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Automatic classification of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes combining [C]raclopride PET uptake and MRI grey matter morphometry.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research (CIBIT), ICNAS Polo 3, Coimbra, 3000-548, PORTUGAL.

Objective: To explore the viability of developing a computer-aided diagnostic system for Parkinsonian syndromes using dynamic [11C]raclopride PET and T1-weighted MRI data.

Approach: The biological heterogeneity of Parkinsonian syndromes renders their statistical classification a challenge. The unique combination of structural and molecular imaging data allowed different classifier designs to be tested. Read More

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Coiling directions in the planktonic foraminifer Pulleniatina: A complex eco-evolutionary dynamic spanning millions of years.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249113. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Planktonic foraminifera are heterotrophic sexually reproducing marine protists with an exceptionally complete fossil record that provides unique insights into long-term patterns and processes of evolution. Populations often exhibit strong biases towards either right (dextral) or left (sinistral) shells. Deep-sea sediment cores spanning millions of years reveal that some species show large and often rapid fluctuations in their dominant coiling direction through time. Read More

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Serial intravital imaging captures dynamic and functional endothelial remodeling with single-cell resolution.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States of America.

Endothelial cells are important in the maintenance of healthy blood vessels and in the development of vascular diseases. However, the origin and dynamics of endothelial precursors and remodeling at the single-cell level have been difficult to study in vivo due to technical limitations. We aimed to develop a direct visual approach to track the fate and function of single endothelial cells over several days-weeks in the same vascular bed in vivo using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of transgenic Cdh5-Confetti mice and the kidney glomerulus as a model. Read More

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An Automated Multicycle Immunoaffinity Enrichment Approach Developed for Sensitive Mouse IgG1 Antibody Drug Analysis in Mouse Plasma Using LC/MS/MS.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., 35 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

In the immuno-oncology field, surrogate mouse monoclonal antibodies are often preferred in establishing proper PK/PD/efficacy correlations as well as supporting anticipated mouse to human translation. Thus, a highly sensitive and specific bioanalytical method is needed in quantifying those surrogate mouse antibodies after dosing in mice. Unfortunately, when specific reagents, such as recombinant target antigen and anti-idiotypic antibody, are not available, measuring mouse surrogate antibody drugs in mice is very challenging for ligand binding assay (LBA) due to the severe cross reactivity potential. Read More

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Decoding allosteric regulation by the acyl carrier protein.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358;

Enzymes in multistep metabolic pathways utilize an array of regulatory mechanisms to maintain a delicate homeostasis [K. Magnuson, S. Jackowski, C. Read More

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The role of lateral erosion in the evolution of nondendritic drainage networks to dendricity and the persistence of dynamic networks.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;

Dendritic, i.e., tree-like, river networks are ubiquitous features on Earth's landscapes; however, how and why river networks organize themselves into this form are incompletely understood. Read More

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Three in one: evolution of viviparity, coenocytic placenta and polyembryony in cyclostome bryozoans.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 12;21(1):54. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaja nab. 7/9, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Background: Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and position. Aquatic colonial suspension-feeders from the phylum Bryozoa acquired placental analogues multiple times, representing an outstanding example of their structural diversity and evolution. Read More

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Transcriptional signatures underlying dynamic phenotypic switching and novel disease biomarkers in a linear cellular model of melanoma progression.

Neoplasia 2021 Apr 9;23(4):439-455. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pharmacology Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Despite advances in therapeutics, the progression of melanoma to metastasis still confers a poor outcome to patients. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of biological models to understand cellular and molecular changes taking place along disease progression. Here, we characterized the transcriptome profiles of a multi-stage murine model of melanoma progression comprising a nontumorigenic melanocyte lineage (melan-a), premalignant melanocytes (4C), nonmetastatic (4C11-) and metastasis-prone (4C11+) melanoma cells. Read More

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Quantifying high-temperature stress on soybean canopy photosynthesis: The unique role of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Agroecosystem Sustainability Center, Institute for Sustainability, Energy, and Environment (iSEE), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

High temperature and accompanying high vapor pressure deficit often stress plants without causing distinctive changes in plant canopy structure and consequential spectral signatures. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), because of its mechanistic link with photosynthesis, may better detect such stress than remote sensing techniques relying on spectral reflectance signatures of canopy structural changes. However, our understanding about physiological mechanisms of SIF and its unique potential for physiological stress detection remains less clear. Read More

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How does "A Bit of Everything American" state feel about COVID-19? A quantitative Twitter analysis of the pandemic in Ohio.

Authors:
Cantay Caliskan

J Comput Soc Sci 2021 Apr 5:1-27. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Data Analytics, Denison University, 100 W. College Street, Granville, OH 43023 USA.

COVID-19 has proven itself to be one of the most important events of the last two centuries. This defining moment in our lives has created wide-ranging discussions in many segments of our societies, both politically and socially. Over time, the pandemic has been associated with many social and political topics, as well as sentiments and emotions. Read More

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Masking by hypokalemia-primary aldosteronism with undetectable aldosterone.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 7;14(4):1269-1271. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Stanford Hypertension Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension; however, the dynamic regulation of aldosterone by potassium is less well studied and current diagnostic recommendations are imprecise. We describe a young man who presented with resistant hypertension and severe hypokalemia. The workup initially revealed undetectable aldosterone despite acute potassium repletion. Read More

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Hydropriming Applied on Fast Germinating Miller Seeds: Impact on Pre-germinative Metabolism.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:639336. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Seed priming can circumvent poor germination rate and uniformity, frequently reported in eggplant ( L.) and its crop wild relatives (CWRs). However, there is still a gap of knowledge on how these treatments impact the pre-germinative metabolism in a genotype- and/or species-dependent manner. Read More

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Specialized Plant Growth Chamber Designs to Study Complex Rhizosphere Interactions.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:625752. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Climate and Ecosystem Sciences, Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States.

The rhizosphere is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by complex interactions between plant roots, soil, microbial communities and other micro- and macro-fauna. Although studied for decades, critical gaps exist in the study of plant roots, the rhizosphere microbiome and the soil system surrounding roots, partly due to the challenges associated with measuring and parsing these spatiotemporal interactions in complex heterogeneous systems such as soil. To overcome the challenges associated with study of rhizosphere interactions, specialized plant growth chamber systems have been developed that mimic the natural growth environment. Read More

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Crystal structure of higher plant heme oxygenase-1 and its mechanism of interaction with ferredoxin.

J Biol Chem 2020 Dec 24;296:100217. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan; Department of Macromolecular Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Heme oxygenase (HO) converts heme to carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and free iron, products that are essential in cellular redox signaling and iron recycling. In higher plants, HO is also involved in the biosynthesis of photoreceptor pigment precursors. Despite many common enzymatic reactions, the amino acid sequence identity between plant-type and other HOs is exceptionally low (∼19. Read More

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December 2020

Sequence-dependent nucleosome formation in trinucleotide repeats evaluated by in vivo chemical mapping.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 8;556:179-184. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo, 191-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

Trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRSs), consisting of 10 unique classes of repeats in DNA, are members of microsatellites and abundantly and non-randomly distributed in many eukaryotic genomes. The lengths of TRSs are mutable, and the expansions of several TRSs are implicated in hereditary neurological diseases. However, the underlying causes of the biased distribution and the dynamic properties of TRSs in the genome remain elusive. Read More

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Composition and profiles of volatile organic compounds during waste decomposition by the anaerobic bacteria purified from landfill.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 7;126:466-475. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of All Material Fluxes in River Ecosystems, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) become concerned pollutants in landfill gases, and their composition and concentration varied significantly during waste decomposition. Many environmental factors are known to affect VOC emissions, while the effect of indigenous bacteria in wastes on VOC production remains elusive. In this study, a simplified anaerobic degradation experiment, with the single substrate and the purified bacteria from a landfill, was set up to measure the degradation process and the dynamic changes of VOCs. Read More

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A functional outside-in signaling network of proteoglycans and matrix molecules regulating autophagy.

Matrix Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, and the Translational Cellular Oncology Program, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Proteoglycans and selected extracellular matrix constituents are emerging as intrinsic and critical regulators of evolutionarily conversed, intracellular catabolic pathways. Often, these secreted molecules evoke sustained autophagy in a variety of cell types, tissues, and model systems. The unique properties of proteoglycans have ushered in a paradigmatic shift to broaden our understanding of matrix-mediated signaling cascades. Read More

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