20,530 results match your criteria effectiveness efficiency

A review of methods to reduce the probability of the airborne spread of COVID-19 in ventilation systems and enclosed spaces.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 28:111765. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS, 39759, USA. Electronic address:

COVID-19 forced the human population to rethink its way of living. The threat posed by the potential spread of the virus via an airborne transmission mode through ventilation systems in buildings and enclosed spaces has been recognized as a major concern. To mitigate this threat, researchers have explored different technologies and methods that can remove or decrease the concentration of the virus in ventilation systems and enclosed spaces. Read More

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Recent trends in microbial nanoparticle synthesis and potential application in environmental technology: a comprehensive review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Material Resource Efficiency Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, 248005, India.

Microbial technology comprising environment in various aspects of pollution monitoring, treatment of pollutants, and energy generation has been put forth by the researchers worldwide in an eco-friendly manner. During the past few decades, this revolution has pronounced microbial cells in green nanotechnology, extending the scope, efficiency, and investment capita at research institutes, industries, and global markets. In the present review, initially, the source for the microbial synthesis of nanoparticles will be discussed involving bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae, and viruses. Read More

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Effect of the ultrasonic standing wave frequency on the attractive mineralization for fine coal particle flotation.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jul 23;77:105682. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China.

Froth flotation for mineral beneficiation is one of the most important separation techniques; however, it has several challenges for processing fine and ultrafine particles. Attractive mineralization between particles and bubbles by ultrasonic standing wave (USW) is a novel and high-efficiency method that could assist fine particle flotation. Frequency is an important ultrasound parameter, whose effectiveness mechanisms on the attractive mineralization did not compressively address. Read More

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Small-molecule compounds boost genome-editing efficiency of cytosine base editor.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Vision Science, Ministry of Health and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Cytosine base editor (CBE) enables targeted C-to-T conversions at single base-pair resolution and thus has potential therapeutic applications in humans. However, the low efficiency of the system limits practical use of this approach. We reported a high-throughput human cells-based reporter system that can be harnessed for quickly measuring editing activity of CBE. Read More

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Removal of disinfection by-product precursors by Al-based coagulants: A comparative study on coagulation performance.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 3;420:126558. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; International Joint Research Center for Sustainable Urban Water System, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Coagulation is well-established for controlling regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), but its effectiveness for controlling unregulated DBPs remains unclear. The efficiency of coagulation in controlling unregulated DBPs requires clarification owing to their relatively high toxicity. In this study, three Al-based coagulants, aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and a novel type of covalently bond hybrid coagulant (CBC, synthesized using AlCl) were selected, and the coagulation performance of these Al-based coagulants in controlling DBPs and DBP-associated toxicity was compared over 5 classes of DBPs, including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, and halonitromethanes. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of dithiocarbamate-modified cellulose and commercial resins for recovery of precious metals from aqueous matrices.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 6;418:126308. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Economic and ecological issues motivate the recovery of precious metals (PMs: Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt) from secondary sources. From the viewpoint of eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness, biomass-based resins are superior to synthetic polymer-based resins for PM recovery. Herein, a detailed comparative study of bio-sorbent dithiocarbamate-modified cellulose (DMC) and synthetic polymer-based commercial resins (Q-10R, Lewatit MonoPlus TP 214, Diaion WA30, and Dowex 1X8) for PM recovery from waste resources was conducted. Read More

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Implementation of simplified stochastic microdosimetric kinetic models into PHITS for application to radiation treatment planning.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jul 30:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Purpose: The stochastic microdosimetric kinetic (SMK) model is one of the most sophisticated and precise models used in the estimation of the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). However, because of its complicated and time-consuming calculation procedures, it is nearly impractical to directly incorporate this model into a radiation treatment-planning system.

Materials And Methods: Through the introduction of Taylor expansion (TE) or fast Fourier transform (FFT), we developed two simplified SMK models and implemented them into the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Read More

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[The impact of physical activity on cognitive functions].

Sylwia Sumińska

Med Pr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy / The Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

In recent decades we have observed a progressive aging of the society. A growing number of elderly people is associated with an increase in the percentage of people whose cognitive functions are decreasing. It is important to counteract this process and develop lifestyle recommendations that will allow to delay the process of cognitive decline. Read More

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Deep Unsupervised Hashing for Large-Scale Cross-Modal Retrieval Using Knowledge Distillation Model.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 17;2021:5107034. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

College of Computer and Information Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China.

Cross-modal hashing encodes heterogeneous multimedia data into compact binary code to achieve fast and flexible retrieval across different modalities. Due to its low storage cost and high retrieval efficiency, it has received widespread attention. Supervised deep hashing significantly improves search performance and usually yields more accurate results, but requires a lot of manual annotation of the data. Read More

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Effectiveness of a Cloud-Based Telepathology System in China: Large-Sample Observational Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 29;23(7):e23799. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Telemedicine Center of China, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Whole-slide imaging allows the entire slide to be viewed in a manner that simulates microscopy; therefore, it is widely used in telepathology. However, managing the large digital files needed for whole-slide imaging is difficult. To solve this problem, we set up the Chinese National Cloud-Based Telepathology System (CNCTPS). Read More

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Quality by design (QbD) optimization of diazepam-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for nose-to-brain delivery: toxicological effect of surface charge on human neuronal cells.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 26:120933. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, MEDTECH, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal; FP-ENAS (UFP Energy, Environment and Health Research Unit), CEBIMED (Biomedical Research Centre), Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Diazepam is commonly used in the management of epileptic seizures, although it has limitations that can be overcome by using formulations that are easier to administer and capable of directing the drug to the brain. In this field, it has been reported that the use of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) via intranasal (or via nose-to-brain) promotes the targeting of drugs to the brain, improving the effectiveness of therapy. The aim of this work was to optimize two diazepam-loaded NLC formulations for nose-to-brain delivery, one with positive surface charge and one with negative surface charge. Read More

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Research on insulator defect detection algorithm of transmission line based on CenterNet.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255135. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.

The reliability of the insulator has directly affected the stable operation of electric power system. The detection of defective insulators has always been an important issue in smart grid systems. However, the traditional transmission line detection method has low accuracy and poor real-time performance. Read More

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Expanded Ethical Principles for Research Partnership and Transdisciplinary Natural Resource Management Science.

Environ Manage 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Northern Plains Climate Hub, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Natural resource researchers have long recognized the value of working closely with the managers and communities who depend on, steward, and impact ecosystems. These partnerships take various forms, including co-production and transdisciplinary research approaches, which integrate multiple knowledges in the design and implementation of research objectives, questions, methods, and desired outputs or outcomes. These collaborations raise important methodological and ethical challenges, because partnering with non-scientists can have real-world risks for people and ecosystems. Read More

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Refueling emission of volatile organic compounds from China 6 gasoline vehicles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 19;789:147883. Epub 2021 May 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Transport Emission Research, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

Vehicular refueling emission is a potential source of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is not well understood and controlled. China 6 vehicles have been equipped with the onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system to cut down refueling emissions, while the emission characteristics and reduction effectiveness are rarely reported. In this study, we conducted laboratory tests to measure the refueling emissions from ten China 6 vehicles and three China 5 vehicles (refueling-emission-uncontrolled, REU) and developed an inventory in a typical middle-sized Chinese city (Langfang) to explore the emission reduction resulted from relevant policies. Read More

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The role of PAC adsorption-catalytic oxidation in the ultrafiltration performance for treating natural water: Efficiency improvement, fouling mitigation and mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 13;284:131561. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, PR China.

Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has turned out to be an efficient adsorbent in drinking water treatment, whereas its application integrated with membrane filtration is still controversial because of the combined fouling effect between organic pollutants and PAC. To this end, an integrated process of combining PAC adsorption-catalytic oxidation and membrane filtration was proposed for natural surface water treatment. The synergistic effect of PAC and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was confirmed through the generation of reactive oxidation species, and both radical oxidative pathways (OH, SO and O) and nonradical (O and PMS) pathways involved in the process. Read More

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Sacrum magnetic resonance imaging for low back and tail bone pain: A quality initiative to evaluate and improve imaging utility.

World J Methodol 2021 Jul 20;11(4):110-115. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX 75390, United States.

As quality and cost effectiveness become essential in clinical practice, an evidence-based evaluation of the utility of imaging orders becomes an important consideration for radiology's value in patient care. We report an institutional quality improvement project including a retrospective review of utility of sacrum magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for low back pain at our institution over a four-year period and follow-up results after physician education intervention. Sacral MR imaging for low back pain and tailbone pain were only positive for major findings in 2/98 (2%) cases, and no major changes in patient management related to imaging findings occurred over this period, resulting in almost $500000 cost without significant patient benefit. Read More

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Economic Evaluation of a Crisis Residential Program.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 Jul 29:appips202100037. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs (Olmstead) and Dell Medical School (Rathouz, Strakowski), the University of Texas at Austin, Austin; Integral Care, Austin (Casey, Abzug). This study was presented in part at the virtual Crisis Residential Annual Conference, October 14, 2020. Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, M.D., Kenneth Minkoff, M.D., and Esperanza Diaz, M.D., are editors of this column.

This study assessed the cost savings to the local health care system from using a 16-bed crisis residential facility (the Inn) in Austin, Texas, instead of hospitalization, for individuals with acute psychiatric illness (N=1,364) during FY2017-FY2019. Health service utilization data were obtained from the provider and Central Texas's regional health information exchange. Unit cost data were obtained from the provider, Austin State Hospital, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Read More

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Functionalized Masks: Powerful Materials against COVID-19 and Future Pandemics.

Small 2021 Jul 28:e2102453. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3, Canada.

The outbreak of COVID-19 revealed the vulnerability of commercially available face masks. Without having antibacterial/antiviral activities, the current masks act only as filtering materials of the aerosols containing microorganisms. Meanwhile, in surgical masks, the viral and bacterial filtration highly depends on the electrostatic charges of masks. Read More

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Safety and Acceptability of a Natural Language Artificial Intelligence Assistant to Deliver Clinical Follow-up to Cataract Surgery Patients: Proposal.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jul 28;10(7):e27227. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Centre for Health Technology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

Background: Due to an aging population, the demand for many services is exceeding the capacity of the clinical workforce. As a result, staff are facing a crisis of burnout from being pressured to deliver high-volume workloads, driving increasing costs for providers. Artificial intelligence (AI), in the form of conversational agents, presents a possible opportunity to enable efficiency in the delivery of care. Read More

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Sleep increases leaks and asynchronies during home noninvasive ventilation: a polysomnographic study.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Respiratory Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Objectives: In patients treated with noninvasive ventilation, sleep-related breathing changes can modify patient-ventilator interactions which could reduce its effectiveness. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the impact of sleep/wake state on leaks, upper airway obstructive events, and asynchronies, in patients treated by long-term noninvasive ventilation.

Methods: Stable patients adapted to noninvasive ventilation were considered for nocturnal polysomnography. Read More

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Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) in patients with fibromyalgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Jul 23:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-i in patients with fibromyalgia in comparison with other non-pharmacological treatments.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of CBT-i in adults with fibromyalgia, published in English or Spanish, were eligible. Electronic searches were performed using PubMed, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, WebOfKnowledge and Psicodoc databases in March 2021. Read More

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Identification of genomic loci conferring broad-spectrum resistance to multiple nematode species in exotic soybean accession PI 567,305.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Key Message: Genetic analysis identified a unique combination of major QTL for resistance to important soybean nematodes concurrently present in a single soybean accession, which has not been reported earlier. An exotic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. Read More

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Temperature-Dependent Biological Control Effectiveness of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidea) Under Laboratory Conditions.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fuzhou 350002, China.

The parasitism rate and host-feeding rate of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), were evaluated at 20, 27.5, 30, and 35°C, at 70 ± 5% RH, and 14 h of photoperiod. The biological control efficacy of T. Read More

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Fabrication of a multi-level drug release platform with liposomes, chitooligosaccharides, phospholipids and injectable chitosan hydrogel to enhance anti-tumor effectiveness.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 10;269:118322. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China.

Some anti-cancer drugs have poor solubility and availability, and are easily eliminated by rapid metabolism in vivo. To fix the drugs at the administration site and delay their release, a release platform with multi-level and multi-function was designed. The results showed that the curcumin (Cur) loaded liposomes ([email protected]) were coated sequentially with positive Chitooligosaccharides ([email protected]) and negative phospholipids ([email protected]), to enhance water solubility, encapsulation efficiency, and delayed the release of the Cur, stability and cell intake of the liposomes, and the bioactivity of the system. Read More

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October 2021

Optimizing cisplatin delivery to triple-negative breast cancer through novel EGFR aptamer-conjugated polymeric nanovectors.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 22;40(1):239. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology "Gaetano Salvatore", CNR, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Background: Management of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still challenging because of its aggressive clinical behavior and limited targeted treatment options. Cisplatin represents a promising chemotherapeutic compound in neoadjuvant approaches and in the metastatic setting, but its use is limited by scarce bioavailability, severe systemic side effects and drug resistance. Novel site-directed aptamer-based nanotherapeutics have the potential to overcome obstacles of chemotherapy. Read More

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Feasibility, Efficacy, and Efficiency of eHealth-Supported Pediatric Asthma Care: Six-Month Quasi-Experimental Single-Arm Pretest-Posttest Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Jul 26;5(7):e24634. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biomedical Signals and Systems, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Background: Early detection of loss of asthma control can effectively reduce the burden of the disease. However, broad implementation in clinical practice has not been accomplished so far. We are in need of research investigating the operationalization of eHealth pediatric asthma care in practice, which can provide the most potential benefits in terms of adoption, efficiency, and effectiveness. Read More

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The influence of employee pressure on the management cost of enterprise technological innovation using mental health education.

Work 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Economic and Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Pressure will erode the health and vitality of employees, which undermines the combat effectiveness.

Objectives: It tends to release employees stress and manage the pressure while reducing management costs.

Methods: Relationship between work pressure and innovation cost management is investigated. Read More

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[Application and research progress of robotic-arm in total knee arthroplasty].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):913-917

Center for Joint Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital (Southwest Hospital), Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, P.R.China.

Objective: To summarize the application and research progress of robotic-arm in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: Relevant literature at home and abroad was extensively reviewed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of robotic-arm assisted TKA (RATKA).

Results: Accurate reconstruction of lower extremity alignment and rotation alignment, accurate osteotomy and implant prosthesis in TKA are very important to improve the effectiveness and prolong the life of the prosthesis. Read More

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Simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with real-time isothermal platform.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 15;7(7):e07584. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Applied Biology Laboratory, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, 110142, Shenyang, China.

The recent ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (known as COVID-19) is a severe threat to human health worldwide. By press time, more than 3.3 million people have died from COVID-19, with many countries experiencing peaks in infections and hospitalizations. Read More

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Economic Analysis of the Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections: Research Protocol.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:531624. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Public Health, University of Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Nosocomial infections (NIs) are among the main preventable healthcare adverse events. Like all countries, Canada and its provinces are affected by NIs. In 2004, Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS) of Quebec instituted a mandatory surveillance NI program for the prevention and control (NIPC) in the hospitals of the province. Read More

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