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Microsurgical management of complex hypothalamic hamartomas in the era of minimally invasive therapy: a case series and narrative review.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, Hofstra/Northwell School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, North Shore University Hospital, Hofstra/Northwell School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Long Island Jewish/Cohen Children's Medical Center, Hofstra/Northwell School of Medicine, Queens, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) from traditional microsurgical techniques to less invasive alternatives. However, large and extensive HH may fail to respond to these therapies, ultimately necessitating craniotomies.

Methods: All patients who underwent microsurgical resection of a complex HH by the 2 senior authors from 2011-2021 were included. Read More

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January 2022

C. elegans as a model organism to study female reproductive health.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2022 Jan 12:111152. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada. Electronic address:

Female reproductive health has been historically understudied and underfunded. Here, we present the advantages of using a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, as an animal system to study fundamental aspects of female reproductive health. C. Read More

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January 2022

Renal consequences of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and hydrogen sulfide as a potential therapy.

Nitric Oxide 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, London Health Sciences Center, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Matthew Mailing Center for Translational Transplant Studies, London Health Sciences Center, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Multi-organ Transplant Program, London Health Sciences Center, Ontario, Canada; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global pandemic which is primarily considered a respiratory illness. However, emerging reports show that the virus exhibits both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations in humans, with the kidney as a major extra-pulmonary target due to its abundant expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, which facilitate entry of the virus into cells. Acute kidney injury has become prevalent in COVID-19 patients without prior any history of kidney dysfunction. Read More

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January 2022

Cerebral Blood Flow Self-regulation in Depression.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disease with a high prevalence rate. Sleep problems, memory decline, dizziness and headaches are the most common neurological symptoms in depressed patients. Abnormality of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been observed in depressive patients, but those patients did not have intracranial structural damage. Read More

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January 2022

Thyroid disorders and cardiovascular manifestations: an update.

Endocrine 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

3rd Department of Cardiology, Sotiria Chest Disease Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, representing a major health, social, and economic issue. Thyroid disorders are very common and affect >10% of the adult population in total. The aim of this review is to describe the physiologic role of thyroid hormones on cardiovascular system, to present cardiovascular manifestations in patients with thyroid disorders, emphasizing in molecular mechanisms and biochemical pathways, and to summarize current knowledge of treatment options. Read More

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January 2022

Echocardiographic imaging of temporary percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices.

J Echocardiogr 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

University of Washington Medical Center Heart Institute, 1959 Pacific St., Box 356422, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Cardiogenic shock is a state of end-organ hypoperfusion due to primary cardiac dysfunction and portends a poor prognosis. Shock refractory to inotropic and vasopressor support is often an indication for mechanical circulatory support. When mechanical support device complications or malfunction arise, echocardiography offers rapid assessment of device position and function. Read More

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January 2022

Barriers and facilitators to physical activity participation in patients with head and neck cancer: a scoping review.

Support Care Cancer 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Nursing College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030001, China.

Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) usually experienced disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychosocial distress, leading to a decline in their quality of life. Physical activity (PA) is recommended for such patients. Despite the proven benefits of participating in PA, the compliance of patients with HNC is still poor. Read More

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January 2022

Sirtuin 3: Emerging therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.

Free Radic Biol Med 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212000, China. Electronic address:

Acetylation is one of the most important methods of modification that lead to a change in the function of proteins. In humans, metabolic enzymes commonly undergo acetylation, which regulates the activities of metabolic enzymes and metabolic pathways. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a prominent deacetylase that participates in mitochondrial metabolism, redox balance, and mitochondrial dynamics by regulating mitochondrial protein acetylation, thereby protecting mitochondria from damage. Read More

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January 2022

Calcium Selective Channel TRPV6: Structure, Function, and Implications in Health and Disease.

Gene 2022 Jan 11:146192. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Nephrology Research and Training Center, Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. Electronic address:

Calcium-selective channel TRPV6 (Transient Receptor Potential channel family, Vanilloid subfamily member 6) belongs to the TRP family of cation channels and plays critical roles in transcellular calcium (Ca) transport, reuptake of Ca into cells, and maintaining a local low Ca environment for certain biological processes. Recent crystal and cryo-electron microscopy-based structures of TRPV6 have revealed mechanistic insights on how the protein achieves Ca selectivity, permeation, and inactivation by calmodulin. The TRPV6 protein is expressed in a range of epithelial tissues such as the intestine, kidney, placenta, epididymis, and exocrine glands such as the pancreas, prostate and salivary, sweat, and mammary glands. Read More

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January 2022

Procedural, Short-Term, and Intermediate-Term Outcomes in Propensity-Matched Patients With Severe Mitral Valve Regurgitation Undergoing Urgent Versus Elective MitraClip Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Dec 16. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.

Objective: The study authors sought to compare outcomes in patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) undergoing urgent, as compared to elective, mitral valve repair employing MitraClip. They hypothesized that, compared to elective cases, MitraClip procedures performed for urgent indications would be associated with increased intraoperative and postoperative complications but have similar long-term outcomes.

Design: A retrospective chart review with 3:1 propensity score matching of elective-to-urgent cases. Read More

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December 2021

Cancer exosomes and natural killer cells dysfunction: biological roles, clinical significance and implications for immunotherapy.

Mol Cancer 2022 Jan 14;21(1):15. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Immunology School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of COVID-19 in Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transpl Infect Dis 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies & Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe immune dysfunction.

Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, and Clinical trials.gov from the date of inception to 12/08/2021. Read More

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January 2022

Molecular mechanisms of cognitive impairment associated with stroke.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CT University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death after coronary heart disease in developed countries and is the greatest cause of disability and cognitive impairment. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, hypertension, arterial fibrillation, diabetes, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke, depressive illness duration of a stroke, location, volume, intensity, and degree of neuronal degeneration, location and size of infarction after stroke, time interval after stroke other cerebral dysfunctions. The pathophysiology of stroke associated cognitive impairment is complex and recent molecular, cellular, and animal models studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including altered redox state, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, perivascular spacing, glymphatic system impairment, microglia activation and amyloid-β deposition in the parenchyma of the brain. Read More

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January 2022

Identification of a novel missense mutation in the TPM1 gene via exome sequencing in a Chinese family with dilated cardiomyopathy: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(2):e28551

Shandong Innoviation Center of Intelligent Diagnosis, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Rationale: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a cardiovascular disorder characterized by consecutive ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction, often leading to congestive heart failure. DCM type 1Y (DCM1Y) is caused by a mutation in the TPM1 (tropomyosin 1) gene. To date, about thirty TPM1 gene mutations have been reported to be related to DCM1Y. Read More

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January 2022

Sinomenine hydrochloride injection for knee osteoarthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(2):e28503

Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative disease in the knee joint, with chronic joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and dysfunction as the primary manifestations. Sinomenine hydrochloride injection is a proprietary Chinese medicine injection of sinomenine, the main active component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Clinical studies show that Sinomenine hydrochloride injection has a good effect on the treatment of KOA. Read More

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January 2022

Effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi for chronic pain of knee osteoarthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(2):e28497

School of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Chronic pain (CP) has been a major area of interest in the field of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), further aggravating the dysthymia, stiffness, and dysfunction of KOA patients. As an important part of complementary and alternative medicine, Tai Chi has a positive effect on KOA patients. The systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi for KOA patients with CP. Read More

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January 2022

Acupuncture combined tuina for oculomotor paralysis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(2):e28456

Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Oculomotor paralysis (OP) is a neurologic syndrome with multiple causes of oculomotor nerve and its dominant tissue and muscle dysfunction. Acupuncture combined with tuina is a wide-ranging used rehabilitation therapy, although there is short of supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety in patients with OP. The purpose of this systematic review was to estimate and synthesize evidence of the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with tuina in the treatment of OP. Read More

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January 2022

Development of the AI-Cirrhosis-ECG (ACE) Score: An electrocardiogram-based deep learning model in cirrhosis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Dec 29. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Cirrhosis is associated with cardiac dysfunction and distinct ECG abnormalities. This study aimed to develop a proof-of-concept deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) model that could detect cirrhosis-related signals on ECG and generate an AI-Cirrhosis-ECG (ACE) score that would correlate with disease severity.

Methods: A review of Mayo Clinic's electronic health records identified 5,212 patients with advanced cirrhosis ≥18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation (LT) at the three Mayo Clinic transplant centers between 1988 and 2019. Read More

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December 2021

Epithelial Barrier: Protector and Trigger of Allergic Disorders.

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

IMMA, Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid, Spain.

The epithelial barrier has been classically considered as only the first line of defense against irritants, pathogens, and allergens, but it is now known that it also plays an essential role in the immunological response against exogenous agents. In fact, recent reports postulate the epithelial barrier hypothesis as a possible explanation for the increasing incidence and severity of allergic diseases. The epithelial barrier preserves the isolation of the inner tissues from potential external threats. Read More

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January 2022

PET Tracers for Imaging Cardiac Function in Cardio-oncology.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute (MI3), Weill Cornell Medicine, Belfer Research Building, Room BB-1604, 413 East 69th St, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Successful treatment of cancer can be hampered by the attendant risk of cardiotoxicity, manifesting as cardiomyopathy, left ventricle systolic dysfunction and, in some cases, heart failure. This risk can be mitigated if the injury to the heart is detected before the onset to irreversible cardiac impairment. The gold standard for cardiac imaging in cardio-oncology is echocardiography. Read More

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January 2022

The puzzle of fibromyalgia between central sensitization syndrome and small fiber neuropathy: a narrative review on neurophysiological and morphological evidence.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Applied Neurophysiology and Pain Unit, SMBNOS Department, Bari Aldo Moro University, Policlinico General Hospital, Bari, Italy.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition characterized by chronic widespread pain whose pathogenesis is still not fully defined. Evidence based on structural and functional neuroimaging methods, electrophysiological, and morphological - skin biopsy - features demonstrated a central and peripheral nervous system involvement. A dysfunction in nociceptive inputs processing at the central level was highlighted as the primary cause of FM, but other data coming from different laboratories contributed to emphasize again the peripheral origin of FM. Read More

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January 2022

Epidemiology and treatment of head and neck malignancies in the AYA generation.

Authors:
Takahiro Asakage

Int J Clin Oncol 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.

The Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) population refers to the population of young adults and adolescents in the 15-39 years age group. This population subgroup experiences various important life events. Head and neck malignancies are rare tumors, in general, but they are extremely rare in the AYA population. Read More

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January 2022

Non-coding RNA in alcohol use disorder by affecting synaptic plasticity.

Exp Brain Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Mental Health Institute, First Affiliated Hospital Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. AUD is a complex disorder, and there is ample evidence that genetic predisposition is critical to its development. Recent studies have shown that genetic predisposition leads to the onset of AUD, and alcohol metabolism can affect epigenetic inheritance, which in turn affects synaptic plasticity, alters brain function, and leads to more severe addictive behaviors. Read More

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January 2022

Medical management of acute heart failure.

Fac Rev 2021 6;10:82. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Despite recent advances in the treatment of chronic heart failure, therapeutic options for acute heart failure (AHF) remain limited. AHF admissions are associated with significant multi-organ dysfunction, especially worsening renal failure, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. There are several aspects of AHF management: diagnosis, decongestion, vasoactive therapy, goal-directed medical therapy initiation and safe transition of care. Read More

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December 2021

Recent advances in preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

Fac Rev 2021 1;10:81. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Programs, Institute for Cell Engineering, 733 North Broadway, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The worldwide health-care burden of neurodegenerative diseases is on the rise-a crisis created through a combination of increased caseload and lack of effective treatments. The limitations of pharmacotherapy in these disorders have led to an urgent shift toward research and clinical trials for the development of novel compounds, interventions, and methods that target shared features across the spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Research targets include neuronal cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and neuroinflammation. Read More

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December 2021

Risk Factors for Cerebral Edema and Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Dec;25(12):1446-1451

Department of Pediatrics, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

Objectives: To study the clinical profile and risk factors of cerebral edema and acute kidney injury in children with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Design: Retrospective review of medical records.

Patients: Fifty consecutive patients (age <18 years) admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis over 5 years. Read More

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December 2021

Applications of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and prediction of erectile dysfunction: a narrative review.

Int J Impot Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Andrology Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Despite the high prevalence of erectile dysfunction, patients are reluctant to seek medical advice, which leads to low diagnostic rates in clinical practice. Artificial intelligence has been widely applied in the diagnosis of many diseases and may alleviate the situation. However, the applications of artificial intelligence in erectile dysfunction have not been reviewed to date. Read More

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January 2022

Skin Deep: The Role of the Microbiota in Cutaneous Autoimmunity.

J Invest Dermatol 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Translational Rheumatology and Immunology, Institute of Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; Section of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany; Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

The skin microbiota is thought to possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of skin autoimmune diseases. The gut microbiota affects systemically the development and function of the immune system, thereby potentially influencing cutaneous autoimmunity as well. In this paper, we review the role of the gut and skin microbiota in cutaneous autoimmune diseases. Read More

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January 2022

Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. Read More

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January 2022

Nutrition, defecation, and the lower gastrointestinal tract during critical illness.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this report is to delineate the correlation between constipation as a manifestation of impaired gastrointestinal transit with adverse clinical outcomes, to identify risk factors, which predispose to this condition, and outline a management scheme for prophylactic treatment.

Recent Findings: Constipation is common in the ICU, affecting upwards of 60-85% of critically ill patients. As suggested by case series and observational studies, constipation may be an independent prognostic factor identifying patients with greater disease severity, higher likelihood of organ dysfunction, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, prolonged hospital length of stay, and possibly reduced survival. Read More

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January 2022