3,511 results match your criteria ebrt

Biological elimination of a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide from landfill biogas.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Université de Sherbrooke Water Research Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 boul. de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Québec, J1K 2R1, Canada.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is one of the main contaminants found in biogas, which is one of the end products of the anaerobic biodegradation of proteins and other sulfur-containing compounds in solid waste. The presence of HS is one of the factors limiting the valorization of biogas. To valorize biogas, HS must be removed. Read More

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Intratumoral talimogene laherparepvec injection with concurrent preoperative radiation in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the trunk and extremities: phase IB/II trial.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) in the extremities and trunk treated with standard-of-care preoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by surgical resection are associated with local and distant relapses. In preclinical studies, oncolytic virotherapy in sarcoma has demonstrated antitumor effects via direct intratumoral oncolysis and cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune responses. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is a replication-competent, immune-enhanced, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 engineered for intratumoral injection; it has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic melanoma. Read More

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A multi-centre analysis of adjuvant contact x-ray brachytherapy (CXB) in rectal cancer patients treated with local excision - preliminary results of the CONTEM1 study.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Service de Radiotherapie, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France.

Introduction: Early rectal cancers are increasingly diagnosed through screening programmes and are often treated using local excision (LE). In the case of adverse pathological features completion total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) is the standard recommendation. The morbidity and mortality risks of TME have stimulated the use of adjunctive treatments following LE to achieve organ preservation. Read More

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The Impact of Radiotherapy Delay in Breast Conservation Patients Not Receiving Chemotherapy and the Rationale for Dichotomizing the Radiation Oncology Time-Dependent Standard into Two Quality Measures.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The Data Working Group of the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: The Commission on Cancer/National Quality Forum breast radiotherapy quality measure establishes that for women < 70 years, adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) should be started < 1 year from diagnosis. This was intended to prevent accidental radiotherapy omission or delay due to a long interval between surgery and chemotherapy completion, when radiation is delivered. However, the impact on patients not receiving chemotherapy, who proceed from surgery directly to radiotherapy, remains unknown. Read More

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Interstitial Brachytherapy for Orbital Sebaceous Carcinoma.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Department of Ocular Tumor, Orbital Disease and Ophthalmic Radiation Therapy, The New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A. The Departments of Radiation Oncology and Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Sebaceous carcinoma is characterized by its aggressive local tumor behavior and ability to metastasize. Small periocular sebaceous carcinoma are typically treated by excision with cryotherapy. Larger tumors often require adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or exenteration surgery. Read More

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Short Androgen Suppression and Radiation Dose Escalation in Prostate Cancer: 12-Year Results of EORTC Trial 22991 in Patients With Localized Intermediate-Risk Disease.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 26:JCO2100855. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 22991 (NCT00021450) showed that 6 months of concomitant and adjuvant androgen suppression (AS) improves event- (EFS, Phoenix) and clinical disease-free survival (DFS) of intermediate- and high-risk localized prostatic carcinoma, treated by external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at 70-78 Gy. We report the long-term results in intermediate-risk patients treated with 74 or 78 Gy EBRT, as per current guidelines.

Patient And Methods: Of 819 patients randomly assigned between EBRT or EBRT plus AS started on day 1 of EBRT, 481 entered with intermediate risk (International Union Against Cancer TNM 1997 cT1b-c or T2a with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 10 ng/mL or Gleason ≤ 7 and PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL, N0M0) and had EBRT planned at 74 (342 patients, 71. Read More

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Novel Prognostic Index of High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Simple Summation of Very High-Risk Factors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiology, Ujitakeda Hospital, Uji-City 611-0021, Japan.

This study aimed to examine the role of very high-risk (VHR) factors (T3b-4 and Gleason score 9-10) for prognosis of clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. We reviewed multi-institutional retrospective data of 1413 patients treated with radiotherapy (558 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and 855 patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) ± EBRT. We introduced an index by simple summation of the number of VHR factors-VHR-0, VHR-1, and VHR-2. Read More

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Ocular, Orbital, and Adnexal Toxicity With High-dose Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiation Therapy For Orbital Malignancies.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology, Pacific Eye Associates and California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Purpose: Conventional modalities of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are associated with high incidences of severe vision-threatening ocular and orbital toxicities when used to treat orbital malignancies. We investigate toxicities associated with high-dose volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a commonly used contemporary treatment modality for these tumors.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of malignant orbital tumors managed with adjuvant high-dose VMAT preceded by globe-salvaging surgical therapy (GST) or exenteration. Read More

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Treatment of gaseous emissions from tire manufacturing industry using lab-scale biofiltration pilot units.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126614. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Laboratoire des Sciences des Risques (LSR), IMT Mines Ales, 6 avenue de Clavières, 30319 Alès cedex, France; Olentica SAS, 14 Boulevard Charles Peguy, 30100 Ales, France.

Continuously seeking the improvement of environmental protection, the limitation of exhaust emissions is of significance for the tire manufacturing industry. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of biofiltration for the treatment of such gaseous emissions. This work highlights that biofiltration is able to remove both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds within a single pilot unit of biofiltration. Read More

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Analyses of deodorization performance of mixotrophic biotrickling filter reactor using different industrial and agricultural wastes as packing material.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126608. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

In this study, to efficiently remove malodorous gas and reduce secondary pollution under mixotrophic conditions, pine bark, coal cinder, straw and mobile bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) fillers were used as packing materials in a biological trickling filter (BTF) to simultaneously treat high-concentration HS and NH. The results showed that the removal rate of BTF-A filled with pine bark was the highest, which was 86.31% and 94. Read More

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Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of CT-Guided I Radioactive Seed Implantation as a Salvage Therapy for Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:645077. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University 3rdHospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided I radioactive seed implantation (RSI) as a salvage therapy for recurrent head and neck squamous carcinoma (rHNSC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or surgery.

Materials And Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective study of 113 patients (83 males; median age 57 years) with rHNSC who underwent CT-guided I RSI between February 2003 and December 2017. Of the included patients, 107 patients previously received EBRT and 65 patients received surgery and all were ineligible or rejected for salvage surgery and/or repeat EBRT. Read More

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Concurrent Taxol-Based Doublet Chemotherapy as an Alternative for Intracavitary Brachytherapy Boost in Locally Advanced Carcinoma Cervix- Retrospective Analysis From a Tertiary Care Center.

Cureus 2021 Jul 11;13(7):e16313. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Radiation Oncology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, IND.

Objective In light of the dogma that brachytherapy is irreplaceable for the successful treatment of cervical cancer, and the limited availability of brachytherapy facilities in developing countries, we sought to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of taxol- and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy delivered concurrently with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in locally advanced cervical cancer as an alternative to brachytherapy, which is mandated as the standard of care according to current guidelines. Methods The records from our institution were reviewed to identify patients who underwent chemoradiation with two doses of tri-weekly docetaxel (80mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC 5) concurrent with EBRT between January 2017 and 2019 for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Here, 48 cases were analysed, with a median follow-up period of two years. Read More

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Anaplastic thyroid cancer: outcomes of trimodal therapy.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 9;26(3):416-422. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Backround: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of trimodal therapy [surgery, chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)] in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) treated with curative intent.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of patients with ATC treated at a tertiary referral centre between January 2009 and June 2020. Data were collected regarding demographics, histology, staging, treatment and outcomes. Read More

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Equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to pelvic lymph nodes using volume based prescription for three brachytherapy applicators - a dosimetric retrospective analysis.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 9;26(3):408-415. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, India.

Background: Pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis has been included in the FIGO staging, so there is a need to determine the dose contribution from brachytherapy to ascertain the total delivered dose to the pelvic lymph nodes in cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to calculate the equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) of the pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) based on volume prescription using three applicators.

Materials And Methods: Forty-one patients who had undergone external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy using tandem ovoids (TO), tandem ring (TR) and TO + free hand interstitial needles (TO + FH) applicators were taken for this study. Read More

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Differences in treatment choices between prostate cancer patients using a decision aid and patients receiving care as usual: results from a randomized controlled trial.

World J Urol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Andros Clinics, Mr. E.N. van Kleffensstraat 5, 6842 CV, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Objective: To determine whether or not decision aid (DA) use influences treatment decisions in patients with low and intermediate risk prostate cancer (PC).

Patients And Methods: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, patients were randomized to either DA use (DA group) or no DA use (control group). Between 2014 and 2016, newly diagnosed patients with low or intermediate risk PC were recruited in 18 hospitals in the Netherlands. Read More

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Long-term clinical outcome and dosimetric comparison of tandem and ring versus tandem and ovoids intracavitary application in cervical cancer.

J BUON 2021 May-Jun;26(3):698-706

Department of Radiation Oncolocy, Medical Faculty of Health Science University, Dr.Abdurrahmant Yurtaslan Oncology Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: The two most common applicators used in the treatment of high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) are tandem and ovoid (TO) and tandem and ring (TR). We aimed to evaluate the relationship between these treatment plans with short and long-term clinical outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective study included 50 patients who received a partial or complete response to external beam radiotherapy treatment (EBRT) and who were diagnosed with cervical cancer in our clinic between November 2015 and October 2019, including 25 TO patients and 25 TR patients. Read More

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Advances in External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; La Jolla Center for Precision Radiation Medicine, La Jolla, California, USA. Electronic address:

The standard of care for the definitive treatment of locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy followed by a brachytherapy boost. Historically, EBRT was delivered via a two-dimensional technique based primarily on bony landmarks. This gave way to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, which allows for dose calculation and adjustment based on individual tumour and patient anatomy. Read More

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Intra-operative Radiation Therapy versus Whole Breast External Beam Radiotherapy: A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes.

Kans J Med 2021 9;14:170-175. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, KS.

Introduction: This project sought to compare patient-reported outcomes between patients who received intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) and those who qualified for IORT but received whole-breast external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS).

Methods: Three scales from the BREAST-Q Breast Cancer BCT Module Version 2.0 questionnaire were used to collect patient-reported outcomes regarding post-operative physical well-being of the chest, post-operative satisfaction with breast cosmesis, and post-operative adverse effects of radiation. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety Aiming at the Combined-Modality Therapy of External Beam Radiotherapy (40Gy) and Iodine-125 Seed Implantation for Locally Advanced NSCLC in the Elderly.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 8;13:5457-5466. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Oncology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined-modality therapy for elderly patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) invading the chest wall.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 21 elderly patients (aged ≥60 years) with locally advanced NSCLC invading the chest wall. For external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of the primary tumor, 40Gy was applied and supplemented with iodine-125 seed implantation while 60Gy was applied to the lymph nodes of the mediastinum. Read More

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Low-dose targeted radionuclide therapy renders immunologically cold tumors responsive to immune checkpoint blockade.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul;13(602)

Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792, USA.

Molecular and cellular effects of radiotherapy on tumor microenvironment (TME) can help prime and propagate antitumor immunity. We hypothesized that delivering radiation to all tumor sites could augment response to immunotherapies. We tested an approach to enhance response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by using targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) to deliver radiation semiselectively to tumors. Read More

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A comparative analysis between low-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer in Asian men.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jul 14:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Objective: To report the long-term clinical outcomes of low-risk (LR) and intermediate-risk (IR) prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).

Patients And Methods: Men with biopsy-proven low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received EBRT and LDR-BT in an Asian academic center from 2000 to 2019 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) between LDR and EBRT in the low- and intermediate-risk cohorts. Read More

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Clinical audit of dose-escalated radical radiotherapy for advanced cervical carcinoma using a pragmatic protocol (3 fractions of 8 Gy HDR brachytherapy).

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 Aug 24;37:100822. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Radiation Oncology Department, Narayana Superspeciality Hospital, Andul Road, Howrah, West Bengal 711103, India.

Introduction: Recent image-guided brachytherapy data suggests, dose-escalation to a cumulative EQD2 (equivalent dose delivered at 2 Gy/#) of ≥87 Gy is associated with significantly better disease control. We present a clinical audit of a pragmatic radical radiotherapy protocol for advanced cervical cancer, using fewer fractions of brachytherapy than in the presently most popular protocol.

Material & Methods: Between July 2015 and December 2018, 96 consecutive advanced cervical carcinoma patients were treated by pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (50 Gy/25fractions/5 weeks) ± weekly intravenous chemotherapy followed by image guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using intracavitary/interstitial/hybrid techniques (intended point A dose: 8 Gy/fractions) × 3 fractions (cumulative target EQD2 ≥ 86 Gy). Read More

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Evaluation of skin dose and skin toxicity in patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy for early breast cancer.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Breast Surgery Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate in vivo skin dose delivered by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and determine the factors associated with an increased risk of radiation-induced skin toxicity.

Methodology: A total of 21 breast cancer patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and IORT, either as IORT alone or IORT boost plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were recruited in this prospective study. EBT3 film was calibrated in water and used to measure skin dose during IORT at concentric circles of 5 mm and 40 mm away from the applicator. Read More

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Locoregional therapies in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A systematic review and pooled analysis.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Jul 7;99:102258. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester/Department of Medical Oncology, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: Locoregional treatments (LRT) including radioembolisation (SIRT), transarterial chemo-embolisation (TACE), hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of chemotherapy, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and ablation have been studied for the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC). The aim of this systematic review was to provide outcome benchmarks for clinical trial design.

Methods: Identification of studies reporting outcomes of patients treated with LRT for iCC was performed using PubMed and Embase. Read More

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The Case Selection for Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer Patients After Radical Hysterectomy and External Beam Radiation Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:685972. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To explore the suitable cases for vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB) combined with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the postoperative treatment of cervical cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 214 postoperative cervical cancer patients who received radiotherapy from January 2008 to December 2015. Among them, 146 patients received postoperative EBRT, 68 received EBRT plus VCB. Read More

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Adaptive Radiotherapy in the Management of Cervical Cancer: Review of Strategies and Clinical Implementation.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Clinical Oncology, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK; University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

The complex and varied motion of the cervix-uterus target during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) underscores the clinical benefits afforded by adaptive radiotherapy (ART) techniques. These gains have already been realised in the implementation of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, where adapting to anatomy at each fraction has seen improvements in clinical outcomes and a reduction in treatment toxicity. With regards to EBRT, multiple adaptive strategies have been implemented, including a personalised internal target volume, offline replanning and a plan of the day approach. Read More

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Overcoming nephrotoxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using [Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

Nucl Med Biol 2021 Jul 1;102-103:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Radiobiology Unit, Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Mol, Belgium.

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastasized somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR)-expressing gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs). The radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE delivers its radiation dose to SSTR-overexpressing tumour cells, resulting in selective cell killing during radioactive decay. While tumour control can be achieved in many patients, complete remissions remain rare, causing the majority of patients to relapse after a certain period of time. Read More

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MRI-based radiomics: promise for locally advanced cervical cancer treated with a tailored integrated therapeutic approach.

Tumori 2021 Jul 8:3008916211014274. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of New Technologies and Translational Research, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Objective: To assess prognostic factors by analyzing clinical and radiomic data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with definitive concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: We analyzed radiomic features from MRI in 60 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer who underwent definitive CCRT 45-50.4 Gy (in 25-28 fractions). Read More

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Treatment optimization of pelvic external beam radiation and/or vaginal brachytherapy for patients with stage I to II high-risk Endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a retrospective multi-institutional analysis.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 4;21(1):774. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing Dongcheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: For stage I to II high-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients, the optimal adjuvant radiotherapy modality remains controversial. The present study sought to optimize the treatment of pelvic external beam radiation (EBRT) with/or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for high-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients in multiple radiation oncology centers across China.

Methods: This article retrospectively reviewed stage I to II patients with resected endometrioid adenocarcinoma treated at 13 radiation centers from 1999 to 2015. Read More

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Anorectal dose-effect relations for late gastrointestinal toxicity following external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer in the FLAME trial.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 29;162:98-104. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands; Radboud University Medical Centre, Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The phase III FLAME trial (NCT01168479) showed an increase in five-year biochemical disease-free survival, with no significant increase in toxicity when adding a focal boost to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer [Kerkmeijer et al. JCO 2021]. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between delivered radiation dose to the anorectum and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity (grade ≥2). Read More

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