35 results match your criteria dysfunction pre-cancerous

Faecal biomarkers do not always identify pre-cancerous lesions in patients who present in primary care with bowel symptoms.

N Z Med J 2019 08 30;132(1501):48-56. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

General Surgery, Christchurch Public Hospital, Christchurch.

Aim: To determine if tumour-derived M2-PK is potentially a more accurate biomarker of pre-cancerous bowel lesions in patients who present in primary care with bowel symptoms than the detection of faecal haemoglobin.

Methods: Patients requested by their general practitioners (GPs) to provide a stool sample to determine the presence of faecal haemoglobin consented for the same stool samples to be tested for the presence of M2-PK. For comparison M2-PK levels were also measured in stool samples from patients recently identified with colorectal cancer and healthy controls who self-reported no bowel problems at the time of sampling. Read More

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Autophagic cell death restricts chromosomal instability during replicative crisis.

Nature 2019 01 23;565(7741):659-663. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Replicative crisis is a senescence-independent process that acts as a final barrier against oncogenic transformation by eliminating pre-cancerous cells with disrupted cell cycle checkpoints. It functions as a potent tumour suppressor and culminates in extensive cell death. Cells rarely evade elimination and evolve towards malignancy, but the mechanisms that underlie cell death in crisis are not well understood. Read More

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January 2019

Clonal hematopoiesis.

Semin Hematol 2017 01 20;54(1):43-50. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Cancer results from multistep pathogenesis, yet the pre-malignant states that precede the development of many hematologic malignancies have been difficult to identify. Recent genomic studies of blood DNA from tens of thousands of people have revealed the presence of remarkably common, age-associated somatic mutations in genes associated with hematologic malignancies. These somatic mutations drive the expansion from a single founding cell to a detectable hematopoietic clone. Read More

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January 2017

Polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial hyperplasia: an overview of the role of bariatric surgery in female fertility.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Dec 17;207:220-226. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Bariatric Unit, Department of General Surgery, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Read More

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December 2016

NMR-based metabonomics and correlation analysis reveal potential biomarkers associated with chronic atrophic gastritis.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017 Jan 28;132:77-86. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanxi University, No. 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, PR China; Institute of Material Medical, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, PR China. Electronic address:

Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is one of the most important pre-cancerous states with a high prevalence. Exploring of the underlying mechanism and potential biomarkers is of significant importance for CAG. In the present work, H NMR-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to analyze the metabolic features of CAG. Read More

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January 2017

Incomplete Dll4/Notch signaling inhibition promotes functional angiogenesis supporting the growth of skin papillomas.

BMC Cancer 2015 Aug 28;15:608. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Universidade de Lisboa (ULisboa), Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: In invasive malignancies, Dll4/Notch signaling inhibition enhances non-functional vessel proliferation and limits tumor growth by reducing its blood perfusion.

Methods: To assess the effects of targeted Dll4 allelic deletion in the incipient stages of tumor pathogenesis, we chemically induced skin papillomas in wild-type and Dll4 (+/-) littermates, and compared tumor growth, their histological features, vascularization and the expression of angiogenesis-related molecules.

Results: We observed that Dll4 down-regulation promotes productive angiogenesis, although with less mature vessels, in chemically-induced pre-cancerous skin papillomas stimulating their growth. Read More

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The role of the cilium in hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes.

J Pediatr Genet 2014 Jun;3(2):129-40

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The primary cilium is a highly conserved cell organelle that is closely connected to processes involved in cell patterning and replication. Amongst their many functions, cilia act as "signal towers" through which cell-cell signaling cascades pass. Dysfunction of cilia or the myriad processes that are connected with cilium function can lead to disease. Read More

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Galectin-3: its role in asthma and potential as an anti-inflammatory target.

Respir Res 2013 Dec 9;14:136. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle NSW2305, Australia.

Galectins constitute an evolutionary conserved family that bind to β-galactosides. Increasing evidence shows that galectins are involved in many fundamental biological processes such as cellular communication, inflammation, differentiation and apoptosis. Changes in galectin-3 (Gal-3) expression are commonly seen in cancer and pre-cancerous conditions, and Gal-3 may be involved in the regulation of diverse cancer cell activities that contribute to tumourigenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. Read More

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December 2013

Implications of systemic dysfunction for the etiology of malignancy.

Gene Regul Syst Bio 2013 6;7:11-22. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

West Virginia University School of Public Health, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine.

The current approach to treatment in oncology is to replace the generally cytotoxic chemotherapies with pharmaceutical treatment which inactivates specific molecular targets associated with cancer development and progression. The goal is to limit cellular damage to pathways perceived to be directly responsible for the malignancy. Its underlying assumptions are twofold: (1) that individual pathways are the cause of malignancy; and (2) that the treatment objective should be destruction-either of the tumor or the dysfunctional pathway. Read More

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February 2013

Detection of a long non-coding RNA (CCAT1) in living cells and human adenocarcinoma of colon tissues using FIT-PNA molecular beacons.

Cancer Lett 2014 Sep 14;352(1):90-6. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Medicine, The School of Pharmacy, Institute for Drug Research, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Electronic address:

Although the function and mechanism of action of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) is still not completely known, studies have shown their potential role in the control of gene expression and regulation, in cellular proliferation and invasiveness at the transcriptional level via multiple mechanisms. Recently, colon cancer associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) lncRNA was found to be expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors but not in normal tissue. This study aimed to study the ability of a CCAT1-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) based molecular beacons (TO-PNA-MB) to serve as a diagnostic probe for in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ (human colon biopsies) detection of CRC. Read More

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September 2014

Identification of circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for use in multiple myeloma.

Br J Cancer 2012 Dec 20;107(12):1987-96. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Medical Research Building, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9PS, UK.

Background: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder that is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, monoclonal paraprotein in the blood or urine and associated organ dysfunction. It accounts for approximately 1% of cancers and 13% of haematological cancers. Myeloma arises from an asymptomatic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells termed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Read More

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December 2012

Role of angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and metastasis: an immunohistochemical study.

Int J Oral Sci 2011 Oct;3(4):216-24

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, The Oxford Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bangalore 560068, India.

Although a few studies have shown that vascularity is increased from normal mucosa to dysplasia to carcinoma suggesting that disease progression in the oral mucosa is accompanied by angiogenesis. The role in lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is equivocal. Role of angiogenesis in OSCC development and metastasis is evaluated in this study. Read More

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October 2011

Adverse outcomes after colposcopy.

BMC Womens Health 2011 Jan 20;11. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Department of Primary Care Clinical Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK.

Background: Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. Read More

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January 2011

Polyploidy, aneuploidy and the evolution of cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2010 ;676:1-13

Molecular and Cellular Oncogenesis Program, The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce St, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Aneuploidy is a ubiquitous feature of cancer and pre-cancerous lesions, yet its significance is poorly characterized. In this chapter, we review the role oftetraploidy and aneuploidy in progression. We examine how aneuploidy may contribute to the evolutionary dynamics prevalent in neoplastic progression, considering whether aneuploidy itself is selectively neutral or advantageous or if it simply acts as a mechanism for the more rapid accumulation of mutations increasing survival and reproduction of cancer cells. Read More

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Oral cancer genesis and progression: DNA near-diploid aneuploidization and endoreduplication by high resolution flow cytometry.

Cell Oncol 2010 ;32(5-6):373-83

Department of Diagnostic Oncology, Biophysics and Cytometry Section, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa, Italy.

Oral potentially malignant lesions (OPMLs) with dysplasia and aneuploidy are thought to have a high risk of progression into oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Non-dysplastic "oral distant fields" (ODFs), characterized by clinically normal appearing mucosa sited at a distance from co-existing OPMLs, and non-dysplastic OPMLs may also represent an early pre-cancerous state. ODFs, OPMLs without and with dysplasia and OSCCs were investigated by high resolution DNA content flow cytometry (FCM). Read More

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November 2010

p16INK4A sensitizes human leukemia cells to FAS- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis via induction of BBC3/Puma and repression of MCL1 and BCL2.

J Biol Chem 2009 Nov 8;284(45):30933-40. Epub 2009 Sep 8.

Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics IV, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck 6020, Austria.

Loss of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) in hematopoietic stem cells is associated with enhanced self-renewal capacity and might facilitate progression of damaged stem cells into pre-cancerous cells that give rise to leukemia. This is also reflected by the frequent loss of the INK4A locus in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells designed to conditionally express p16(INK4A) arrest in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle and show increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid- and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 6-induced apoptosis. Read More

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November 2009

Gene expression profiles of lysophosphatidic acid-related molecules in the prostate: relevance to prostate cancer and benign hyperplasia.

Prostate 2009 Feb;69(3):283-92

Department of Urology, Kagawa University Faculty of Medicine, Kita-gun, Kagawa, Japan.

Objective: To elucidate gene expression profiles of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-related molecules in cancer, pre-cancerous lesion, and benign hyperplasia of the prostate.

Materials And Methods: Prostate tissue samples were surgically obtained from 10 patients with localized prostate cancer and seven patients with invasive bladder cancer. Cancer cells and the corresponding stromal cells from normal prostate, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), benign hyperplastic glands were isolated by laser capture microdissection. Read More

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February 2009

Chemokine receptor expression in non-melanoma skin cancer.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Jul 29;35(7):623-9. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Department of Graduate Studies, Medical University of South Carolina, College of Medicine, USA.

Background: Previous studies suggest that chemokines and chemokine receptors have a role in the metastatic process. A correlation exists between the specific expression of these chemoattractive, pro-inflammatory cytokines and the ability of cancer to disseminate. Prior studies have shown that in metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck upregulation of CXC (alpha) chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 and CC (beta) chemokine receptor (CCR)7 expression is accompanied by downregulation of the chemokine receptor CCR6. Read More

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Cancer metastasis and in vivo dissemination of tissue-dwelling pathogens: extrapolation of mechanisms and exchange of treatment strategies thereof.

Simon Haile

Med Hypotheses 2008 7;70(2):375-7. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

Most cancer cells would not result in devastating tumours if it were not for their ability to metastasize. The process of cancer metastasis involves significant cell shape, motility, and adhesive changes of pre-cancerous cells, and the remodelling of the extracellular matrix, as well as cognate properties of neighbouring normal cells. Such changes will be hereafter referred to as "tissue fluidity changes". Read More

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Abundance and localization of skeletal muscle-related erbB2 may stimulate tumour growth during initial stages of oral oncogenesis.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2007 Apr-Jun;7(2):185-90

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

ErbB2 and erbB3 transmembrane receptors, known to be associated with neuronal and skeletal muscle developmental function, seem to play an important role in human oral oncogenesis. This study was designed to determine gradual erbB2 and erbB3 expression in an experimental animal system of induced oral carcinogenesis in Syrian golden hamsters. Thirty-seven animals were divided into one control group (N=7) and three experimental groups (N=10 each one), which were treated with carcinogen 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene and sacrificed at 10, 14 and 19 weeks after treatment. Read More

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October 2007

p53 and the pathogenesis of skin cancer.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2007 Nov 15;224(3):241-8. Epub 2006 Dec 15.

Department of Immunology, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit #902, Houston, TX 77030-1903, USA.

The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex molecules involved in cellular functions. Genetic alterations within the p53 gene have been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific 'signature' mutations that can result in oncogenic transformation. Read More

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November 2007

Oral cancer: diagnostic options as an aid to histology in order to predict patients at high risk for malignant transformation.

Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993) 2004 Oct;21(4):6-15, 93

Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv.

Oral cancer continues to afflict the general population in growing numbers with a relatively low survival rate. Today, through histology, the potential danger of a pre-cancerous lesion can be detected, yet it does not reflect with certainty its biologic behavior. Recent studies have shown that some pre-cancerous lesions with mild dysplasia may undergo malignant transformation and lesions with severe dysplasia may remain quiet. Read More

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October 2004

Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

Int J Mol Med 2004 Nov;14(5):807-11

Disciplina de Semiologia, Departamento de Estomatologia, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo, CEP-05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. Read More

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November 2004

[Beta-catenin-accumulated crypt--a novel pre-cancerous condition in rat colorectal neoplasm model].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2004 Jun;33(3):280-2

Department of Pathology & physiopathology, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, China

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Reflux, Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma: burning questions.

Nat Rev Cancer 2003 Sep;3(9):676-84

Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Epidemiology and Health Services Research, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing rapidly in Western populations. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a strong risk factor for both this tumour and the pre-cancerous lesion Barrett's oesophagus, but the underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. Developing a better understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus, including the induction of DNA damage and genetic alterations, might provide opportunities for improved management of individuals with this disease. Read More

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September 2003

Prostatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1) may play a role in prostatic cell immortalisation.

Prostate 2003 Aug;56(3):220-30

Biochemistry and Laboratory of Endocrinology, Insitute of Pathology B23, avenue de l'Hôpital 3, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium.

Background: Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 (PARM-1) has been cloned from the prostate. The transcript of the PARM-1 gene is overexpressed during regression of the prostate after androgen withdrawal. The regulation of PARM-1 by androgens is limited to this organ. Read More

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Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2002 Oct;6(5):651-8

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA.

Fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy provide the ability to assess tissue structure and metabolism in vivo in real time, providing improved diagnosis of pre-cancerous lesions. Reflectance spectroscopy can probe changes in epithelial nuclei that are important in pre-cancer detection, such as mean nuclear diameter, nuclear size distribution and nuclear refractive index. Fluorescence spectroscopy can probe changes in epithelial cell metabolism, by assessing mitochondrial fluorophores, and epithelial-stromal interactions, by assessing the decrease in collagen crosslink fluorescence that occurs with pre-cancer. Read More

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October 2002

Results of short-and long-term medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

T Pohle W Domschke

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2000 Aug;385(5):317-23

Department of Medicine B, University of Münster, Germany.

Introduction: Symptomatic esophageal reflux affects a large number of individuals. Many find relief by avoiding trigger substances such as coffee or sweets; in other cases, lifestyle modifications do not suffice and drug treatment is necessary for symptom control. An adequate classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is currently lacking; esophagitis can be graded according to Savary and Miller or the more recent metaplasia ulcer stricture erosions (MUSE) classification. Read More

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Dental treatment and the alcoholic.

M McDiarmid

N Z Dent J 1996 Sep;92(409):83-5

Oral Health Unit, Auckland Hospital, Grafton.

Practising dentists must include in their diagnostic skills the ability to identify the patient with a high intake of alcohol. Dental status can often reflect the patient's perception of health and disease. The development of an appropriate treatment plan for these patients needs to take into account their generally unreliable nature. Read More

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September 1996