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Isolation and characterization of hirame aquareovirus (HAqRV): A new Aquareovirus isolated from diseased hirame Paralichthys olivaceus.

Virology 2021 Apr 10;559:120-130. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Pathology Division, Nansei Field Station, Fisheries Technology Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Mie, 519-0193, Japan.

We isolated a novel Aquareovirus (hirame aquareovirus: HAqRV) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus suffering from reovirus-like infection. In electron microscopy, the spherical virion (75 nm in diameter) was observed with multi-layered capsid structure. The viral genome consisted of 11 segments and regions encoding 7 virion structural proteins and 5 non-structural proteins were predicted. Read More

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First record of plastic debris in the stomach of a hooded seal pup from the Greenland Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 14;167:112350. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

Plastic debris is globally found around the world and the remote Arctic is no exception. Arctic true seals are sentinel species of marine pollution and represent the link between marine food webs and Arctic apex predators like polar bears and humans. With regard to true seals, ingested macroplastics have never been reported in an Arctic species. Read More

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Setting the stage for evolution of a new enzyme.

Authors:
Shelley D Copley

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 Apr 14;69:41-49. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The evolution of novel enzymes has fueled the diversification of life on earth for billions of years. Insights into events that set the stage for the evolution of a new enzyme can be obtained from ancestral reconstruction and laboratory evolution. Ancestral reconstruction can reveal the emergence of a promiscuous activity in a pre-existing protein and the impact of subsequent mutations that enhance a new activity. Read More

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Instrumentally assessed gait quality is more relevant than gait endurance and velocity to explain patient-reported walking ability in early stage Multiple Sclerosis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

IRCSS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy.

Background: People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) often report walking limitations even when the gold-standard Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) indicates normal walking endurance/autonomy. The present multicenter study on early-stage PwMS aims at analyzing which aspects are associated to patient-reported walking limitations measured with 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12).

Methods: Eighty-two PwMS (EDSS≤2. Read More

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Prognostic awareness in advanced cancer patients and their caregivers: A longitudinal cohort study.

Psychooncology 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine and Thomayer Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze longitudinal development of prognostic awareness in advanced cancer patients and their families.

Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study, involving 134 adult cancer patients, 91 primary family caregivers and 21 treating oncologists. Key eligibility criterion for patients was life expectancy less than 1 year (estimated by their oncologists using the 12-month surprised question). Read More

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NETWORKED2-Subfamily Proteins Regulate the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton of Growing Pollen Tubes and Polarised Pollen Tube Growth.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biosciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

We have recently characterised NET2A as a pollen-specific actin-binding protein which binds F-actin at the plasma membrane of growing pollen tubes. However, the role of NET2 proteins in pollen development and fertilisation have yet to be elucidated. To further characterise the role of Arabidopsis NET2 proteins in pollen development and fertilisation, we analysed the subcellular localisation of NET2A over the course of pollen grain development, and investigated the role of the NET2 family using net2 loss-of-function mutants. Read More

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Fibrinogen may aid in the early differentiation between amniotic fluid embolism and postpartum haemorrhage: a retrospective chart review.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8379. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Center for Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, 350-8550, Japan.

This study aimed to determine whether blood loss and fibrinogen can differentiate amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). This retrospective case-control study included nine patients with clinical AFE ("AFE group") and 78 patients with PPH managed at our tertiary care perinatal centre between January 2014 and March 2016. Patients meeting the Japanese diagnostic criteria for AFE were stratified into cardiopulmonary collapse-type AFE and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-type AFE groups. Read More

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Combined effects of crude oil exposure and warming on eggs and larvae of an arctic forage fish.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8410. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Climate change, along with environmental pollution, can act synergistically on an organism to amplify adverse effects of exposure. The Arctic is undergoing profound climatic change and an increase in human activity, resulting in a heightened risk of accidental oil spills. Embryos and larvae of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a key Arctic forage fish species, were exposed to low levels of crude oil concurrently with a 2. Read More

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Reconcile the debate over protective effects of BCG vaccine against COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8356. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Penn Neurodegeneration Genomics Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Richards Building, D101, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

While awaiting the COVID-19 vaccines, researchers have been actively exploring the effectiveness of existing vaccines against the new virus, among which the BCG vaccine (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) receives the most attention. While many reports suggest a potential role for BCG immunization in ameliorating SARS-CoV-2 infection, these findings remain controversial. With country-level COVID-19 outbreak data from Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center, and BCG program data from World Atlas of BCG Policies and Practices and WHO/UNICE, we estimated a dynamic model to investigate the effect of BCG vaccination across time during the pandemic. Read More

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Epidemiology of 631 Cases of COVID-19 Identified in Jiangsu Province Between January 1st and March 20th 2020: Factors Associated with Disease Severity and Analysis of Zero Mortality.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 17;27:e929986. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Acute Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate the factors associated with disease severity and patient outcomes in 631 patients with COVID-19 who were reported to the Jiangsu Commission of Health between January 1 and March 20, 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an epidemiological investigation enrolling 631 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from our clinic from January to March 2020. Patients' information was collected through a standard questionnaire. Read More

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Diagnostic efficacy of serum and urinary netrin-1 in the early detection of diabetic nephropathy.

J Investig Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinical Pathology, Tanta University Faculty of Medicine, Tanta, Egypt

This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serum and urinary netrin-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and to compare its efficacy of estimation in serum with that in the urine. This study was carried out on 135 patients with T2DM and 45 healthy subjects. The patients with diabetes were divided according to urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) into: T2DM with normoalbuminuria, incipient DN with microalbuminuria, and overt DN with macroalbuminuria groups. Read More

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The Notch signaling pathway involvement in innate lymphoid cell biology.

Authors:
Rachel Golub

Biomed J 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Unit of Lymphocytes and Immunity, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The role of Notch in the immune system was first described in the late 90s. Reports revealed that Notch is one of the most conserved developmental pathways involved in diverse biological processes such as the development, differentiation, survival and functions of many immune populations. Here, we provide an extended view of the pleiotropic effects of the Notch signaling on the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) biology. Read More

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December 2020

Plumage development and environmental factors influence surface temperature gradients and heat loss in wandering albatross chicks.

J Therm Biol 2021 Apr 6;97:102777. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Scottish Centre for Ecology and the Natural Environment, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Rowardennan, G63 OAW, UK.

Young birds in cold environments face a range of age-specific thermal challenges. Studying the thermal biology of young birds throughout ontogeny may further our understanding of how such challenges are met. We investigated how age and environmental parameters influenced surface temperature gradients across various body regions of wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) chicks on Bird Island, South Georgia. Read More

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Evaluating the phase dynamics of coupled oscillators via time-variant topological features.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032207

Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.

By characterizing the phase dynamics in coupled oscillators, we gain insights into the fundamental phenomena of complex systems. The collective dynamics in oscillatory systems are often described by order parameters, which are insufficient for identifying more specific behaviors. To improve this situation, we propose a topological approach that constructs the quantitative features describing the phase evolution of oscillators. Read More

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Self-organized criticality in neural networks from activity-based rewiring.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032304

Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Bremen, Germany.

Neural systems process information in a dynamical regime between silence and chaotic dynamics. This has lead to the criticality hypothesis, which suggests that neural systems reach such a state by self-organizing toward the critical point of a dynamical phase transition. Here, we study a minimal neural network model that exhibits self-organized criticality in the presence of stochastic noise using a rewiring rule which only utilizes local information. Read More

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[Heidelberg Milestones Communication (HeiMeKOM) - Experiences, Best Practice Examples and Recommendations from the Final Symposium on January 30 and 31 in 2020].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Abteilung Internistische Onkologie, Thoraxklinik am Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Mitglied des Deutschen Zentrums für Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg, Deutschland.

The National Cancer Plan emphasises the importance of medical communication and calls for its integration into medical education and training. In this context, the Milestone Communication Approach meets the communicative challenges in dealing with lung cancer patients. Interprofessional tandems, consisting of doctors and nurses, conduct structured conversations at defined moments with patients and their relatives. Read More

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Quantitative determination of creatinine from serum of prostate cancer patients by N-doped porous carbon antimony (Sb/NPC) nanoparticles.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 5;140:107815. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Creatinine is an indicator of hindrance in urination and renal insufficiency. Creatinine levels are the marker of the late stages of prostate cancer. Early and sensitive detection of creatinine can reduce deaths associated with prostate cancer. Read More

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Effectiveness of an intensive, functional, gamified rehabilitation program in improving upper limb motor function in people with stroke: A protocol of the EnteRtain randomized clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Apr 13:106381. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: Game-based rehabilitation is an emerging therapeutic intervention that allows intensive, repetitive, task-based training to improve upper limb (UL) function following stroke, based on the principles of neuro-plasticity and motor (re)learning. Rehabilitation using commercial gaming system will be motivating, enjoyable, challenging and affordable. Therefore, the present study aims at assessing the effectiveness of an intensive, functional, gamified rehabilitation program using the ArmAble™ device in improving UL motor function in people with stroke. Read More

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Cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A landmark of the disease? A mini review of longitudinal studies.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 15;754:135898. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

3rd Neurology Unit and Motor Neuron Diseases Centre, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy; Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122, Milan, Italy.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease marked by progressive loss of motor abilities. Approximately half of patents with ALS experience cognitive (ALSci) or behavioural impairment (ALSbi) during the course of the disease, with a small percentage developing overt frontotemporal dementia (FTD). ALSci and/or ALSbi can occur simultaneously with motor neuron degeneration or develop in advanced stages of the disease, but it can even precede motor involvement in some cases, namely in ALS patients meeting criteria for FTD. Read More

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An autofluorescence-based survey of late follicular atresia in ovaries of a teleost fish (Thunnus thynnus).

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Spain.

We examined late atretic follicles in ovaries of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758), at different times of the year using transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. Atresia (degeneration and resorption of developing ovarian follicles) is a natural process involved in fecundity downregulation in teleosts, and is substantially enhanced in stressful conditions. Early (α and β) atretic stages of yolked oocytes have a relatively short duration in seasonally reproducing species, whereas later (γ and δ) atretic follicles (LAF) persist for longer time in the ovary, serving as a sign of previous vitellogenic activity. Read More

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T1 mapping for the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis: correlation with Cambridge classification system.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 16:20200685. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Objective: This study aims to determine if T1 relaxation time of the pancreas can detect parenchymal changes in early chronic pancreatitis (CP).

Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 42 patients grouped as no CP (Cambridge 0; = 21), equivocal (Cambridge 1; = 12) or mild CP (Cambridge 2; = 9) based on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard. Unenhanced T1 maps were acquired using a three-dimensional dual flip-angle gradient-echo technique on the same 1. Read More

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The association between electrocardiographic data and obesity in children and adolescents.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Dicle University Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Background: There are not enough studies investigating the relationship between obesity and ECG abnormalities in children and adolescents. This study aims to investigate the relationship between obesity and electrocardiographic data in children and adolescents for early diagnosis to prevent arrhythmia or sudden death in later stages of life.

Patients And Methods: A total of 65 children and adolescents with obesity applied to our pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic with nonspecific complaints and without any known chronic illnesses; 76 healthy children and adolescents were included in the study. Read More

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Dynamics of heat shock protein responses to thermal stress changes after metamorphosis in a lepidopteran insect.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 Apr 16:e21791. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.

In the last decade, unexpected high temperatures have been frequent in spring and early summer. Numerous studies have shown that such thermal stress has substantial effects on life-history traits that influence fitness of insects, but few have examined expression dynamics of heat shock proteins (Hsps) across developmental stages, especially as regards potential carry-over effects at the transcriptional level across metamorphosis. We exposed pupae of the oriental fruit moth ("OFM," Grapholita molesta Busck) to mild heat stress (38°C, 6 h) and then quantified expression patterns of six Hsps (Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, 21, and 11) from pupal through adult stages. Read More

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Screening of compound library identifies novel inhibitors against the MurA enzyme of Escherichia coli.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinical Microbiology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, Tawi- 180001, India.

Bacterial cell has always been an attractive target for anti-infective drug discovery. MurA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) enzyme of Escherichia coli (E.coli) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, as it is involved in the early stages of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Read More

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Well differentiated carcinoma with a poor prognosis: a retrospective analysis of papillary gastric adenocarcinoma.

Surg Today 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Gastric Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Cancer for Cancer, Tianjin, 300060, China.

Purpose: To explore the clinicopathological features and prognosis of papillary gastric adenocarcinoma (PGC).

Methods: The subjects of this retrospective analysis were 1525 patients with gastric cancer in a single center in China.

Results: The patients with PGC were generally of advanced age and the tumor was located in the upper 1/3 of the stomach. Read More

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The role of digital health technologies in COVID-19 surveillance and recovery: a specific case of long haulers.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2021 Apr 16:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Penn Medicine Center for Digital Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Digital health and technologies are essential to curbing the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic especially with shelter-in-place and social distancing orders. Epidemiologists and public health officials are tapping into frequently used technologies like wearables, digital devices, digital and social media data to detect and validate COVID-19 symptoms throughout the pandemic, especially during early stages when symptoms were evolving. In this article, we review how digital technologies and social media platforms can identify and inform our understanding of COVID-19 pandemic surveillance and recovery efforts. Read More

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A novel non-invasive identification of genome editing mutants from insect exuviae.

Insect Sci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

College of Life Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei Province, 071002, China.

With the wide application of genome editing in insects, a simple and efficient identification method is urgently needed to meet the increasing demand for mutation detection. Here, taking migratory locusts as a model system, we developed a non-invasive method to accurately identify genome-edited mutants by using DNA from insect exuviae. We compared the quantity and quality of genomic DNA from exuviae in five instar hoppers and found that the 1st instar exuviae had the highest DNA yield and content, while the 3rd instar exuviae had the best quality. Read More

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Elevated plasma neurofilament light predicts a faster rate of cognitive decline over 5 years in participants with objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline and MCI.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Introduction: Neurofilament light (NFL) reflects neuroaxonal damage and is implicated in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about NFL in pre-MCI stages, such as in individuals with objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline (Obj-SCD).

Methods: Two hundred ninety-four participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) underwent baseline blood draw and serial neuropsychological testing over 5 years of follow-up. Read More

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Asymmetry of Hippocampal Tau Pathology in Primary Age-Related Tauopathy and Alzheimer Disease.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

From the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (JMW, KFB, TER); Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's & Neurodegenerative Diseases (JMW, KFB, SS, TER), University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA; Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (YF, TER); Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (YF), USA; Department of Pathology (KF, MAI, JFC); Department of Neuroscience (KF, MAI, JFC); Ronald M. Loeb Center for Alzheimer's Disease (KF, MAI, JFC), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (MAI); Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (KFB), USA; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas (SS); The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts (SS); and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (CLW), USA.

Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a neurodegenerative entity defined as neurofibrillary degeneration generally restricted to the medial temporal region (Braak stage I-IV) with complete or near absence of diffuse and neuritic plaques. Symptoms range in severity but are generally milder and later in onset than in Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently, an early predilection for neurofibrillary degeneration in the hippocampal CA2 subregion has been demonstrated in PART, whereas AD neuropathologic change (ADNC) typically displays relative sparing of CA2 until later stages. Read More

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Morphology, development stages, and phylogeny of the (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), a phoront of the bark beetle from the elm Huds. in Northwest Russia.

J Nematol 2021 11;53. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Plant Pest Diagnostic Center, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA, 95832.

The nematode was found in galleries, adults, and larvae of , the vector of the Dutch elm disease, in St. Petersburg parks. This nematode co-occurred with , which is another phoretic partner of . Read More

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