10,747 results match your criteria dynamics acute


COVID-19 versus SARS: A comparative review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):967-977. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

The two genetically similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, have each been responsible for global epidemics of vastly different scales. Although both viruses arose from similar origins, they quickly diverged due to differences in their transmission dynamics and spectrum of clinical presentations. The potential involvement of multiple organs systems, including the respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neurological, during infection necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the clinical pathogenesis of each virus. Read More

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Postprandial dynamics and response of fibroblast growth factor 21 in older adults.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3765-3771. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Department of Nutrition and Gerontology, Nuthetal, Germany; University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutritional Science, Potsdam, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Geriatrics, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays a pivotal role in glucose and lipid metabolism and has been proposed as a longevity hormone. However, elevated plasma FGF21 concentrations are paradoxically associated with mortality in higher age and little is known about the postprandial regulation of FGF21 in older adults. In this parallel group study, we investigated postprandial FGF21 dynamics and response in older (65-85 years) compared to younger (18-35 years) adults following test meals with varying macronutrient composition. Read More

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Advanced Wound Diagnostics: Towards Transforming Wound Care into Precision Medicine.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 12261, Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Significance Non-healing wounds are an ever-growing global pandemic with mortality rates and management costs exceeding many common cancers. Although our understanding of the molecular and cellular factors driving wound healing continues to grow, standards for diagnosing and evaluating wounds remain largely subjective and experiential, while therapeutic strategies fail to consistently achieve closure and clinicians are challenged to deliver individualized care protocols. There is a need to apply precision medicine practices to wound care by developing evidence-based approaches, which are predictive, prescriptive, and personalized. Read More

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Cooperative multivalent receptor binding promotes exposure of the SARS-CoV-2 fusion machinery core.

bioRxiv 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

The molecular events that permit the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to bind, fuse, and enter cells are important to understand for both fundamental and therapeutic reasons. Spike proteins consist of S1 and S2 domains, which recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors and contain the viral fusion machinery, respectively. Ostensibly, the binding of spike trimers to ACE2 receptors promotes the preparation of the fusion machinery by dissociation of the S1 domains. Read More

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Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatrics: An Undervalued Resource.

Clin Chem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CALIPER Program, Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: The clinical use of common cardiac biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptides and troponins, has traditionally been limited to adult populations in the assessment of heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, respectively. While many have discounted the value of these markers in pediatric populations, emerging evidence suggests they may be useful in the diagnosis and prognostication of many cardiac and noncardiac pathologies in neonates, children, and adolescents, and an increasing number of pediatric hospitals are routinely measuring cardiac markers in their clinical practice.

Content: This review summarizes and critically evaluates the current literature regarding the application of cardiac biomarkers for clinical decision-making in the pediatric population. Read More

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Generating Acute and Chronic Experimental Models of Motor Tic Expression in Rats.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 27(171). Epub 2021 May 27.

The Leslie & Susan Goldschmied (Gonda) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University;

Motor tics are sudden, rapid, recurrent movements that are the key symptoms of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. The pathophysiology of tic generation is associated with abnormal inhibition of the basal ganglia, particularly its primary input structure, the striatum. In animal models of both rodents and non-human primates, local application of GABAA antagonists, such as bicuculline and picrotoxin, into the motor parts of the striatum induces local disinhibition resulting in the expression of motor tics. Read More

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Chess Not Checkers: Complexities Within the Myeloid Response to the Acute Kidney Injury Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:676688. Epub 2021 May 26.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Center for Immunity, Inflammation, and Regenerative Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Immune dysregulation in acute kidney injury (AKI) is an area of intense interest which promises to enhance our understanding of the disease and how to manage it. Macrophages are a heterogeneous and dynamic population of immune cells that carry out multiple functions in tissue, ranging from maintenance to inflammation. As key sentinels of their environment and the major immune population in the uninjured kidney, macrophages are poised to play an important role in the establishment and pathogenesis of AKI. Read More

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Recurrent Dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 Through the Uruguayan-Brazilian Border.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:653986. Epub 2021 May 28.

Unidad de Genómica y Bioinformática, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Centro Universitario Regional Litoral Norte, Universidad de la República, Salto, Uruguay.

Uruguay is one of the few countries in the Americas that successfully contained the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) epidemic during the first half of 2020. Nevertheless, the intensive human mobility across the dry border with Brazil is a major challenge for public health authorities. We aimed to investigate the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains detected in Uruguayan localities bordering Brazil as well as to measure the viral flux across this ∼1,100 km uninterrupted dry frontier. Read More

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Solifenacin/Mirabegron Induces an Acute Compliance Increase in the Filling Phase of the Capacity-Reduced Urinary Bladder: A Pressure-Volume Analysis in Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:657959. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

Pressure in the bladder, which is a high compliance organ, is only slightly elevated to a considerable filling volume during storage. Although cystometry off-line offers mean compliance, no protocol is available for real-time assays of the dynamics of bladder compliance, and the potential impact of solifenacin and mirabegron on dynamic bladder compliance has not been established. Along with constantly infused cystometry, a pressure-volume analysis (PVA) was performed by plotting intra-vesical volume against pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Multiplexed colorimetric detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens in wastewater on a 3D printed integrated microfluidic chip.

Sens Actuators B Chem 2021 Oct 7;344:130242. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has become a global public health emergency. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 and human enteric pathogens in wastewater can provide an early warning of disease outbreak. Herein, a sensitive, multiplexed, colorimetric detection (termed "SMCD") method was established for pathogen detection in wastewater samples. Read More

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October 2021

Examining the interactions scorpion venom peptides (HP1090, Meucin-13, and Meucin-18) with the receptor binding domain of the coronavirus spike protein to design a mutated therapeutic peptide.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 Jun 3;107:107952. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani University, Esfahan, Iran.

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2) interacts with the ACE2 receptor in human cells and starts the infection of COVID-19 disease. Given the importance of spike protein's interaction with ACE2 receptor, we selected some antiviral peptides of venom scorpion such as HP1090, meucin-13, and meucin-18 and performed docking and molecular docking analysis of them with the RBD domain of spike protein. The results showed that meucin-18 (FFGHLFKLATKIIPSLFQ) had better interaction with the RBD domain of spike protein than other peptides. Read More

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Epidemiological feature, viral shedding, and antibody seroconversion among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and symptomatic/presymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 27;14(7):845-851. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, data concerning the epidemiological features, viral shedding, and antibody dynamics between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients remain controversial.

Methods: We enrolled 193 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects in Ningbo and Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China, from January 21 to March 6, 2020. Read More

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Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy as an Informational Reservoir Dynamically Linked to Metabolic and Immunological Processes Associated with COVID-19 Neurological Disorders.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally associated with intracellular mitochondrial signaling pathways and nuclear DNA gene expression. The maintenance of endogenously regulated tissue-specific copy numbers of heteroplasmic mtDNA may represent a sensitive biomarker of homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics, metabolic integrity, and immune competence. Read More

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Adapted tolerance to virus infections in four geographically distinct Varroa destructor-resistant honeybee populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12359. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ecology, Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is unarguably the leading cause of honeybee (Apis mellifera) mortality worldwide through its role as a vector for lethal viruses, in particular, strains of the Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) complexes. Several honeybee populations across Europe have well-documented adaptations of mite-resistant traits but little is known about host adaptations towards the virus infections vectored by the mite. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the possible contribution of adapted virus tolerance and/or resistance to the enhanced survival of four well-documented mite-resistant honeybee populations from Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands and France, in relation to unselected mite-susceptible honeybees. Read More

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Clonal Dynamics and clinical implications of Post-Remission Clonal Hematopoiesis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).

Blood 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

While clonal hematopoiesis (CH) can precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can also persist after achieving remission. Long-term clonal dynamics and clinical implications of persistent CH are not well understood. Here, we studied the prevalence, dynamics and clinical implications of post-remission CH in 164 AML patients who attained complete remission after induction chemotherapies. Read More

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Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain with Stapled Peptides: An Study.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, United States.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a pandemic of unprecedented scale. This coronavirus enters cells by the interaction of the receptor binding domain (RBD) with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (hACE2). In this study, we employed a rational structure-based design to propose 22-mer stapled peptides using the structure of the hACE2 α1 helix as a template. Read More

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Self-Constructed Multiple Plasmonic Hotspots on an Individual Fractal to Amplify Broadband Hot Electron Generation.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P.R. China.

Plasmonic nanoparticles are ideal candidates for hot-electron-assisted applications, but their narrow resonance region and limited hotspot number hindered the energy utilization of broadband solar energy. Inspired by tree branches, we designed and chemically synthesized silver fractals, which enable self-constructed hotspots and multiple plasmonic resonances, extending the broadband generation of hot electrons for better matching with the solar radiation spectrum. We directly revealed the plasmonic origin, the spatial distribution, and the decay dynamics of hot electrons on the single-particle level by using simulation, dark-field spectroscopy, pump-probe measurements, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Read More

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Urinary Levels of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Associate With Risk of AKI and COVID-19 Severity: A Single-Center Observational Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:644715. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) and considered as a risk factor for COVID-19 severity. SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism has been observed in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that direct viral injury of the kidneys may contribute to AKI. We examined 20 adult cases with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring ICU supportive care in a single-center prospective observational study and investigated whether urinary markers for viral infection (SARS-CoV-2 N) and shedded cellular membrane proteins (ACE2, TMPRSS2) allow identification of patients at risk for AKI and outcome of COVID-19. Read More

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Cystic Prostatic Carcinoma - A Clinical Case and Literature Review.

Res Rep Urol 2021 3;13:335-340. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Urology Department, St. Luke's Clinical Hospital, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Cystic formations in the prostate are quite common, but the vast majority are benign. The cystic form of prostate adenocarcinoma can present unexpected symptoms, and management can be difficult because of the local advanced stage of the disease. A unique feature of this case is the surgical local cancer treatment. Read More

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Forecasting the spread of COVID-19 using LSTM network.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 10;22(Suppl 6):316. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory for Medical Science Mathematics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, 230-0045, Japan.

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and within a few months, it has become a global pandemic. This forced many affected countries to take stringent measures such as complete lockdown, shutting down businesses and trade, as well as travel restrictions, which has had a tremendous economic impact. Therefore, having knowledge and foresight about how a country might be able to contain the spread of COVID-19 will be of paramount importance to the government, policy makers, business partners and entrepreneurs. Read More

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Of Mice and Schoolchildren: A Conceptual History of Herd Immunity.

Authors:
David Robertson

Am J Public Health 2021 Jun 10:e1-e8. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

David Robertson is a doctoral candidate in the Program in the History of Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. He is affiliated with the project "Rethinking Science and Public Participation" (PI: Bruno J. Strasser), University of Geneva, Switzerland.

This article explores a tension at the core of the concept of herd immunity that has been overlooked in public and scientific discussions‒namely: how can immunity, a phenomenon of individual biological defenses, be made relevant to populations? How can collectives be considered "immune"? Over the course of more than a century of use of the term, scientists have developed many different understandings of the concept in response to this inherent tension. Originating among veterinary scientists in the United States in the late 19th century, the concept was adopted by British scientists researching human infectious disease by the early 1920s. It soon became a staple concept for epidemiologists interested in disease ecology, helping to articulate the population dynamics of diseases such as diphtheria and influenza. Read More

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Levels of bioactive adrenomedullin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in relation to delayed cerebral ischemia in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective observational study.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 5;427:117533. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Adrenomedullin (ADM) has been identified as a promising biomarker of mortality and outcome in sepsis, heart failure and after major surgery. A recently developed assay specific for bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) has not yet been assessed in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The objective of this prospective trial was to assess the time course of bio-ADM after aSAH in relation to the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and its association with clinical outcome. Read More

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Screening of world approved drugs against highly dynamical spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 using CaverDock and machine learning.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 26;19:3187-3197. Epub 2021 May 26.

Loschmidt Laboratories, Department of Experimental Biology and RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes pathological pulmonary symptoms. Most efforts to develop vaccines and drugs against this virus target the spike glycoprotein, particularly its S1 subunit, which is recognised by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Here we use the developed tool CaverDock to perform virtual screening against spike glycoprotein using a cryogenic electron microscopy structure (PDB-ID: 6VXX) and the representative structures of five most populated clusters from a previously published molecular dynamics simulation. Read More

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Dynamics of COVID-19 Lockdown on Blood Indices and Its Impact on Individuals' Immunological Health Status: A Cohort Study in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Authors:
Bandar A Suliman

J Blood Med 2021 31;12:395-402. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The complete blood count (CBC) is an essential blood test that has been used for decades to assess individuals' overall health status. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of lockdown conditions to individuals' overall health status using blood indices as biological markers. During lockdown, people are limited to confined spaces, have access to limited nutritional supply options, experience increased stress, and are exposed to other environmental factors. Read More

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Integrating longitudinal clinical laboratory tests with targeted proteomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the landscape of host responses in COVID-19.

Cell Discov 2021 Jun 8;7(1):42. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine at Shanghai, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) involves a multitude of host responses, yet how they unfold during the course of disease progression remains unclear. Here, through integrative analysis of clinical laboratory tests, targeted proteomes, and transcriptomes of 963 patients in Shanghai, we delineate the dynamics of multiple circulatory factors within the first 30 days post-illness onset and during convalescence. We show that hypercortisolemia represents one of the probable causes of acute lymphocytopenia at the onset of severe/critical conditions. Read More

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Temperature and population density influence SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the absence of nonpharmaceutical interventions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 06;118(25)

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Ascot SL5 7PY, United Kingdom;

As COVID-19 continues to spread across the world, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that influence its transmission. Seasonal variation driven by responses to changing environment has been shown to affect the transmission intensity of several coronaviruses. However, the impact of the environment on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains largely unknown, and thus seasonal variation remains a source of uncertainty in forecasts of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Read More

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Early inflammation dysregulates neuronal circuit formation via upregulation of IL-1β.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Canada H3A 2B4

Neuro-immune interaction during development is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the mechanisms that cause neuronal circuit dysregulation are not well understood. We performed imaging of the developing retinotectal system in the larval zebrafish to characterize the effects of immune system activation on refinement of an archetypal sensory processing circuit. Acute inflammatory insult induced hyper-dynamic remodeling of developing retinal axons in larval fish and increased axon arbor elaboration over days. Read More

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Early Dynamics of MELD Scores Predict Corticosteroid Responsiveness to Severe Acute-onset Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

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Chronic kidney disease ten years after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Kidney Int 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital,Department of Pediatrics,Leiden University Medical Center,Leiden,The Netherlands.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important sequela of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but data regarding CKD after pediatric HSCT are limited. In this single center cohort study, we evaluated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dynamics, proteinuria and hypertension in the first decade after HSCT and assessed risk factors for CKD in 216 pediatric HSCT survivors, transplanted 2002-2012. The eGFR decreased from a median of 148 to 116 ml/min/1. Read More

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Human Type II Taste Cells Express ACE2 and are Infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

National Institute on Aging/Intramural Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore MD 21224. Electronic address:

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme- 2 (ACE2). It was not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs) nor if TRCs are infected directly. Read More

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