from 2012 to 2014 in Guiyang city (the typical karst urban area of Southwest China). According to temporal rainwater ion concentrations, the obvious variations were presented in the study period, such as Ca (125∼6,652 μeq L) and SO (11∼4,127 μeq L). Consequently, Ca, Mg, SO and Cl are considered as the leading ions. Read More

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Incorporation of mineral nitrogen into the soil food web as affected by plant community composition.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 25;11(9):4295-4309. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

J.F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany.

Although nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing globally, N availability still limits many organisms, such as microorganisms and mesofauna. However, little is known to which extent soil organisms rely on mineral-derived N and whether plant community composition modifies its incorporation into soil food webs. More diverse plant communities more effectively compete with microorganisms for mineral N likely reducing the incorporation of mineral-derived N into soil food webs. Read More

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ROS-responsive liposomes with NIR light-triggered doxorubicin release for combinatorial therapy of breast cancer.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 11;19(1):134. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Tongzipo road 172, Changsha, 410000, China.

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) are potential tools to minimize the side effects and substantially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. However, it is challenging to achieve spatially and temporally controllable and accurate drug release in tumor sites based on ROS-responsive DDSs. To solve this problem, we designed a nanosystem combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and ROS-responsive chemotherapy. Read More

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A non-coding indel polymorphism in the gene of exhibits antagonistically pleiotropic fitness effects.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 May 12;288(1950):20202958. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK.

The amount of genetic variation for fitness within populations tends to exceed that expected under mutation-selection-drift balance. Several mechanisms have been proposed to actively maintain polymorphism and account for this discrepancy, including antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), where allelic variants have opposing effects on different components of fitness. Here, we identify a non-coding indel polymorphism in the gene of and measure survival and reproductive components of fitness in males and females of replicate lines carrying each respective allele. Read More

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