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The performance of phenomenological models in providing near-term Canadian case projections in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: March - April, 2020.

Epidemics 2021 Mar 19;35:100457. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada, 130 Colonnade R., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on citizens and health care systems globally. Valid near-term projections of cases are required to inform the escalation, maintenance and de-escalation of public health measures, and for short-term health care resource planning.

Methods: Near-term case and epidemic growth rate projections for Canada were estimated using three phenomenological models: the logistic model, Generalized Richard's model (GRM) and a modified Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (m-IDEA) model. Read More

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Early ctDNA response to chemotherapy. A potential surrogate marker for overall survival.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 12;149:128-133. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Denmark; Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare ctDNA response rate and objective response rate as surrogate markers for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic cancer treated with chemotherapy.

Methods: The study included 420 patients distributed in five cohorts with colorectal, ovarian, and non-small cell lung cancer. It represents a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in prospective biomarker studies and clinical trials. Read More

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HSV-1-encoded ICP0 degrades the host deubiquitinase BRCC36 to antagonize interferon antiviral response.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 12;135:28-35. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays pivotal roles in defense against viral infection. HSV-1 has evolved multiple strategies to evade IFN-I antiviral response. In this study, we revealed a new mechanism that HSV-1-encoded ICP0 regulates the host deubiquitinase BRCC36 to inhibit IFN-I antiviral response. Read More

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Daily meaningfulness among patients with opioid use disorder: Examining the role of social experiences during residential treatment and links with post-treatment relapse.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 16;119:106914. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: A sense of meaningfulness is an important initial indicator of the successful treatment of addiction, and supports the larger recovery process. Most studies address meaningfulness as a static trait, and do not assess the extent to which meaningfulness might vary within an individual, or how it may vary in response to daily life events such as social experiences.

Methods: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to: 1) examine the amount of within-person variability in meaningfulness among patients in residential treatment for prescription opioid use disorder; 2) determine whether that variability was related to positive or negative social experiences on a daily basis; and 3) assess whether those day-to-day relationships were related to relapse at four months post-treatment. Read More

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Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas-Update on Recent Advances.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore; Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Mature T- and natural killer (NK)-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-cell NHL) have a poor prognosis. Data from existing retrospective and prospective studies has suggested that high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) may improve the survival in patients with chemosensitive disease, either in the upfront or salvage setting. Auto-HCT is currently recommended to be used as frontline consolidation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-nos), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALCL-ALK) negative, NK/T-cell (disseminated), and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Read More

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Study of ER Stress and Apoptotic Proteins in the Heart and Tumor Exposed to Doxorubicin.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Apr 12:119039. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Electronic address:

Although a high cumulative dose of Doxorubicin (Dox) is known to cause cardiotoxicity, there is still a lack of understanding of the subcellular basis of this drug-induced cardiomyopathy. Differential effects of Dox on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were examined in cardiomyocytes, tumor cells, implanted tumors and hearts of normal as well as tumor-bearing animals. Dox increased mitochondrial (Mito) Bax activation at 3h in the cardiomyocyte without change in the DNA damage inducible transcriptor-3 (DDIT3) expression in the ER. Read More

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Gene expression profiling of early Parkinson's disease patient reveals redox homeostasis.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 12:135893. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Neurotoxin Research Center of Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and Regeneration of Ministry of Education, Neurological Department of Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is slowly progressive. Due to the lack of specific and sensitive biomarkers, the majority of PD patients are in the advanced stages when diagnosed. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers for early PD diagnosis. Read More

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Cardiomyocyte heterogeneity during zebrafish development and regeneration.

Dev Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Developmental Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Contrary to adult mammals, zebrafish are able to regenerate their heart after cardiac injury. This regenerative response relies, in part, on the endogenous ability of cardiomyocytes (CMs) to dedifferentiate and proliferate to replenish the lost muscle. However, CM heterogeneity and population dynamics during development and regeneration require further investigation. Read More

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Low-level exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is associated with reduced lung function among Swedish young adults.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 12:111169. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to adverse pulmonary effects. However, the impact of low-level environmental PAH exposure on lung function in early adulthood remains uncertain.

Objectives: To evaluate the associations between urinary PAH metabolites and lung function parameters in young adults. Read More

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Insight into resident burnout, mental wellness, and coping mechanisms early in the COVID-19 pandemic.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250104. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Toledo-College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America.

Background: Acute augmentation of stress and disruption of training, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, may impact resident wellbeing.

Objectives: We investigated how residents in various specialties in the United States were impacted by COVID-19 on mental wellbeing and resilience levels, and the methodology for coping with the stress incurred.

Methods: In April 2020, the authors electronically surveyed 200 residency programs of all specialties nationally. Read More

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Prognostic value of serial neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio measurements in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250067. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonology Division, Dong-A University Hospital, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Several serum inflammatory markers are associated with poor clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the prognosis and early treatment response in hospitalized CAP patients based on serial neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) measurement has never been investigated.

Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study for 175 consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP between February 2016 and February 2018. Read More

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Development and validation of a cellular host response test as an early diagnostic for sepsis.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0246980. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.

Sepsis must be diagnosed quickly to avoid morbidity and mortality. However, the clinical manifestations of sepsis are highly variable and emergency department (ED) clinicians often must make rapid, impactful decisions before laboratory results are known. We previously developed a technique that allows the measurement of the biophysical properties of white blood cells as they are stretched through a microfluidic channel. Read More

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Using Organ Specific and Circulatory Biofluids to Screen Individuals at High Risk for Breast Cancer Presents Unique Challenges and Opportunities.

Authors:
Edward R Sauter

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Mar;30(3):429-431

Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI, Rockville, Maryland.

Intraductal assessment of the breast holds the potential to provide useful information regarding breast cancer risk assessment, early diagnosis, and/or response to therapy. Intraductal assessment can be through imaging (ductography), direct visualization (mammary ductoscopy), or evaluation of the intraductal fluid collected. The most common nonradiologic approaches to intraductal assessment that provide intraductal fluid for evaluation include breast nipple aspiration fluid (NAF), spontaneous nipple discharge (SND), mammary ductoscopy, and ductal lavage. Read More

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Ultrasound-guided paravertebral perineural glucocorticoid injection for signs of refractory cervical pain associated with foraminal intervertebral disk protrusion in four dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 May;258(9):999-1006

Case Description: 4 dogs, 7.5 to 10 years of age, were presented for evaluation of signs of chronic cervical pain and forelimb lameness secondary to cervical foraminal intervertebral disk protrusion (IVDP). All dogs were refractory to ≥ 2 weeks of conservative management including strict rest and pain management with anti-inflammatory drugs, methocarbamol, and gabapentin. Read More

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Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): subgroup analysis in Japanese patients.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

The global, randomized, open-label KEYNOTE-183 phase 3 study was closed early after an interim analysis showed unfavorable risk-benefit when pembrolizumab was added to pomalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). This subgroup analysis reported outcomes in 27 Japanese patients randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone (n = 15) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone (n = 12). Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Read More

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Coping and Mental Health in Early Adolescence during COVID-19.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The current longitudinal study examines changes in overall mental health symptomatology from before to after the COVID-19 outbreak in youth from the southeastern United States as well as the potential mitigating effects of self-efficacy, optimism, and coping. A sample of 105 parent-child dyads participated in the study (49% boys; 81% European American, 1% Alaska Native/American Indian, 9% Asian/Asian American; 4% Black/African American; 4% Latinx; and 4% other; 87% mothers; 25% high school graduate without college education; 30% degree from 4-year college; 45% graduate or professional school). Parents completed surveys when children were aged 6-9, 8-12, 9-13, and 12-16, with the last assessments occurring between May 13, 2020 and July 1, 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak. Read More

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[Recording of SARS-CoV-2 laboratory tests in Germany].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Abteilung für Infektionsepidemiologie, Robert Koch-Institut, Seestraße 10, 13353, Berlin, Deutschland.

The collection of data on SARS-CoV‑2 tests is central to the assessment of the infection rate in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), data collected from various laboratory data recording systems are consolidated. First, this article aims to exemplify significant aspects regarding test procedures. Read More

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Validation of the Coin in Hand-Extended Version Among Older Adults With and Without Dementia.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Centre (CIMCYC), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objective: The current study aimed to validate the Performance Validity Test Coin in Hand-Extended Version (CIH-EV) in groups of healthy older adults and older adults with dementia.

Method: Using an analog simulation paradigm, the healthy control group and the clinical group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability, whereas the feigning older adults were instructed to simulate a memory deficit to obtain allowance, financial aid, or early retirement.

Results: Results showed that the control and clinical groups performed more optimally than the feigning group, although the clinical group had superior response times. Read More

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Phase 1b/2 study of ibrutinib and lenalidomide with dose-adjusted EPOCH-R in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Apr 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lymphoid Malignancies Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is difficult to cure; non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL have worse outcomes than GCB DLBCL. Ibrutinib and lenalidomide are synergistic in vitro in ABC DLBCL and may augment salvage chemotherapy. In part 1 of this phase 1b/2 study (NCT02142049), patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL received ibrutinib 560 mg and escalating doses of lenalidomide on Days 1-7 with DA-EPOCH-R (Days 1-5) in 21-day cycles. Read More

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Metatranscriptomic comparison of endophytic and pathogenic Fusarium-Arabidopsis interactions reveals plant transcriptional plasticity.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 240 Thatcher Road, Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, 01003;

Plants are continuously exposed to beneficial and pathogenic microbes, but how plants recognize and respond to friends versus foes remains poorly understood. Here, we compared the molecular response of independently challenged with a endophyte Fo47 versus a pathogen Fo5176. These two strains share a core genome of about 46 Mb, in addition to unique 1,229 and 5,415 accessory genes. Read More

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Ectopic expression of CGG-repeats alters ovarian response to gonadotropins and leads to infertility in a murine FMR1 premutation model.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.

Women heterozygous for an expansion of CGG repeats in the 5'UTR of FMR1 risk developing Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI) and/or Tremor and Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). We show that expanded CGGs, independent of FMR1, are sufficient to drive ovarian insufficiency and that expression of CGG-containing mRNAs alone or in conjunction with a polyglycine-containing peptide translated from these RNAs contribute to dysfunction. Heterozygous females from two mouse lines expressing either CGG RNA-only (RNA-only) or CGG RNA and the polyglycine product FMRpolyG (FMRpolyG+RNA) were used to assess ovarian function in aging animals. Read More

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Early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and social restrictions on ambulance missions.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Group of Surgery, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Research Center of Oulu University, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a major impact on health care services globally. Recent studies report that emergency departments have experienced a significant decline in the number of admitted patients in the early phase of the pandemic. To date, research regarding the influence of COVID-19 on emergency medical services (EMS) is limited. Read More

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The intervention of the emergency psychologist: the SIPEM SoS Emilia Romagna during the first lockdown from COVID-19.

Acta Biomed 2021 Mar 31;92(S2):e2021019. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Italian Society of Emergency Psychology Social Support, SIPEM SoS Emilia Romagna and Sicily sections; Faculty of Human Sciences and Society, University of Enna "Kore";.

Background and purpose of this work: WHO 11 March 2020 declares that Sars-Cov-2 infection is not only a health emergency but must be considered a pandemic. Covid-19 required the urgency of a new psychological intervention model to better address the crisis and ensure a direct support response to the people involved in the pandemic. The present study aimed to detect the symptoms and reactions of the population with respect to the event. Read More

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BLUEPRINT FOR PANDEMIC RESPONSE: FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, AND PHARMACOMETRICS.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Certara, Princeton, NJ.

Perhaps the most important lesson learned from the COVID-19 pandemic is that of preparedness. Enhanced surveillance systems for early threat detection will be crucial to maximizing response time for implementation of public health measures and mobilization of resources in containing an emerging pandemic. Recent outbreaks have been dominated by viral pathogens with RNA respiratory viruses being the most likely to have pandemic potential. Read More

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Exosomes: a new perspective in EGFR-mutated lung cancer.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

UCD School of Medicine, UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Exosomes are major contributors in cell to cell communication due to their ability to transfer biological material such as protein, RNA, DNA, and miRNA. Additionally, they play a role in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression, and recently, they have emerged as a potential source of information on tumor detection and may be useful as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools. This review focuses on exosomes from lung cancer with a focus on EGFR mutations. Read More

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Determining insulin sensitivity from glucose tolerance tests in Iberian and landrace pigs.

PeerJ 2021 10;9:e11014. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Animal Nutrition, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Granada, Spain.

As insulin sensitivity may help to explain divergences in growth and body composition between native and modern breeds, metabolic responses to glucose infusion were measured using an intra-arterial glucose tolerance test (IAGTT). Iberian ( = 4) and Landrace ( = 5) barrows (47.0 ± 1. Read More

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Perivascular macrophages create an intravascular niche for CD8 T cell localisation prior to the onset of fatal experimental cerebral malaria.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 7;10(4):e1273. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Molecular Therapeutics Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine James Cook University Cairns QLD Australia.

Objectives: The immunologic events that build up to the fatal neurological stage of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) are incompletely understood. Here, we dissect immune cell behaviour occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) when ANKA (PbA)-infected mice show only minor clinical signs.

Methods: A 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM) brain imaging model was used to study the spatiotemporal context of early immunological events during ECM. Read More

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Moving toward targeting the right phenotype with the right platelet-rich plasma (PRP) formulation for knee osteoarthritis.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 29;13:1759720X211004336. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, University of Salerno School of Medicine and Dentristry, Salerno, Italy.

Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and other novel blood-derived products developed specifically for osteoarthritis (OA) can provide pain relief and potential benefits in disease progression. Meta-analyses show the clinical superiority of PRP compared with other intra-articular injections, but results are modest and the effect sizes are small. PRP injections in knee OA are performed indiscriminately, but the clinical response varies enormously between patients because of an array of mixed OA phenotypes. Read More

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Interpreting Cytokinin Action as Anterograde Signaling and Beyond.

Front Plant Sci 2021 29;12:641257. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

International Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Among the major phytohormones, the cytokinin exhibits unique features for its ability to positively affect the developmental status of plastids. Even early on in its research, cytokinins were known to promote plastid differentiation and to reduce the loss of chlorophyll in detached leaves. Since the discovery of the components of cytokinin perception and primary signaling, the genes involved in photosynthesis and plastid differentiation have been identified as those directly targeted by type-B response regulators. Read More

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