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The Miracles of Surfactant: Less Invasive Surfactant Administration, Nebulization, and Carrier of Topical Drugs.

Neonatology 2021 May 10:1-10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has long become the standard of care in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), significantly decreasing acute pulmonary morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. For decades, this beneficial replacement therapy has been administered via endotracheal tube. Despite significantly improving the outcome of RDS, however, the burden of bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains, in particular, in very immature preterm infants. Read More

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Surfactant therapy via thin catheter in preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 10;5:CD011672. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Paediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Australia.

Background: Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used for the management of respiratory dysfunction in preterm infants. This approach runs the risk of under-treating those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), for whom surfactant administration is of paramount importance. Several techniques of minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Read More

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LAMP3 (CD208) Expression in Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Epithelial Dysplasia of the Oral Cavity and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Unfavorable Prognosis.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jan;9(4):373-378

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate LAMP3 gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dysplastic oral epithelium by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compare expression in different disease grades and stages.

Methods: In this study, 60 OSCC and dysplastic oral epithelium samples were obtained from the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences together with their demographic and clinicopathological documents. LAMP3 expression was measured by qPCR. Read More

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January 2021

Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the submandibular gland: Two case reports.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(12):2930-2936

Department of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a rare disease of salivary glands, similar to fibrocystic disease of the breast. It occurs over a wide age range and exhibits a slight female preference. Most SPA cases have occurred in the parotid gland. Read More

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Cardiovascular Pharmacological Support Among Preterm Infants in Chinese Referral Center Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:638540. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To describe cardiovascular pharmacological support in infants born at <34 weeks' gestation within the first postnatal week in Chinese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled study (REIN-EPIQ). A questionnaire regarding cardiovascular support practices was also completed by all participating NICUs. Read More

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Myelodysplastic syndrome in a 30-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a diagnostic challenge.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 20;11:e2021274. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Torrance, CA, USA.

Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) mainly occur in the elderly but can rarely affect younger individuals too. The correct diagnosis relies on careful morphologic evaluation, cytogenetic/molecular results, and excluding reactive conditions mimicking MDS. We present the clinical, pathologic, cytogenetic, and molecular features of a case of MDS with excess blasts-2 (MDS-EB-2) in a 30-year-old male who was found to have pancytopenia during his hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and discuss the diagnostic challenges of MDS in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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The Role of Dectin-1 Signaling in Altering Tumor Immune Microenvironment in the Context of Aging.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:669066. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States.

An increased accumulation of immune-dysfunction-associated CD4Foxp3 regulatory T cells (T) is observed in aging oral mucosa during infection. Here we studied the function of T during oral cancer development in aging mucosa. First, we found heightened proportions of T and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulating in mouse and human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues. Read More

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Grading of Oral Leukoplakia: Can It be Improvised Using Immunohistochemical Markers p63 and CD31.

Contemp Clin Dent 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):37-43. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental College and Hospital, Sir MVIT Campus, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by potentially malignant disorders (PMDs), the most common being oral leukoplakia. A conservative management protocol is followed for milder dysplastic cases, while severe dysplastic lesions are surgically excised. Several classification systems have been developed based mainly on histopathological features with a lot of inter-observer variations. Read More

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Evaluation of glucose transporter-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 Sep-Dec;24(3):578. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of oral cavity and is commonly preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) protein expression is upregulated in malignant cells that show increased glucose uptake. Alterations in GLUT-1 expression have been reported in several potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Read More

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January 2021

Cemento-osseous dysplasia: Clinicopathological spectrum of 10 cases analyzed in a tertiary dental institute.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 Sep-Dec;24(3):576. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Oral Oral Medicine and Radiology, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) is a distinct entity, which is confined to the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws or edentulous alveolar processes.

Aims: This study analyzes the demographic, clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of COD.

Materials And Methods: Archival data from 2013 to 2017 present in the Department of Oral Pathology were retrieved. Read More

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January 2021

Expression of CK 19 as a biomarker in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 Sep-Dec;24(3):523-529. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Biostatistics, Amrita School of Medicine, AIMS, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background: Increased mortality in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) had been attributed to delay in diagnosis. Lack of a specific marker to assess the malignant potential of premalignant lesions is thought to be one of the reasons for late detection. Expression of Cytokeratin 19, which is widely used as an odontogenic epithelial marker had been reported in OSCC. Read More

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January 2021

[Research Advances of Human Homologue of Mouse Progressive Ankylosis Protein and Bone and Joint Diseases].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):293-299

Department of Orthopaedics,PUMC Hospital,CAMS and PUMC,Beijing 100730,China.

The human homologue of mouse progressive ankylosis protein(ANKH)is an inorganic pyrophosphate transport regulator,which regulates tissue mineralization by controlling the level of inorganic pyrophosphate.It plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of bone and joint diseases,such as ankylosing spondylitis,craniometaphyseal dysplasia,and articular cartilage calcification.This review summarizes the progress of research on ANKH and the above-mentioned diseases. Read More

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Renal Outcome and New-Onset Renal and Extrarenal Dissections in Patients With Nontrauma Renal Artery Dissection Associated With Renal Infarction.

Hypertension 2021 May 10:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016540. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hypertension Unit, AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. (A.-L.F., G.B., A.L., M.A., L.A.).

We aimed to compare the characteristics of the patients with renal infarction related to nontrauma renal artery dissection (RAD) with versus without an underlying vascular disease and report long-term renal and vascular outcomes, as well as new-onset renal and extra-RADs. Data from 72 consecutive patients with RAD referred to our Hypertension Unit between 2000 and 2015 were analyzed. Radiological data, including a systematic brain-to-pelvis computed tomography angiography, were independently reviewed. Read More

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Surfactant protein D and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a new way to approach an old problem.

Respir Res 2021 May 8;22(1):141. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave. ML7029, Cincinnati, OH, 45229-3039, USA.

Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin protein synthesized by alveolar type II cells in the lungs. SP-D participates in the innate immune defense of the lungs by helping to clear infectious pathogens and modulating the immune response. SP-D has shown an anti-inflammatory role by down-regulating the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in different signaling pathways such as the TLR4, decreasing the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung, and modulating the oxidative metabolism in the lungs. Read More

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Leveraging voxel-wise segmentation uncertainty to improve reliability in assessment of paediatric dysplasia of the hip.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Purpose: Estimating uncertainty in predictions made by neural networks is critically important for increasing the trust medical experts have in automatic data analysis results. In segmentation tasks, quantifying levels of confidence can provide meaningful additional information to aid clinical decision making. In recent work, we proposed an interpretable uncertainty measure to aid clinicians in assessing the reliability of developmental dysplasia of the hip metrics measured from 3D ultrasound screening scans, as well as that of the US scan itself. Read More

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Developmental hip dysplasia and hip ultrasound frequency in a large American payer database.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 5;76:213-216. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Economics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is an important contributor to musculoskeletal morbidity, but effective strategies to screen for DDH remain controversial. The current utilization of hip ultrasound (US) screening for DDH in the United States is not defined. This study utilized Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart, a large commercial and Medicare Advantage claims database. Read More

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Positive predictive value of fecal immunochemical test for high-risk colonic adenomas and carcinoma: A health maintenance organization cohort screening study in Lebanon.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236/16-B, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background And Study Aims: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) is one of the leading modalities for colorectal cancer screening. Studies show that FIT is highly sensitive for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) but not similarly accurate for detection of pre-cancerous advanced adenomas (AA). We studied the performance metrics of FIT for the detection of CRC and AA in ahealth maintenance organization (HMO) cohort screening program. Read More

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Laryngeal lichen planus mimicking vocal fold dysplasia.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Otolaryngology Unit, Head and Neck Surgery, ASST del Garda, Manerbio Hospital, Brescia, Italy.

Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease affecting the skin and mucosal membranes, either alone or in combination. LP rarely occurs in the larynx, where it presents as leukoplakia. Additionally, due to its responsiveness to corticosteroid drugs, differential diagnosis from other causes of laryngeal leukoplakia is needed (e. Read More

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Clinico-Hematological and cytogenetic spectrum of adult myelodysplastic syndrome: The first retrospective cross-sectional study in Iranian patients.

Mol Cytogenet 2021 May 8;14(1):24. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, School of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancy, has been shown to present different cytogenetic abnormalities, risk factors, and clinico-hematological features in different populations and geographic areas. Herein, we determined the cytogenetic spectrum and clinico-hematological features of Iranian MDS patients for the first time.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 103 patients with MDS in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran, from 2014 to 2018. Read More

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Comments on the evolution of TRPV6.

Ann Anat 2021 May 5:151753. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität des Saarlandes, 66421 Homburg, Saar, Germany. Electronic address:

It is well known that not all biological findings derived from animals can be directly applied to humans. The TRPV6 protein may serve as an example which highlights these inter-species differences as an example of parallel evolutionary pathways. TRPV6 (and TRPV5) belong to a family of ion channels from the transient receptor potential group but are selectively permeable for Ca2+, in contrast to other members of the family. Read More

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Trochlear Dysplasia As Shown By Increased Sulcus Angle is Associated with Osteochondral Damage in Patients with Patellar Instability.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Elite Sports Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Purpose: The primary objective was to describe the incidence of osteochondral damage in our cohort of patients with patellar instability. The second was to assesss for associations between patient demographics, duration of patellar instability, and quantitative radiographic measurements of anatomic risk factors for patellar instability and osteochondral damage.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified patients treated for patellar instability at a tertiary referral center between 2013 and 2018. Read More

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The inverse relationship between labral size and acetabular coverage: Does it protect the cartilage in the dysplastic hip?

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL 60018; American Hip Institute, Chicago, IL 60018; AMITA Health St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL 60169. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aims of this study were to confirm the relationship between osseous coverage and labral size, and to investigate the severity of intra-articular damage in borderline dysplastic hips in correlation to labral size.

Methods: Patients treated with primary hip arthroscopy for symptomatic labral tears between 2010 and 2018 were considered for this study. Patients were included if they had preoperative radiographic measures and intraoperative assessments of the labra and cartilage. Read More

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Femoro-Epiphyseal Acetabular Roof (FEAR) index and anterior acetabular coverage correlate with labral length in developmental dysplasia of the hip.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between labral length and radiographic parameters of lateral and anterior acetabular coverage and the femoro-epiphyseal acetabular roof (FEAR) index in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with DDH who visited our hip joint clinic for the first time due to hip symptoms. DDH presence was defined as a lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) ≤ 25°. Read More

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Prognostic relevance and putative histogenetic role of cytokeratin 7 and MUC5AC expression in Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Via Carlo Forlanini 16 -, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Most Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas (CrD-SBCs) are diagnosed in advanced stage and have poor prognosis. To improve diagnosis and therapy, a better knowledge of tumour precancerous lesions, histotypes and prognostic factors is needed. We investigated histologically and immunohistochemically 52 CrD-SBCs and 51 small bowel carcinomas unrelated to inflammatory disease, together with their tumour-associated mucosa, looking for Crohn-selective changes. Read More

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Femoral tunnel malposition is the most common indication for revision medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with promising early outcomes following revision reconstruction: a systematic review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University Medical Centre, 1200 Main St West 4E14, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the causes of failure of previous medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFL-R), and to furthermore report the surgical techniques available for MPFL revision surgery.

Methods: Four databases [PubMed, Ovid (MEDLINE), Cochrane Database, and EMBASE] were searched until September 29, 2020 for human studies pertaining to revision MPFL. Two reviewers screened the literature independently and in duplicate. Read More

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Primary HPV cervical screening: Clinical audit of outcomes of women seen at a tertiary referral centre for colposcopy in Australia.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Oncology & Dysplasia, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening was introduced in Australia in December 2017.

Aims: Outcomes for women after positive HPV in their cervical screening test (CST).

Materials And Methods: A retrospective observational study of 4458 women seen at the Royal Women's Hospital Colposcopy Clinic from 1 January 2018 to 31 July 2020. Read More

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Biallelic novel mutations of the COL27A1 gene in a patient with Steel syndrome.

Hum Genome Var 2021 May 7;8(1):17. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

An 11-year-old Korean boy presented with short stature, hip dysplasia, radial head dislocation, carpal coalition, genu valgum, and fixed patellar dislocation and was clinically diagnosed with Steel syndrome. Scrutinizing the trio whole-exome sequencing data revealed novel compound heterozygous mutations of COL27A1 (c.[4229_4233dup]; [3718_5436del], p. Read More

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Insights into the mechanisms of alveolarization - Implications for lung regeneration and cell therapies.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 29:101243. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) and CHEO Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Although the lung has extensive regenerative capacity, some diseases affecting the distal lung result in irreversible loss of pulmonary alveoli. Hitherto, treatments are supportive and do not specifically target tissue repair. Regenerative medicine offers prospects to promote lung repair and regeneration. Read More

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Variants in the degron of AFF3 are associated with intellectual disability, mesomelic dysplasia, horseshoe kidney, and epileptic encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May;108(5):857-873

GeneDx, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, USA.

The ALF transcription factor paralogs, AFF1, AFF2, AFF3, and AFF4, are components of the transcriptional super elongation complex that regulates expression of genes involved in neurogenesis and development. We describe an autosomal dominant disorder associated with de novo missense variants in the degron of AFF3, a nine amino acid sequence important for its binding to ubiquitin ligase, or with de novo deletions of this region. The sixteen affected individuals we identified, along with two previously reported individuals, present with a recognizable pattern of anomalies, which we named KINSSHIP syndrome (KI for horseshoe kidney, NS for Nievergelt/Savarirayan type of mesomelic dysplasia, S for seizures, H for hypertrichosis, I for intellectual disability, and P for pulmonary involvement), partially overlapping the AFF4-associated CHOPS syndrome. Read More

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Altered ripple density inside seizure onset zone in patients with focal cortical dysplasia-associated epilepsy.

Brain Behav 2021 May 7:e02169. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) features and postsurgical outcome in a uniform series of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery and had pathologically confirmation of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).

Methods: We studied consecutive patients with drug-refractory epilepsy who underwent SEEG recording. The high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) features of SEEG, clinical characteristics, and surgical outcome were evaluated. Read More

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