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Morphology, Molecular Characterization, and Connections of Ganglion Cells in Primate Retina.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 Sep;7:73-103

Save Sight Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia; email:

The eye sends information about the visual world to the brain on over 20 parallel signal pathways, each specialized to signal features such as spectral reflection (color), edges, and motion of objects in the environment. Each pathway is formed by the axons of a separate type of retinal output neuron (retinal ganglion cell). In this review, we summarize what is known about the excitatory retinal inputs, brain targets, and gene expression patterns of ganglion cells in humans and nonhuman primates. Read More

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September 2021

A multiobjective model for the green capacitated location-routing problem considering drivers' satisfaction and time window with uncertain demand.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Location-routing problem is a combination of facility location problem and vehicle routing problem. Numerous logistics problems have been extended to investigate greenhouse issues and costs related to the environmental impact of transportation activities. The green capacitated locating-routing problem (LRP) seeks to find the best places to establish facilities and simultaneously design routes to satisfy customers' stochastic demand with minimum total operating costs and total emitted carbon dioxide. Read More

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Robust Focus Volume Regularization in Shape From Focus.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 17;30:7215-7227. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Shape from focus (SFF) reconstructs 3D shape of the scene from a sequence of multi-focus images, and the quality of reconstructed shape mainly depends on the accuracy of image focus volume (FV). Traditional SFF techniques exhibit poor performance in preserving structural edges and fine details while removing noisy artifacts, and mostly they do not incorporate any additional shape prior. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to refine FV by formulating an energy minimization framework that employs a nonconvex regularizer and incorporates two types of shape priors. Read More

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Identification of electronic descriptors for catalytic activity of transition-metal and non-metal doped MoS.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul;23(28):15101-15106

Department of Physics & Shenzhen Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science and Material Design, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Photonic-Thermal-Electrical Energy Materials and Devices, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

While the d-band theory offers successful electronic descriptors for catalytic activity of transition metals, transition metal compounds still need substantial theoretical input for the identification of reactivity descriptors for fast screening of earth-abundant catalysts. We study transition metal (TM) and non-metal doped MoS2, a promising substitute for noble metals as catalysts for multiple reactions, to clarify how doping modifies the reactivity by regulating the electronic structure of the host. We find that doping can significantly change the density of states (DOS) at band edges and the position of the Fermi level, which renders the S p-band center εp a good descriptor for H adsorption on both TM and non-metal doped MoS2. Read More

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The Influence of Background Ultrasonic Field on the Strength of Adhesive Zones under Dynamic Impact Loads.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;14(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Mathematical and Mechanical Faculty, Saint Petersburg University, Universitetskiy Prospect 28, 198504 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The influence of background ultrasonic field on the ultimate dynamic strength of adhesive joints is studied using fracture mechanics analysis. Winkler foundation-type models are applied to describe the cohesion zone, and the incubation time fracture criterion is used. The challenging task is to study whether relatively weak ultrasound is able to decrease the threshold values of the external impact load depending on a joint model, such as an "elastic membrane" or "beam" approximation, and various boundary conditions at the ends. Read More

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Measurement of Micro Burr and Slot Widths through Image Processing: Comparison of Manual and Automated Measurements in Micro-Milling.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.

In this study, the burr and slot widths formed after the micro-milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated using a rapid and accurate image processing method. The measurements were obtained using a user-defined subroutine for image processing. To determine the accuracy of the developed imaging process technique, the automated measurement results were compared against results measured using a manual measurement method. Read More

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Graph Model-Based Lane-Marking Feature Extraction for Lane Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Intelligent and Interactive Robotics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea.

This paper presents a robust, efficient lane-marking feature extraction method using a graph model-based approach. To extract the features, the proposed hat filter with adaptive sizes is first applied to each row of an input image and local maximum values are extracted from the filter response. The features with the maximum values are fed as nodes to a connected graph structure, and the edges of the graph are constructed using the proposed neighbor searching method. Read More

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Social Influence Maximization in Hypergraphs.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;23(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Decision Analysis and Support Unit, SGH Warsaw School of Economics, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland.

This work deals with a generalization of the minimum Target Set Selection (TSS) problem, a key algorithmic question in information diffusion research due to its potential commercial value. Firstly proposed by Kempe et al., the TSS problem is based on a linear threshold diffusion model defined on an input graph with node thresholds, quantifying the hardness to influence each node. Read More

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Enhancing the impedance matched bandwidth of bottle microresonator signal processing devices.

M Sumetsky S Zaki

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3227-3230

Light pulses entering an elongated bottle microresonator (BMR) from a transversely oriented input-output waveguide (microfiber) slowly propagate along the BMR length and bounce between turning points at its constricting edges. To avoid insertion losses and processing errors, a pulse should completely transfer from the waveguide into the BMR and, after being processed, completely return back into the waveguide. For this purpose, the waveguide and BMR should be impedance matched along the pulse bandwidth. Read More

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A Domain-Guided Noise-Optimization-Based Inversion Method for Facial Image Manipulation.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 9;30:6198-6211. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

A style-based architecture (StyleGAN2) yields outstanding results in data-driven unconditional generative image modeling. This work proposes a Domain-guided Noise-optimization-based Inversion (DNI) method to perform facial image manipulation. It works based on an inverse code that includes: 1) a novel domain-guided encoder called Image2latent to project the image to StyleGAN2 latent space, which can reconstruct an input image with high-quality and maintain its semantic meaning well; 2) a noise optimization mechanism in which a set of noise vectors are used to capture the high-frequency details such as image edges, further improving image reconstruction quality; and 3) a mask for seamless image fusion and local style migration. Read More

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Impact of dimethylpyrazole-based nitrification inhibitors on soil-borne bacteria.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 15;792:148374. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology & Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.

Nitrogen (N) input from fertilizers modifies the properties of agricultural soils as well as bacterial community diversity, composition and relationships. This can lead to negative impacts such as the deterioration of system multifunctionality, whose maintenance is critical to normal nutrient cycling. Synthetic nitrification inhibitors (NIs) can be combined with fertilizers to improve the efficiency of N use by reducing N losses. Read More

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October 2021

Human Activity Recognition Models in Ontology Networks.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jun 16;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

We present Arianna⁺, a framework to design networks of ontologies for representing knowledge enabling smart homes to perform human activity recognition online. In the network, nodes are ontologies allowing for various data contextualisation, while edges are general-purpose computational procedures elaborating data. Arianna⁺ provides a flexible interface between the inputs and outputs of procedures and statements, which are atomic representations of ontological knowledge. Read More

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A high-density narrow-field inhibitory retinal interneuron with direct coupling to Müller glia.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Amacrine cells are interneurons composing the most diverse cell class in the mammalian retina. They help encode visual features such as edges or directed motion by mediating excitatory and inhibitory interactions between input (i.e. Read More

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Estimation and Analysis of Higher-Order Harmonics in Advanced Integrated Circuits to Implement Noise-Free Future-Generation Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 10;12(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hail, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia.

This work deals with the analysis of spectrum generation from advanced integrated circuits in order to better understand how to suppress the generation of high harmonics, especially in a given frequency band, to design and implement noise-free systems. At higher frequencies, the spectral components of signals with sharp edges contain more energy. However, current closed-form expressions have become increasingly unwieldy to compute higher-order harmonics. Read More

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Attention Networks for the Quality Enhancement of Light Field Images.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 7;21(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

In this paper, we propose a novel filtering method based on deep attention networks for the quality enhancement of light field (LF) images captured by plenoptic cameras and compressed using the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. The proposed architecture was built using efficient complex processing blocks and novel attention-based residual blocks. The network takes advantage of the macro-pixel (MP) structure, specific to LF images, and processes each reconstructed MP in the luminance (Y) channel. Read More

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Compact Antenna in 3D Configuration for Rectenna Wireless Power Transmission Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 4;21(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LAAS-CNRS), Université de Toulouse, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut National des Sciences Appliqués de Toulouse (INSA), Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse III (UPS), 31400 Toulouse, France.

This work presents methods for miniaturizing and characterizing a modified dipole antenna dedicated to the implementation of wireless power transmission systems. The antenna size should respect the planar dimensions of 60 mm × 30 mm to be integrated with small IoT devices such as a Bluetooth Lower Energy Sensing Node. The provided design is based on a folded short-circuited dipole antenna, also named a T-match antenna. Read More

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Affinity Attention Graph Neural Network for Weakly Supervised Semantic Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 25;PP. Epub 2021 May 25.

Weakly supervised semantic segmentation is receiving great attention due to its low human annotation cost. In this paper, we aim to tackle bounding box supervised semantic segmentation, i.e. Read More

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MRPC: An R Package for Inference of Causal Graphs.

Front Genet 2021 30;12:651812. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute for Modeling Collaboration and Innovation, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States.

Understanding the causal relationships between variables is a central goal of many scientific inquiries. Causal relationships may be represented by directed edges in a graph (or equivalently, a network). In biology, for example, gene regulatory networks may be viewed as a type of causal networks, where X→Y represents gene X regulating (i. Read More

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A 2D Advancing-Front Delaunay Mesh Refinement Algorithm.

Shankar P Sastry

Comput Geom 2021 Aug 2;97. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Google Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94089, U.S.A.

I present a generalization of Chew's first algorithm for Delaunay mesh refinement. I split the line segments of an input planar straight line graph (PSLG) such that the lengths of split segments are asymptotically proportional to the local feature size at their endpoints. By employing prior algorithms, I then refine the truly or constrained Delaunay triangulation of the PSLG by inserting off-center Steiner vertices of "skinny" triangles while prioritizing triangles with shortest edges first. Read More

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Quantum Speedup and Mathematical Solutions of Implementing Bio-Molecular Solutions for the Independent Set Problem on IBM Quantum Computers.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2021 Jul 30;20(3):354-376. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

In this paper, we propose a bio-molecular algorithm with O( n + m ) biological operations, O( 2 ) DNA strands, O( n ) tubes and the longest DNA strand, O( n ), for solving the independent-set problem for any graph G with m edges and n vertices. Next, we show that a new kind of the straightforward Boolean circuit yielded from the bio-molecular solutions with m NAND gates, ( m +n × ( n + 1 )) AND gates and (( n × ( n + 1 ))/2) NOT gates can find the maximal independent-set(s) to the independent-set problem for any graph G with m edges and n vertices. We show that a new kind of the proposed quantum-molecular algorithm can find the maximal independent set(s) with the lower bound Ω ( 2 ) queries and the upper bound O( 2 ) queries. Read More

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Microbiome for sustainable agriculture: a review with special reference to the corn production system.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Aug 21;203(6):2771-2793. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research, Ludhiana, India.

Microbial diversity formed by ages of evolution in soils plays an important role in sustainability of crop production by enriching soil and alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses. This diversity is as an essential part of the agro-ecosystems, which is being pushed to edges by pumping agrochemicals and constant soil disturbances. Consequently, efficiency of cropping system has been decreasing, aggravated further by the increased incidence of abiotic stresses due to changes in climatic patterns. Read More

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GraphCovidNet: A graph neural network based model for detecting COVID-19 from CT scans and X-rays of chest.

Sci Rep 2021 04 15;11(1):8304. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India.

COVID-19, a viral infection originated from Wuhan, China has spread across the world and it has currently affected over 115 million people. Although vaccination process has already started, reaching sufficient availability will take time. Considering the impact of this widespread disease, many research attempts have been made by the computer scientists to screen the COVID-19 from Chest X-Rays (CXRs) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Read More

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Network analysis of narrative discourse and attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms in adults.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0245113. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute D'Or for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Previous research investigating language in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has demonstrated several deficits in many aspects. However, no previous study employed quantitative methodology providing objective measures that could be compared among different studies with diverse samples. To fill this gap, we used network analysis to investigate how ADHD symptomatology impacts narrative discourse, a complex linguistic task considered to be an ecological measure of language. Read More

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September 2021

Super-Resolution Enhancement Method Based on Generative Adversarial Network for Integral Imaging Microscopy.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Computer and Communication Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea.

The integral imaging microscopy system provides a three-dimensional visualization of a microscopic object. However, it has a low-resolution problem due to the fundamental limitation of the F-number (the aperture stops) by using micro lens array (MLA) and a poor illumination environment. In this paper, a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based super-resolution algorithm is proposed to enhance the resolution where the directional view image is directly fed as input. Read More

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Neural Network for Enhancing Microscopic Resolution Based on Images from Scanning Electron Microscope.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan.

In this paper, an artificial neural network is applied for enhancing the resolution of images from an optical microscope based on a network trained with the images acquired from a scanning electron microscope. The resolution of microscopic images is important in various fields, especially for microfluidics because the measurements, such as the dimension of channels and cells, largely rely on visual information. The proposed method is experimentally validated with microfluidic structure. Read More

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Versatile knowledge guided network inference method for prioritizing key regulatory factors in multi-omics data.

Sci Rep 2021 03 24;11(1):6806. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Constantly decreasing costs of high-throughput profiling on many molecular levels generate vast amounts of multi-omics data. Studying one biomedical question on two or more omic levels provides deeper insights into underlying molecular processes or disease pathophysiology. For the majority of multi-omics data projects, the data analysis is performed level-wise, followed by a combined interpretation of results. Read More

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Natural image statistics in the dorsal and ventral visual field match a switch in flight behaviour of a hawkmoth.

Curr Biol 2021 03;31(6):R280-R281

Chair of Zoology 2, Würzburg University, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Many animals use visual cues to navigate their environment. To encode the large input ranges of natural signals optimally, their sensory systems have adapted to the stimulus statistics experienced in their natural habitats. A striking example, shared across animal phyla, is the retinal tuning to the relative abundance of blue light from the sky, and green light from the ground, evident in the frequency of each photoreceptor type in the two retinal hemispheres. Read More

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Prediction of baseline expressive and receptive language function in children with focal epilepsy using diffusion tractography-based deep learning network.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 04 16;117:107909. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Pediatrics Department, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; Neurology Department, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; Translational Neuroscience Program, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Purpose: Focal epilepsy is a risk factor for language impairment in children. We investigated whether the current state-of-the-art deep learning network on diffusion tractography connectome can accurately predict expressive and receptive language scores of children with epilepsy.

Methods: We studied 37 children with a diagnosis of drug-resistant focal epilepsy (age: 11. Read More

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A material decomposition method for dual-energy CT via dual interactive Wasserstein generative adversarial networks.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 5;48(6):2891-2905. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Microelectronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is highly promising for material characterization and identification, whereas reconstructed material-specific images are affected by magnified noise and beam-hardening artifacts. Although various DECT material decomposition methods have been proposed to solve this problem, the quality of the decomposed images is still unsatisfactory, particularly in the image edges. In this study, a data-driven approach using dual interactive Wasserstein generative adversarial networks (DIWGAN) is developed to improve DECT decomposition accuracy and perform edge-preserving images. Read More

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Deformable motion compensation for interventional cone-beam CT.

Phys Med Biol 2021 02 17;66(5):055010. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States of America.

Image-guided therapies in the abdomen and pelvis are often hindered by motion artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) arising from complex, non-periodic, deformable organ motion during long scan times (5-30 s). We propose a deformable image-based motion compensation method to address these challenges and improve CBCT guidance. Motion compensation is achieved by selecting a set of small regions of interest in the uncompensated image to minimize a cost function consisting of an autofocus objective and spatiotemporal regularization penalties. Read More

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February 2021