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Dissecting lipid droplet biology with coherent Raman scattering microscopy.

J Cell Sci 2022 Mar 11;135(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles universally found in most cells. They serve as a key energy reservoir, actively participate in signal transduction and dynamically communicate with other organelles. LD dysfunction has been associated with a variety of diseases. Read More

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"Don't judge me!": Links between in vivo attention bias toward a potentially critical judge and fronto-amygdala functional connectivity during rejection in adolescent girls.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 May 5;49:100960. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Pittsburgh, Department of Psychiatry, United States.

During adolescence, increases in social sensitivity, such as heightened attentional processing of social feedback, may be supported by developmental changes in neural circuitry involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control, including fronto-amygdala circuitry. Less negative fronto-amygdala circuitry during social threat processing may contribute to heightened attention to social threat in the environment. However, "real-world" implications of altered fronto-amygdala circuitry remain largely unknown. Read More

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Association Between Penile Color Doppler Ultrasonography and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Patients With Vascular Erectile Dysfunction.

Sex Med 2021 May 8;9(3):100347. Epub 2021 May 8.

Sports and Exercise Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) is a burdensome condition, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) represents the maximum pulse velocity in the cavernous artery measured by a penile color doppler ultrasonography (PCDU) during a pharmacologically induced erection and is considered a reliable parameter for the diagnosis of vascular ED. However, the cut-off value of standard PSV (30 cm/s) provides high sensitivity only in the diagnosis of advanced arteriogenic disease. Read More

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White matter hyperintensities in patients with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 4;426:117481. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, 116 St & 85 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Introduction: Mechanisms driving neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) are unclear and neurovascular dysfunction may be a contributing factor. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly found on brain MRI in patients with PD. It is controversial if they are more prevalent or more severe in PD compared with controls. Read More

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Assessment of the effect of long-term exposure to microplastics and depuration period in Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758: Liver and blood biomarkers.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147479. Epub 2021 May 3.

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, Muelle de Poniente s/n, E-07015 Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Electronic address:

The constant increase in plastic pollution has attracted great attention in recent years due to its potential detrimental effects on organisms and ecosystems. While the consequences of ingestion of large plastic litter are mostly understood, the impacts resulting from a long-term exposure and a recovery period of microplastics (MPs) are still limited. The aims were to monitor oxidative stress, detoxification and inflammatory biomarkers in liver, plasma and erythrocytes of Sparus aurata exposed during 90 days to low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-MPs enriched diet (10% by weight) followed by 30 days of depuration. Read More

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The "Parachute" technique for the endoscopic repair of high-flow anterior skull-base CSF leaks.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; "Aldo Ravelli" Research Center, Milan, Italy; Department of Medical-Surgical Physiopathology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Objective: This study aims to assess the feasibility and reliability of our endoscopic trans-nasal technique for the repair of cribriform and sellar high-flow CSF leaks.

Methods: A comparison between patients suffering from high-flow rhinorrhea and treated through a free grafting endoscopic technique or the "parachute" technique, our nasal packing proposal, was performed.

Results: Thirty-three patients were included. Read More

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Shenqi Yizhi Granule attenuates Aβ induced cognitive dysfunction via inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 activated astrocyte reactivity.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 8:111400. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Meterial Medica Integration and Transformation for Brain Disorders, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, PR China; School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, PR China. Electronic address:

Shenqi Yizhi Granule (SYG), a modern preparation herbs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to be effective against Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, APP/PS1 mice and 5XFAD transgenic mice. But the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. Increasing evidence supports the crucial role of astrocyte reactivity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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EphA4 is highly expressed in the atria of heart and its deletion leads to atrial hypertrophy and electrocardiographic abnormalities in rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 8:119595. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, National Health Commission of China (NHC), Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking Union Medicine College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China. Electronic address:

Aims: EphA4 is a member of the Eph receptor family, and expressed mainly in central nervous system (CNS), which is involved in CNS development and multiple diseases. Due to the variability in EphA4 expression, we wondered if EphA4 is expressed in other tissues, and what role does EphA4 play?

Materials And Methods: We generated an EphA4 knockout (KO) rat line with red fluorescent marker protein encoded by the mCherry cassette inserted downstream of the EphA4 promoter as a reporter. Using this system, we observed high expression of EphA4 in the heart atria and in the brain. Read More

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LncRNA AK087124/miR-224-5p/PTEN axis modulates endothelial cell injury in atherosclerosis through apoptosis and AKT signaling pathway.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 May 8:108916. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, 314000, China; Jiaxing Institute of Atherosclerotic Disease, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 314000, PR China. Electronic address:

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in atherosclerosis-related endothelial cells dysfunction during atherosclerosis processes. In the study, our purpose was to discover new long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) via competitively interacting each other to regulate the pathogenesis process of atherosclerosis. We investigated the roles of lncRNA AK087124 and miR-224-5p in atherosclerotic pathogenesis and found that AK087124 was up-regulated while miR-224-5p was down-regulated in in the plasma and plaque from atherosclerotic mice compared with normal mice. Read More

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Noise Outcomes in Servicemembers Epidemiology (NOISE) Study: Design, Methods, and Baseline Results.

Ear Hear 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

1VA RR&D National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research (NCRAR), Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon, USA 2Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA 3School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA 4Center to Improve Veteran Involvement in Care, Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Objectives: Military Service members and Veterans commonly report hearing loss and tinnitus, both of which can result in significant disability. During military service, Service members are exposed to many different types of loud noise, which is strongly associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. Other military-related exposures, such as chemicals and traumatic brain injury (TBI), are also linked with auditory problems. Read More

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December 2020

Vestibular Function in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

Ear Hear 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

1Department of Translational Neurosciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and neck surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium 3Department of Education, Health & Social Work, University College Ghent, Ghent, Belgium 4Department of Neurology, UZ Brussel and Center for Neurosciences (C4N), VUB, Brussels, Belgium 5Department of Biomedical Sciences and Institute Born-Bunge, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium 6Department of Neurology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium.

Importance: Given the rising prevalence of patients with dementia and those at risk for it, early identification is prioritized. As vestibular dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to its onset, vestibular assessment may yield an opportunity in early dementia screening.

Objective: This systematic review structures and compares the different raw outcome measures used to assess vestibular function while comparing older adults with preserved cognition to individuals with cognitive impairment, either suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among local residents in South of Brazil: during pandemic times, youth sleep matters.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Departamento de Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e da Personalidade, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: Social isolation has been associated with poor sleep quality and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most studies included a heterogeneous sample with variances in social disruption policies and did not focus on a local profile with homogeneous prevention policies.

Objectives: Thus, the present study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep quality in a specific region in South of Brazil with similar culture and social distance policies adopted by the local governments. Read More

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Implications of Low-grade Inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 Immunopathology.

MEDICC Rev 2021 Apr 30;23(2):42. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Immunology Laboratory, National Oncology and Radiobiology Institute (INOR), Havana, Cuba.

Introduction: Advanced age and chronic disease comorbidities are indicators of poor prognosis in COVID-19 clinical progression. Fatal outcomes in patients with these characteristics are due to a dysfunctional immune response. Understanding COVID-19's immunopathogenesis helps in designing strategies to prevent and mitigate complications during treatment. Read More

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Maintenance of an Immunogenic Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health Indiana University School of Medicine Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Comparative Effectiveness Research, Indianapolis, IN.

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease because of splenic dysfunction. To mitigate this risk, patients are protected with prophylactic penicillin until completion of pneumococcal vaccination series. The objective of this study was to assess the maintenance of a protective immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in children with SCD. Read More

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⍺7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates right ventricular fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Vascular Research Laboratory, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, United States of America.

Right ventricular (RV) fibrosis is a key feature of maladaptive RV hypertrophy and dysfunction and is associated with poor outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, mechanisms and therapeutic strategies to mitigate RV fibrosis remain unrealized. Previously, we identified that cardiac fibroblast α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) drives smoking induced RV fibrosis. Read More

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NIS in non-thyroidal tissues and impact on thyroid cancer therapy.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

J Sipos, Endocrinology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, United States.

Radioiodine (131I) has been used to ablate thyroid tissue not removed by surgery or to treat differentiated thyroid cancer that has metastasized to other parts of the body for the past 80 years. However, the Na+/I- symporter (NIS), which mediates active iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells, is also expressed in several non-thyroidal tissues. This NIS expression permits 131I accumulation and radiation damage in these non-target tissues, which accounts for the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy. Read More

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HBCD, TBECH, and BTBPE exhibit cytotoxic effects in human vascular endothelial cells by regulating mitochondria function and ROS production.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cardiology, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as, 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (HBCD), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromopropyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), and 1 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), have garnered increasing attention due to their potent biological effects. In the present study, the toxicity of HBCD, TBECH, and BTBPE in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) was explored. The data showed that HBCD, TBECH, and BTBPE induced cytotoxicity, namely dose-dependent cell viability reduction, cell membrane permeability and apoptosis increase, migration, and lumen formation inhibition. Read More

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Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Subunit d, a Component of the Peripheral Stalk, is Essential for Growth and Heat Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA, 01003.

As rapid changes in climate threaten global crop yields, an understanding of plant heat stress tolerance is increasingly relevant. Heat stress tolerance involves the coordinated action of many cellular processes and is particularly energy demanding. We acquired a knockout mutant and generated knockdown lines in Arabidopsis thaliana of the d subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (gene name: ATPQ, AT3G52300, referred to hereafter as ATPd), a subunit of the peripheral stalk, and used these to investigate the phenotypic significance of this subunit in normal growth and heat stress tolerance. Read More

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RNA-seq analysis of laser micro-dissected Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermis, mesophyll and vasculature defines tissue-specific transcriptional responses to multiple stress treatments.

Plant J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, AgriBio Building La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia.

Acclimation of plants to adverse conditions requires the coordination of gene expression and signalling pathways between tissues and cell types. As the energy and carbon capturing organs, leaves are significantly affected by abiotic and biotic stresses. However, tissue- or cell type-specific analyses of stress responses have focussed on the Arabidopsis root. Read More

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Punicalin alleviates TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced chondrocyte dysfunction and cartilage metabolism via mediating FOXO3 signaling axis.

J Food Biochem 2021 May 11:e13755. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Zibo Central Hospital, Zibo, P.R. China.

Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) transcription factor is involved in chondral homeostasis of normal, aging and osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. At present, we aimed to investigate whether FOXO3 is a target of punicalin to prevent IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced chondrocyte dysfunction in vitro and in vivo models. Cell and mouse models of chondrocyte dysfunction were established to determine the pharmacological value of hydrolyzable tannin, punicalin, which was extracted from the pomegranate. Read More

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Uncovering the signaling, structure and function of the 20-HETE-GPR75 pairing: Identifying CCL5 as a negative regulator of GPR75.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, Valhalla, NY, 10595.

Background And Purpose: The G-protein coupled receptor GPR75 (Gq) and its ligand, the cytochrome P450-derived vasoactive eicosanoid 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), are implicated in the activation of pro-inflammatory and hypertensive signaling cascades contributing to diabetes, obesity, vascular dysfunction/remodeling, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Little is known as to how, where and with what affinity 20-HETE interacts with GPR75.

Experimental Approach: To better understand the pairing of 20-HETE and its receptor (GPR75), we employed the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to determine binding affinity/kinetics. Read More

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Comprehensive plasma metabolomic and lipidomic analyses reveal potential biomarkers for heart failure.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, Hua Yuan North Rd, Hai Dian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Heart failure is a syndrome with symptoms or signs caused by cardiac dysfunction. In clinic, four stages (A, B, C, and D) were used to describe heart failure progression. This study was aimed to explore plasma metabolomic and lipidomic profiles in different HF stages to identify potential biomarkers. Read More

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Serum C-reactive protein and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as predictors of survival in cirrhotic patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and bacterial infection.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Gleneagles Global Health City, Chennai 600, 100, India.

Background: Cirrhotic patients are prone to infections due to underlying immune dysfunction in them. We aimed to study the role of inflammatory markers, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), in predicting infection, blood culture positivity, and short-term (1 month) mortality in hospitalized cirrhotic patients.

Methods: This prospective study was done over a period of 14 months (October 2017 to November 2018). Read More

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Harnessing Metabolomics to Describe the Pathophysiology Underlying Progression in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Curr Diab Rep 2021 May 11;21(7):21. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Chronic Kidney Disease Pathophysiology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease, is the result of metabolic network alterations in the kidney. Therefore, metabolomics is an effective tool for understanding its pathophysiology, finding key biomarkers, and developing a new treatment strategy. In this review, we summarize the application of metabolomics to DKD research. Read More

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Primary cilia control endothelial permeability by regulating expression and location of junction proteins.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology.

Aims: Wall shear stress (WSS) determines intracranial aneurysm (IA) development. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients have a high IA incidence and risk of rupture. Dysfunction/absence of primary cilia in PKD endothelial cells (ECs) may impair mechano-transduction of WSS and favour vascular disorders. Read More

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Global Incidence of Neurological Manifestations Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19-A Report for the GCS-NeuroCOVID Consortium and the ENERGY Consortium.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e2112131. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people globally, with increasing reports of neurological manifestations but limited data on their incidence and associations with outcome.

Objective: To determine the neurological phenotypes, incidence, and outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included patients with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 28 centers, representing 13 countries and 4 continents. Read More

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On the intersection between systemic infection, brain vascular dysfunction and dementia.

Brain 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA, USA.

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Relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and white-coat hypertension diagnosed by home blood pressure recordings in a middle-aged population.

J Hypertens 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objective: To study risk in white-coat hypertension (WCH) by measurement of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), carotid--femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and carotid plaques.

Methods: Cross-sectional population-based cohort with randomized selection of participants from Linköping, Sweden. An Omron m10-IT oscillometric device was used for clinic and home blood pressures (HBP) in the morning and evening for 1 week. Read More

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Clinical Features and Management of Drop Attacks in Menière's Disease. Special Emphasis on the Possible Occurrence of Vertigo After the Drop Attacks.

Otol Neurotol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Département d'ORL Département de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint Etienne, France.

Introduction: Tumarkin first described drop attacks (DA) in patients with a peripheral vestibular syndrome and speculated the role of a mechanical deformation of the otolith organs. We emphasized on the possible occurrence of vertigo/dizziness after a DA. In the light of the oculomotor examination of one patient right after the DA, we discussed on the mechanisms. Read More

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