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Autopsy-Based Pulmonary and Vascular Pathology: Pulmonary Endotheliitis and Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19 Associated Deaths.

Respiration 2021 Sep 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Findings from autopsies have provided evidence on systemic microvascular damage as one of the underlying mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). The aim of this study was to correlate autopsy-based cause of death in SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients with chest imaging and severity grade of pulmonary and systemic morphological vascular pathology.

Methods: Fifteen SARS-CoV-2 positive autopsies with clinically distinct presentations (age 22-89 years) were retrospectively analyzed with focus on vascular, thromboembolic, and ischemic changes in pulmonary and in extrapulmonary sites. Read More

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September 2021

Cytomegalovirus mismatch after heart transplantation: Impact of antiviral prophylaxis and intravenous hyperimmune globulin.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are correlated with complications following heart transplantation (HTx) and impaired outcome. The impact of a serologic mismatch between donor and recipient and the necessity of prophylactic virostatic medication is still a matter of concern.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients that underwent HTx between 2010 and 2020 in our department. Read More

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September 2021

The Impact of Myasthenia Gravis on Lower Urinary Tract Functions.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 15:e14873. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Health Sciences, Prof.Dr. Cemil Taşçıoğlu City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: To assess functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).

Materials And Methods: 36 patients (18 males and 18 females) with MG and 29 healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a 3-day voiding diary and responded to questionnaires "Overactive Bladder Symptom Score" (OABSS) and "International Consultation on Incontinence-Short Form" (ICIQ-SF). Read More

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September 2021

A cGAS-dependent response links DNA damage and senescence in alveolar epithelial cells: A potential drug target in IPF.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, grid.266842.cUniversity of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence is implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Mitochondrial dysfunction including release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a feature of senescence, which led us to investigate the role of the DNA-sensing GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in IPF, with a focus on AEC senescence. cGAS expression in fibrotic tissue from lungs of IPF patients was detected within cells immunoreactive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and p21, epithelial and senescence markers respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of FW2 Nanoparticles Toxicity in a New In Vitro Pulmonary Vascular Cells Model Mimicking Endothelial Dysfunction.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U 1045, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

Several epidemiological studies have revealed the involvement of nanoparticles (NPs) in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. In this work, the focus will be on the effect of manufactured carbon black NPs for risk assessment of consumers and workers, as human exposure is likely to increase. Since the pulmonary circulation could be one of the primary targets of inhaled NPs, patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension (PH) could be a population at risk. Read More

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September 2021

Risk Factors and Outcomes for Gastroparesis After Lung Transplantation.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York Presbyterian Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Gastroparesis is common after lung transplantation and is associated with worse transplant outcomes, including the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). This study sought to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with a new diagnosis of gastroparesis after lung transplantation.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study of patients who underwent lung transplantation in 2008-2018. Read More

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September 2021

Hashimoto's thyroiditis and coexisting disorders in correlation with HLA status-an overview.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Teaching Unit, Medizinische Universität Wien/Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is a frequent disorder of the thyroid gland caused by autoimmune-trigged lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the thyroid gland. With the progressive destruction of the organ, the thyroid gland shrinks in size, thus commonly leading to hypothyroidism. Therapy of HT is mainly focused on managing the thyroid dysfunction by oral substitution of L‑thyroxine. Read More

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September 2021

ATR-X syndrome: genetics, clinical spectrum, and management.

Hum Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Sex Development Laboratory, Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, 27-31 Wright Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3168, Australia.

ATR-X, an acronym for alpha thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked, syndrome is a congenital condition predominantly affecting males, characterized by mild to severe intellectual disability, facial, skeletal, urogenital, and hematopoietic anomalies. Less common are heart defects, eye anomalies, renal abnormalities, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. ATR-X syndrome is caused by germline variants in the ATRX gene. Read More

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September 2021

The Long-term Effect of Dobutamine on Intrinsic Myocardial Function and Myocardial Injury in Septic Rats with Myocardial Dysfunction.

Shock 2021 Oct;56(4):582-592

Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Abstract: Dobutamine (DOB) is recommended as an inotrope for septic patients with low cardiac output, but its long-term impact on sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear. This study investigated the long-term effect of DOB on septic myocardial dysfunction and injury. Rats were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), the intrinsic myocardial function, other organ functions, hemodynamics, inflammatory response, serum myocardial injury biomarkers, myocardial apoptosis, and vascular permeability were determined. Read More

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October 2021

Retrospective analysis of adjuvant therapy using dabrafenib plus trametinib in Japanese patients with advanced melanoma: analysis of 36 cases.

Melanoma Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai Department of Geriatric and Environmental Dermatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya Department of Dermato-Oncology/Dermatology, National Hospital Organization Kagoshima Medical Center, Kagoshima Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto Department of Dermato-Oncology/Dermatology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo Department of Dermato-Oncology/Dermatology, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka Department of Dermatology, Faculty of University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

Patients with resected stage IIIB, IIIC and IIID melanomas have a high risk of recurrence. Therefore, an appropriate protocol for stage III melanoma is needed. Since adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib (D+T) combined therapy and anti-PD1 antibody (Ab) therapy reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with resected stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma, selecting the adjuvant therapy for BRAF-mutated melanoma is controversial. Read More

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September 2021

Extracorporeal Life Support for Respiratory Failure in Patients With Electronic Cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and the Lung Transplant Program Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH. Department of Pediatrics-Critical Care, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, Ann Arbor, MI. Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN. Department of Critical Care Medicine, Mercy Hospital, St Louis, MO. Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, and London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada. Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Department of Radiology, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ. Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Barbara and Donald Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, NY.

Objectives: Electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury is a clinical entity that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Despite the severity of electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury, the role of extracorporeal life support in its management remains unclear. Our objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury who received extracorporeal life support. Read More

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September 2021

Vestibular mapping assessment in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

Ear Hear 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of semicircular canal (SCC) and otolith organ dysfunction by vestibular mapping, and to determine the clinical implications of treatment outcomes in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 135 consecutive patients diagnosed with ISSNHL from January 2016 to December 2020. Patients underwent video-head impulse tests (vHIT) for each SCC, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test for the saccules, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test for the utricles, and hearing tests. Read More

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September 2021

Time in Therapeutic Range Significantly Impacts Survival and Adverse Events in Destination Therapy Patients.

ASAIO J 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

From the Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, Illinois University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland Texas Heart Institute, Houston, Texas University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The study aim was to examine the impact time in therapeutic range (TTR, International Normalized Ratio [INR] 2.0-3.0) has on survival and adverse events in patients receiving the HeartWare HVAD System in the ENDURANCE and ENDURANCE Supplemental Trials. Read More

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September 2021

The association of left ventricular histologically verified myocardial fibrosis with pulmonary hypertension in severe aortic stenosis.

Perfusion 2021 Sep 15:2676591211042733. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between histologically verified left ventricular (LV) myocardial fibrosis (MF) and its bio- and functional markers with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in severe aortic stenosis (AS).

Methods: About 34 patients with isolated severe AS underwent 2D echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, and plasma NT-proBNP evaluation before aortic valve replacement (AVR). LV measurements were analyzed by CMR and LV strain using feature tracking software (Medis Suite QStrain 2. Read More

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September 2021

Shoulder pain in a patient with renal cell carcinoma? Suprascapular neuropathy caused by bone metastasis of renal cell carcinoma: A case report.

Palliat Med 2021 Sep;35(8):1629-1633

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Pain management is crucial in palliative care for patients with advanced cancer. Here, we report a case of shoulder pain in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

Case Presentation: A 36-year-old male diagnosed metastatic renal cell carcinoma presented with pain and weakness on left shoulder for more than 6 months. Read More

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September 2021

Kawasaki Disease and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An Overview and Comparison.

Am Fam Physician 2021 Sep;104(3):244-252

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Kawasaki disease (KD) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are inflammatory conditions that present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to the physician. Although many of their features overlap, they are two distinct conditions. KD is a febrile illness most commonly affecting children younger than five years. Read More

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September 2021

Hereditary Hemochromatosis: Rapid Evidence Review.

Am Fam Physician 2021 Sep;104(3):263-270

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that disrupts iron homeostasis, resulting in systemic iron overload. It is the most common inherited disorder among people of northern European ancestry. Despite the high prevalence of the gene mutation, there is a low and variable clinical penetrance. Read More

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September 2021

Myocardial Dysfunction and Heart Failure in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have almost twice the risk of heart failure (HF) of patients without RA, even when adjusting for presence of ischemic heart disease. Moreover, RA patients remain at two-fold higher risk of mortality from HF compared to non-RA patients. These observations suggest that RA specific inflammatory pathways are significant contributors to this increased risk of HF. Read More

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September 2021

Emotional dysfunction in avoidant personality disorder and borderline personality disorder: A cross-sectional comparative study.

Scand J Psychol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Psychiatry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

According to the literature, avoidant personality disorder (APD) is often overlooked in research on personality disorders. In the present study, patients with APD were compared to patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to emotional dysfunction. Emotional dysfunction was operationalized through the Affect Integration Inventory. Read More

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September 2021

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha acts as a bridge factor for crosstalk between ERK1/2 and caspases in hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cementoblasts.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cementoblasts (OCCM-30) may be harmful to orthodontic treatment. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) mediates the biological effects during hypoxia. Little is known about the survival mechanism capable to counteract cementoblast apoptosis. Read More

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September 2021

External validation and Comparison of two versions of simplified sequential organ failure assessment scores to predict prognosis of septic patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 14:e14865. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University, Pudong Medical Center.

Background: Evidence shows that simplified SOFA scoring system has better clinical practice.

Objective: This study aimed to validate and compare the scores acquired with simplified organ dysfunction criteria optimized for electronic health records (eSOFA), and simplified and accurate sequential organ failure assessment (sa-SOFA) for their accuracies in predicting the prognosis of septic patients.

Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted at three major academic hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

Sleep disturbances in craniopharyngioma: a challenging diagnosis.

J Neurol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Craniopharyngiomas are rare solid or mixed solid and cystic tumors that arise from Rathke's pouch remnants along the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, from the sella turcica to the brain third ventricle. Both the tumor and its treatment can lead to significant neurological and endocrinological complications. Due to the essential role of the hypothalamus in the complex neurophysiologic process of sleep, tumors involving the hypothalamic area may be responsible for disturbances in sleep-wake regulation with alterations in the circadian rhythm, sleep fragmentation, and increased daytime sleepiness. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of adding L-arginine orally to standard therapy in patients with COVID-19: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Results of the first interim analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Sep 9:101125. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, "Federico II" University, Naples, Italy.

Background: We and others have previously demonstrated that the endothelium is a primary target of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and L-arginine has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of L-arginine have never been evaluated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: This is a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted on patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term (beyond 5 years) clinical impact of Xience everolimus-eluting stent implantation.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Sep 8;4(3):e365. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Cardiology Nagoya Heart Center Nagoya Japan.

Objects: We aim at examining the long-term clinical outcome after Xience everolimus-eluting stent (X-EES) implantation.

Background: Long-term clinical outcomes beyond 5 years after X-EES implantation remain unclear.

Methods: This retrospective study has collected data from 1184 consecutive patients, corresponding to 1463 lesions, who were treated with X-EES alone in the Nagoya Heart Center between January 2010 and December 2013. Read More

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September 2021

Does deep brain stimulation improve Parkinson's disease-related lower urinary tract symptoms and voiding dysfunction?

Bladder (San Franc) 2021 27;8(2):e46. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Division of Urology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD), caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, leads to motor and autonomic symptoms. A large proportion of PD patients experience lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and voiding dysfunction, associated with poor quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an adjunctive therapy used in combination with medication for Parkinsonian motor symptoms and is currently being explored to treat PD-related LUTS. Read More

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Associations Between Kidney Dysfunction and Risk Factors in Patients with Transurethral Resection of the Prostate.

Res Rep Urol 2021 7;13:665-672. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Medical Faculty of Riau University, Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia.

Purpose: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with urinary retention can result in kidney dysfunction. Several risk factors might influence deterioration in kidney function. The aims of this study were to assess the association between kidney dysfunction and risk factors in patients with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Read More

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September 2021

Tissue-specific telomere shortening and degenerative changes in a patient with mutation and dyskeratosis congenita.

Hum Pathol (N Y) 2021 Sep 5;25. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, United States.

Dyskeratosis congenita is a disease of impaired tissue maintenance downstream of telomere dysfunction. Characteristically, patients present with the clinical triad of nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, and skin pigmentation defects, but the disease involves degenerative changes in multiple organs. Mutations in telomere-binding proteins such as TINF2 (TRF1-interacting nuclear factor 2) or in telomerase, the enzyme that counteracts age related telomere shortening, are causative in dyskeratosis congenita. Read More

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September 2021

Success Rate of Wire Control-Assisted ERCP Sphincterotomy Versus Non-assisted ERCP Cannulation of Common Bile Duct in a Secondary Care Unit During the First COVID-19 Peak: A Retrospective Observational Study of 281 Patients.

Cureus 2021 Sep 9;13(9):e17861. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust, Lancaster, GBR.

Background The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) recommended that during the COVID-19 pandemic, endoscopy units perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for obstructive biliary pathologies in an emergency. We assessed the local performance of ERCP during the first wave of COVID-19 at our local endoscopy center, in particular the technique to common bile duct (CBD) cannulation. Methodology All ERCP procedures performed from January to June 2020 were retrospectively assessed and compared with procedures performed between January and June 2019 at the Royal Lancaster Infirmary. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of Thiamine and Medical Management in Treating Hyperuricemia in AUD Patients with ALD: Role of Hyperuricemia in Liver Injury, Gut-Barrier Dysfunction, and Inflammation.

Clin Exp Pharmacol 2021 28;11(Suppl 7). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Background: Hyperuricemia has been reported in liver injury; however its role in the early stage of Alcohol-associated Liver Disease (ALD) has not been examined yet. This study investigated the role of Serum Uric Acid (SUA) in alcohol-related liver disease, gut barrier dysfunction, and inflammation activity. This study also evaluated the efficacy of abstinence, treatment with thiamine and medical management to alleviate hyperuricemia. Read More

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