66,914 results match your criteria dysfunction insulin

Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Deficiency Abrogates Diabetic and Obese Phenotypes while Restoring Endothelial Function via Inhibition of NOX1.

Diabetes 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;

We have previously demonstrated a novel role of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it has remained unclear as to how BMP4 activates NOX1 and whether targeting the new mechanistic pathway revealed is effective in preserving endothelial function in T2DM. Here we observed that BMP4 induced marked, time-dependent increase in physiological binding between TLR2 and NOX1 in aortic endothelial cells, as well as increased binding of TLR2 to NOXO1. Read More

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Endocrine Dysfunction in Patients with Myotonic Dystrophy.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Myotonic dystrophy is a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder that results from increased CTG repeats in the 3' region of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK). The mutant DMPK mRNA remains nuclear, and sequesters RNA-binding proteins including regulators of mRNA splicing. Myotonic dystrophy is characterized by a highly variable phenotype that includes muscle weakness and myotonia, and may affect the function of many Endocrine glands. Read More

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Central Regulation of PCOS: Abnormal Neuronal-Reproductive-Metabolic Circuits in PCOS Pathophysiology.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:667422. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease. PCOS patients are characterized by hyperandrogenemia, anovulation, and metabolic dysfunction. Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis imbalance is considered as an important pathophysiology underlying PCOS, indicating that central modulation, especially the abnormal activation of hypothalamic GnRH neurons plays a vital role in PCOS development. Read More

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Switching from boosted PIs to dolutegravir decreases soluble CD14 and adiponectin in high cardiovascular risk people living with HIV.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Hospital Clínic-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Switching from boosted PIs to dolutegravir in people living with HIV (PLWH) with high cardiovascular risk improved plasma lipids at 48 weeks in the NEAT022 trial. Whether this strategy may have an impact on cardiovascular biomarkers is unknown.

Methods: We assessed 48 week changes in biomarkers associated with inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, monocyte immune activation, oxidation, insulin resistance, hypercoagulability, heart failure, myocardial injury, and glomerular and tubular kidney injury. Read More

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Effect of liraglutide on microcirculation in rat model with absolute insulin deficiency.

Microvasc Res 2021 Jun 10:104206. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Saratov, State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky, Bolshaya Kazachya 112, Saratov 410012, Russia.

Introduction: The investigations of angiotropic effects of liraglutide is an issue of significant scientific and practical interest. The successful application of liraglutide has been shown in glycemic control in patients with the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the effect of liraglutide in patients with type 1 DM has not been completely studied yet in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of liraglutide which is agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, on microcirculation in white outbred rats with the alloxan-induced diabetes. Read More

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Effects of testosterone treatment on clitoral haemodynamics in women with sexual dysfunction.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology and Gender Incongruence Unit, Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: To explore the effects of 6-month systemic testosterone (T) administration on clitoral color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) parameters in women with female sexual dysfunction (FSD).

Methods: 81 women with FSD were retrospectively recruited. Data on CDU parameters at baseline and after 6 months with four different treatments were available and thus further longitudinally analyzed: local non-hormonal moisturizers (NH group), n = 37; transdermal 2% T gel 300 mcg/day (T group), n = 23; local estrogens (E group), n = 12; combined therapy (T + E group), n = 9. Read More

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M1 macrophage-derived exosomes impair beta cell insulin secretion via miR-212-5p by targeting SIRT2 and inhibiting Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in mice.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Aims/hypothesis: Macrophage levels are elevated in pancreatic islets, and the resulting inflammatory response is a major contributor to beta cell failure during obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies by us and others have reported that exosomes released by macrophages play important roles in mediating cell-to-cell communication, and represent a class of inflammatory factors involved in the inflammatory process associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the effect of macrophage-derived exosomes on beta cells, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in beta cell injury. Read More

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Independent association of plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity with hypertension in nondiabetic subjects not using medication.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a rate-limiting and catalyzing enzyme of uric acid formation in purine metabolism, is involved in reactive oxygen species generation. Plasma XOR activity has been shown to be a novel metabolic biomarker related to obesity, liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. However, the association between plasma XOR activity and hypertension has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome and myocardial infarction in women.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, Medical Faculty, University of Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic disorders that arise from insulin resistance (IR) and adipose tissue dysfunction. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Read More

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Ticagrelor alleviates high-carbohydrate intake induced altered electrical activity of ventricular cardiomyocytes by regulating sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria miscommunication.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biophysics, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with additional cardiovascular risk in mammalians while there are relationships between hyperglycemia-associated cardiovascular dysfunction and increased platelet P2Y12 receptor activation. Although P2Y12 receptor antagonist ticagrelor (Tica) plays roles in reduction of cardiovascular events, its beneficial mechanism remains poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether Tica can exert a direct protective effect in ventricular cardiomyocytes from high-carbohydrate diet-induced MetS rats, at least, through affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-mitochondria (Mit) miscommunication. Read More

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Early efficacy of teprotumumab for the treatment of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: A multicenter study.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Sep 14;23:101111. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Purpose: To study post-interventional findings in patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) treated with teprotumumab.

Observations: In this multicenter observational Case series patients with DON were treated with teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor I receptor inhibitor (10 mg/kg for the first infusion then 20 mg/kg for subsequent infusions, every three weeks for a total 8 infusions). This study included patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED) with DON who had failed conventional therapies and were not candidates for surgical decompression. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of DNA Methylation and Screening of Epigenetic Markers in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:664843. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder in women, which is characterized by androgen excess, ovulation dysfunction, and polycystic ovary. Although the etiology of PCOS is largely unknown, many studies suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is an important contributing factor for its pathological changes. In this study, we investigated DNA methylation characteristics and their impact on gene expression in granulosa cells obtained from PCOS patients. Read More

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Insulin Resistance and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Underlie Neuroprogression in Bipolar Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:636174. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Medical Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Bipolar disorder (BD) often progresses to a more chronic and treatment resistant (neuroprogressive) course. Identifying which patients are at risk could allow for early intervention and prevention. Bipolar disorder is highly comorbid with metabolic disorders including type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Read More

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Age-dependent transition from islet insulin hypersecretion to hyposecretion in mice with the long QT-syndrome loss-of-function mutation Kcnq1-A340V.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12253. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in KCNQ1, encoding the voltage-gated K channel K7.1, lead to long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1). LQT1 patients also present with post-prandial hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycaemia. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA IGF2-AS promotes trophoblast cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating miR-520g/N-cadherin axis.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jingmen No.1 People's Hospital, Jingmen, China.

Background: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a distressing reproductive issue worldwide. Dysfunction of trophoblasts can trigger numerous unfavorable pregnant outcomes such as RM, stillbirth, and fetal malformation.

Methods: In this text, the roles and molecular basis of long non-coding RNA insulin growth factor 2 antisense (IGF2-AS) in the development of trophoblast cells were further investigated. Read More

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1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor attenuates high fat diet-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in rats.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jan;25(10):3835-3847

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Obesity was induced in rats by feeding on a high fat diet (HFD), 60% w/w cholesterol, 20% w/w carbohydrates, and 20% w/w proteins for two months.

Materials And Methods: Animals were fed on a HFD and treated concurrently with a single daily dose of vehicle or TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o) for two months. Read More

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January 2021

Point Prevalence of Peripheral Neuropathy in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, 110001, India.

Objective: To assess the point prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to determine their predictors.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 8-18 y with T1DM on insulin therapy for > 2 y and free from acute complications were enrolled. All participants were evaluated for symptoms of PN with diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score and underwent a detailed neurological examination. Read More

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Hyperglycemia at 1h-OGTT in Pregnancy: A Reliable Predictor of Metabolic Outcomes?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:612829. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Rome-Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying among GDM women those who are at high risk may help prevent T2DM and, possibly CVD. Several studies have shown that in women with GDM, hyperglycemia at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (1-h PG) is not only associated with an increase in adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes but is also an independent predictor of T2DM. Read More

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Pioglitazone-induced AMPK-Glutaminase-1 prevents high glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction by glutathione antioxidant system.

Redox Biol 2021 Jun 3;45:102029. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Prolonged hyperglycemia plays a major role in the progression of β-cell loss in diabetes mellitus. Here we report an insulin sensitizer thiazolidinedione Pioglitazone selectively preserves the beta cells against high glucose-induced dysfunction by activation of AMPK and Glutaminase 1 (GLS1) axis. AMPK activation increases the stability of Glutaminase 1 by HSP90 family mitochondrial heat shock protein 75 (HSP75/TRAP1). Read More

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Effect of two hypercaloric diets on the hormonal and metabolic profile of the adrenal gland.

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biology and Physiology of Organisms, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, USTHB, Algiers, Algeria.

Objectives: Who disrupts who? It is not clear what the interaction is between a high calorie diet (HCD) and adrenal axis activation in obesity. The goal was to assess the effect of two hypercaloric diets commercialized in Algeria on the hormonal and metabolic profile of the adrenal gland in rabbits.

Methods: Two classes of local male adult rabbits (n=16) and a finishing diet (FD) as a control for 15 weeks. Read More

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Soy isoflavones recovers pancreatic islet function and prevents metabolic dysfunction in male rats.

J Endocrinol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

A Malta, Department of Biotechnology, Genetics, and Cellular Biology, State University of Maringá Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.

We tested whether chronic supplementation with soy isoflavones could modulate insulin secretion levels and subsequent recovery of pancreatic islet function as well as prevent metabolic dysfunction induced by early overfeeding in adult male rats. Wistar rats raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) were used as models of early overfeeding and normal feeding, respectively. At 30 to 90 days old, animals in the SL and NL groups received either soy isoflavones extract (ISO) or water (W) gavage serving as controls. Read More

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Citicoline improved cardiovascular function in animal model of dysautonomia.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 3;72(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

The autonomic nervous system controls cardiovascular function. Autonomic dysfunction or dysautonomia is commonly encountered in several diseases like Parkinson's disease. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a chemical that changes into the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes catecholamine depletion. Read More

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February 2021

The relationship between vitamin D and insulin in polycystic ovary syndrome - a critical review.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 3;72(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Cracow, Poland.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hormonal, reproductive and metabolic disturbances, including hyperandrogenism, altered gonadotropin level, ovarian cysts and ovulatory dysfunction as well as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It was shown that increased insulin concentration is a plausible factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Read More

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February 2021

Combustion-derived particulate organic matter associated with hemodynamic abnormality and metabolic dysfunction in healthy adults.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 29;418:126261. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Epidemiological evidence on cardiometabolic health of particulate organic matter (POM) and its sources is sparse. In a panel of 73 healthy adults in Beijing, China, daily concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes were measured throughout the study period, and Positive Matrix Factorization approach was used to identity PAHs sources. Linear mixed-effect models and mediation analyses were applied to examine the associations and potential interlink pathways between POM and biomarkers indicative of hemodynamics, insulin resistance, vascular calcification and immune inflammation. Read More

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Both macronutrient food composition and fasting insulin resistance affect postprandial glycemic responses in senior subjects.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology and Centre for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. and Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Spain and Biomedical Research Centre Network in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) might affect metabolic responses in non-fasting states. Dietary intake and food composition influence postprandial glucose homeostasis. Read More

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extract attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity in pancreatic beta cells.

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Jun 15;15(3):294-308. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Food Nutrition, College of Bio Convergence, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea.

Backgroud/objectives: larva (ADL), one of the many edible insects recognized as future food resources, has a range of pharmacological activities. In a previous study, an ADL extract (ADLE) reduced the hepatic insulin resistance of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. On the other hand, the associated molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction remain unclear. Read More

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Regulation of adipogenic differentiation and adipose tissue inflammation by interferon regulatory factor 3.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, and NUSMED Immunology Translational Research Programme,Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Dysfunction of adipocytes and adipose tissue is a primary defect in obesity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) has been implicated in adipogenesis. However, the role of IRF3 in obesity and obesity-associated disorders remains unclear. Read More

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Differential Diagnosis of the Short IGF-I-Deficient Child with Apparently Normal Growth Hormone Secretion.

Horm Res Paediatr 2021 Jun 4:1-24. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The current differential diagnosis for a short child with low insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and a normal growth hormone (GH) peak in a GH stimulation test (GHST), after exclusion of acquired causes, includes the following disorders: (1) a decreased spontaneous GH secretion in contrast to a normal stimulated GH peak ("GH neurosecretory dysfunction," GHND) and (2) genetic conditions with a normal GH sensitivity (e.g., pathogenic variants of GH1 or GHSR) and (3) GH insensitivity (GHI). Read More

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Laurus nobilis ethanolic extract attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cell line through the reduction of oxidative stress and improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis - Possible implication in pharmacotherapy.

Mitochondrion 2021 Jun 4;59:190-213. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

National Medicines Institute, Chełmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of this study was to establish the potential effect of Laurus nobilis ethanolic extract on improving insulin sensitivity and protecting liver cells from apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and inflammation; all of which considered as major alterations occurring during insulin resistance (IR) as well as diabetes onset, in hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic-induced HepG2 cell line. Thereby, L. nobilis ethanolic extract has been first chemically characterized using LC-MS/MS technique. Read More

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Association between vascular endothelial dysfunction and the inflammatory marker neopterin in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Atherosclerosis 2021 May 27;328:38-43. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are at increased risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities. We aimed to evaluate vascular endothelial dysfunction and its association with serum neopterin (NP) levels in CAH patients.

Methods: The study included 40 patients, with a mean age of 14. Read More

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