43,367 results match your criteria dynamic conditions

The Impact of Optical Illusions on the Vestibular System.

J Audiol Otol 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Audiology, Faculty of Health and Science, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: Balance control is maintained in stationary and dynamic conditions, with coordinated muscle responses generated by somatosensory, vestibular, and visual inputs. This study aimed to investigate how the vestibular system is affected in the presence of an optical illusion to better understand the interconnected pathways of the visual and vestibular systems.

Subjects And Methods: The study involved 54 young adults (27 males and 27 females) aged 18-25 years. Read More

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Inorganic carbon limitation during nitrogen conversions in sponge-bed trickling filters for mainstream treatment of anaerobic effluent.

Water Res 2021 Jun 7;201:117337. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

BioCo Research Group, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, Gent 9000, Belgium. Electronic address:

Anaerobic sewage treatment is a proven technology in warm climate regions, and sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTFs) are an important post-treatment technology to remove residual organic carbon and nitrogen. Even though SBTFs can achieve a reasonably good effluent quality, further process optimization is hampered by a lack of mechanistic understanding of the factors influencing nitrogen removal, notably when it comes to mainstream anaerobically treated sewage. In this study, the factors that control the performance of SBTFs following anaerobic (i. Read More

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Autonomous Tracking and State Estimation With Generalized Group Lasso.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jun 24;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

We address the problem of autonomous tracking and state estimation for marine vessels, autonomous vehicles, and other dynamic signals under a (structured) sparsity assumption. The aim is to improve the tracking and estimation accuracy with respect to the classical Bayesian filters and smoothers. We formulate the estimation problem as a dynamic generalized group Lasso problem and develop a class of smoothing-and-splitting methods to solve it. Read More

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Memory-Based Event-Triggered Output Regulation for Networked Switched Systems With Unstable Switching Dynamics.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jun 24;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

This article studies an event-triggered asynchronous output regulation problem (EAORP) for networked switched systems (NSSs) with unstable switching dynamics (USDs) including all modes unstable and partial switching instants destabilization, which means that the Lyapunov function increases both on the activation intervals of all subsystems and at some switching instants. First, a memory-based mode-compared event-triggered mechanism for switched systems is proposed to effectively shorten asynchronous intervals, which employs historical sampled outputs and compares the mode of the current sampled instant and the adjacent sampled instant. Then, the maximum average dwell time for a novel switching signal is derived with a constraint on the ratio of total destabilizing switchings to total stabilizing switchings, which relaxes the requirement of the regular arrangement of destabilizing and stabilizing switchings. Read More

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Spying on the Polarity Dynamics during Wound Healing of Zebrafish by Using Rationally Designed Carbon Dots.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jun 24:e2002268. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Chemistry, Green Catalysis Center, Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Green Construction of Functional Molecules and Their Bioanalytical Applications, Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterial and Medical Theranostic, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, P. R. China.

Wound healing is an essential and complex biological process. Research into its mechanism and factors that influence its effectiveness has led to better treatments. Changes in the microenvironment are demonstrated to affect wound healing. Read More

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Challenges and Opportunities of Self-Healing Polymers and Devices for Extreme and Hostile Environments.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 24:e2008052. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

International Institute for Nanocomposites Manufacturing (IINM), University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Engineering materials and devices can be damaged during their service life as a result of mechanical fatigue, punctures, electrical breakdown, and electrochemical corrosion. This damage can lead to unexpected failure during operation, which requires regular inspection, repair, and replacement of the products, resulting in additional energy consumption and cost. During operation in challenging, extreme, or harsh environments, such as those encountered in high or low temperature, nuclear, offshore, space, and deep mining environments, the robustness and stability of materials and devices are extremely important. Read More

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Combining UAV-RGB high-throughput field phenotyping and genome-wide association study to reveal genetic variation of rice germplasms in dynamic response to drought stress.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Macro Agriculture Research Institute, College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Accurate and high-throughput phenotyping of the dynamic response of a large rice population to drought stress in the field is a bottleneck for genetic dissection and breeding of drought resistance. Here, high-efficiency and high-frequent image acquisition by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized to quantify the dynamic drought response of a rice population under field conditions. Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) and canopy height models were applied to extract highly correlated phenotypic traits including leaf-rolling score (LRS_uav), plant water content (PWC_uav), and a new composite trait, drought resistance index by UAV (DRI_uav). Read More

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A Dynamic View of the Interaction of Histone Tails with Clustered Abasic Sites in a Nucleosome Core Particle.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 24:6014-6019. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Univ Lyon, ENS de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5182, Laboratoire de Chimie, F69342 Lyon, France.

Apurinic/apyrimidinic sites are the most common forms of DNA damage under physiological conditions, yet their structural and dynamical behavior within nucleosome core particles has just begun to be investigated and is dramatically different from that of abasic sites in B-DNA. Clusters of two or more abasic sites are repaired even less efficiently and hence constitute hot spots of high mutagenicity notably due to enhanced double-strand break formation. On the basis of an X-ray structure of a 146 bp DNA wrapped onto a histone core, we investigate the structural behavior of two bistranded abasic sites positioned at mutational hot spots during microsecond-range molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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Spontaneous emergence of membrane-forming protoamphiphiles from a lipid-amino acid mixture under wet-dry cycles.

Chem Sci 2021 Jan 5;12(8):2970-2978. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Dr. Homi Bhabha Road Pune Maharashtra 411008 India +91-020-25899790 +91-020-25908061.

Dynamic interplay between peptide synthesis and membrane assembly would have been crucial for the emergence of protocells on the prebiotic Earth. However, the effect of membrane-forming amphiphiles on peptide synthesis, under prebiotically plausible conditions, remains relatively unexplored. Here we discern the effect of a phospholipid on peptide synthesis using a non-activated amino acid, under wet-dry cycles. Read More

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January 2021

Site-to-site peptide transport on a molecular platform using a small-molecule robotic arm.

Chem Sci 2020 Dec 10;12(6):2065-2070. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL UK

Peptides attached to a cysteine hydrazide 'transporter module' are transported selectively in either direction between two chemically similar sites on a molecular platform, enabled by the discovery of new operating methods for a molecular transporter that functions through ratcheting. Substrate repositioning is achieved using a small-molecule robotic arm controlled by a protonation-mediated rotary switch and attachment/release dynamic covalent chemistry. A polar solvent mixtures were found to favour to isomerization of the doubly-protonated switch, transporting cargo in one direction (arbitrarily defined as 'forward') in up to 85% yield, while polar solvent mixtures were unexpectedly found to favour to isomerization enabling transport in the reverse ('backward') direction in >98% yield. Read More

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December 2020

Tailoring the optical and dynamic properties of iminothioindoxyl photoswitches through acidochromism.

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 9;12(12):4588-4598. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, University of Groningen Hanzeplein 1 9713 GZ Groningen The Netherlands

Multi-responsive functional molecules are key for obtaining user-defined control of the properties and functions of chemical and biological systems. In this respect, pH-responsive photochromes, whose switching can be directed with light and acid-base equilibria, have emerged as highly attractive molecular units. The challenge in their design comes from the need to accommodate application-defined boundary conditions for both light- and protonation-responsivity. Read More

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February 2021

Presence of Left Atrial Fibrosis May Contribute to Aberrant Hemodynamics and Increased Risk of Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation Patients.

Front Physiol 2021 7;12:657452. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Alliance for Cardiovascular Diagnostic and Treatment Innovation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are at high risk of stroke, with the left atrial appendage (LAA) found to be the most common site of clot formation. Presence of left atrial (LA) fibrosis has also been associated with higher stroke risk. However, the mechanisms for increased stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrotic remodeling are poorly understood. Read More

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The Impact of Temporally Coherent Visual Cues on Speech Perception in Complex Auditory Environments.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:678029. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Speech perception often takes place in noisy environments, where multiple auditory signals compete with one another. The addition of visual cues such as talkers' faces or lip movements to an auditory signal can help improve the intelligibility of speech in those suboptimal listening environments. This is referred to as audiovisual benefits. Read More

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Operando optical tracking of single-particle ion dynamics in batteries.

Nature 2021 Jun 23;594(7864):522-528. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The key to advancing lithium-ion battery technology-in particular, fast charging-is the ability to follow and understand the dynamic processes occurring in functioning materials under realistic conditions, in real time and on the nano- to mesoscale. Imaging of lithium-ion dynamics during battery operation (operando imaging) at present requires sophisticated synchrotron X-ray or electron microscopy techniques, which do not lend themselves to high-throughput material screening. This limits rapid and rational materials improvements. Read More

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A new microfluidic method enabling the generation of multi-layered tissues-on-chips using skin cells as a proof of concept.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13160. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Bioengineering and Aerospace Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Madrid, Spain.

Microfluidic-based tissues-on-chips (TOCs) have thus far been restricted to modelling simple epithelia as a single cell layer, but likely due to technical difficulties, no TOCs have been reported to include both an epithelial and a stromal component despite the biological importance of the stroma for the structure and function of human tissues. We present, for the first time, a novel approach to generate 3D multilayer tissue models in microfluidic platforms. As a proof of concept, we modelled skin, including a dermal and an epidermal compartment. Read More

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An autonomous drone for search and rescue in forests using airborne optical sectioning.

Sci Robot 2021 Jun;6(55)

Computer Science Department, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.

Autonomous drones will play an essential role in human-machine teaming in future search and rescue (SAR) missions. We present a prototype that finds people fully autonomously in densely occluded forests. In the course of 17 field experiments conducted over various forest types and under different flying conditions, our drone found, in total, 38 of 42 hidden persons. Read More

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Effects of the NF-κB Pathway Agonist IL-1β on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2021 May;51(3):295-301

Division of Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, Medizinische Klinik V, Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, Germany.

Objective: Canakinumab is an interleukin (IL)-1β inhibitory antibody. Recently, a large trial of canakinumab in cardiac patients described lower lung cancer incidence in patients treated with canakinumab compared to controls. This finding is the basis for ongoing clinical trials of canakinumab in lung cancer. Read More

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Deep eutectic solvent extraction of cortisol and cortisone from human saliva followed by LC-UV analysis.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jun 15;1179:122828. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Johnan, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

A novel extraction method was developed for the determination of cortisol and cortisone. In this study, we prepared a hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent (DES) by mixing trioctylmethylammonium chloride and pentafluorophenol as a hydrogen bond acceptor and a hydrogen bond donor, respectively, for use as the extraction solvent. The extraction of cortisol and cortisone was performed by adding a small volume of the DES to the aqueous sample. Read More

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Population Dynamic Regulators in an Empirical Predator-Prey System.

J Theor Biol 2021 Jun 20:110814. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Inst. of Marine Res, PO Box 1870, Bergen 5817, Norway. Electronic address:

Capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a short-lived (1-4 years) fish species, that plays a crucial role by dominating the intermediate trophic level in the Barents Sea. Several episodes of extreme biomass decline (collapse) have been observed during the last three decades. We postulate that these collapses might be regulated by food availability (bottom-up effect) and/or by time discrepancy between capelin feeding and abundance of its prey (match-mismatch hypothesis). Read More

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Protocol for static posturography with dynamic tests in individuals without vestibular complaints using the Horus system.

Codas 2021 16;33(3):e20190270. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Clínica Cóser de Otorrino - Santa Maria (RS), Brasil.

Purpose: To propose a protocol for investigating the body balance and determining reference values in different age groups and gender, using the methodology of static posturography with dynamic tests, in low-cost Brazilian equipment for diagnosing balance.

Methods: The objectives of this study aimed to propose a protocol for investigating the body balance and determining reference values in different age groups and gender, using the methodology of static posturography with dynamic tests, in new low-cost Brazilian equipment for diagnosing balance. Method: 297 healthy volunteers, between 20 and 89 years old, without vestibular complaints, were divided into six groups according to age group and gender. Read More

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Remediation of chromium- and fluoride-contaminated groundwater by immobilized Citrobacter sp. on a nano-ZrO2 hybrid material.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0253496. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Civil Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Xihe District, Fuxin, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

To effectively address excessive SO42-, Cr(VI), total chromium and F- in the groundwater of acidic mining areas, a facultative anaerobic bacterium, Citrobacter, with sulfate-reducing properties, tolerance to hexavalent chromium and the ability to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was isolated and domesticated. Based on microbial immobilization technology, a nano-ZrO2 polyacrylamide hybrid material was prepared as an embedding agent to form nano-ZrO2 polyacrylamide Citrobacter (ZPC) particles. ZPC was microscopically characterized, and the removal performance and mechanism of ZPC for SO42-, Cr(VI), total chromium and F- in groundwater were analyzed. Read More

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Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, past, present and future perspectives.

R Zahorec

Bratisl Lek Listy 2021 ;122(7):474-488

In the review we analyzed short history of the establishment of a novel hematological parameter for systemic inflammation and stress coined as a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Today NLR is widely used across almost all medical disciplines as a reliable and easy available marker of immune response to various infectious and non-infectious stimuli. We analyzed the immunological and biological aspects of dynamic changes of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes in circulating blood during endocrine stress, dysbalance of autonomic nervous system and systemic inflammation. Read More

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January 2021

Constant Change: Exploring Dynamic Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysis and Material Transformations in Strontium Zinc Iridate Perovskite in Acid.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States.

While iridium-based perovskites have been identified as promising candidates for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer applications, an improved fundamental understanding of these highly dynamic materials under reaction conditions is needed to inform more robust future catalyst design. Herein, we study the highly active SrIrZnO perovskite for the OER in acid by employing electrochemical experiments with and characterization techniques to understand the dynamic nature of this material at both short and long time scales. We observe initial intrinsic OER activity improvement with electrochemical cycling as well as an initial increase of Ir oxidation state under OER conditions via X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Read More

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Structural responses of model biomembranes to Mars-relevant salts.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Physical Chemistry I - Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn Street 4a, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Lipid membranes are a key component of contemporary living systems and are thought to have been essential to the origin of life. Most research on membranes has focused on situations restricted to ambient physiological or benchtop conditions. However, the influence of more extreme conditions, such as the deep subsurface on Earth or extraterrestrial environments are less well understood. Read More

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Does task-irrelevant music affect gaze allocation during real-world scene viewing?

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Gaze control manifests from a dynamic integration of visual and auditory information, with sound providing important cues for how a viewer should behave. Some past research suggests that music, even if entirely irrelevant to the current task demands, may also sway the timing and frequency of fixations. The current work sought to further assess this idea as well as investigate whether task-irrelevant music could also impact how gaze is spatially allocated. Read More

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Investigation of Fiber-Driven Mechanical Behavior of Human and Porcine Bladder Tissue Tested Under Identical Conditions.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, 474 S Shaw Ln, East Lansing, MI 48824.

The urinary bladder is a highly dynamic organ, that undergoes large deformations several times a day. Mechanical characteristics of the tissue are crucial in determining the function, and dysfunction, of the organ. Yet, literature reporting on the mechanical properties of human bladder tissue is scarce and, at times, contradictory. Read More

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The lymphatics in kidney health and disease.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Feinberg Cardiovascular & Renal Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

The mammalian vascular system consists of two networks: the blood vascular system and the lymphatic vascular system. Throughout the body, the lymphatic system contributes to homeostatic mechanisms by draining extravasated interstitial fluid and facilitating the trafficking and activation of immune cells. In the kidney, lymphatic vessels exist mainly in the kidney cortex. Read More

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Dynamic characteristics and fractal representations of crack propagation of rock with different fissures under multiple impact loadings.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13071. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

College of Civil Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

To investigate the influence of the fissure morphology on the dynamic mechanical properties of the rock and the crack propagation, a drop hammer impact test device was used to conduct impact failure tests on sandstones with different fissure numbers and fissure dips, simultaneously recorded the crack growth after each impact. The box fractal dimension is used to quantitatively analyze the dynamic change in the sandstone cracks and a fractal model of crack growth over time is established based on fractal theory. The results demonstrate that under impact test conditions of the same mass and different heights, the energy absorbed by sandstone accounts for about 26. Read More

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Spatial and temporal variations of Cu and Cd mobility and their controlling factors in pore water of contaminated paddy soil under acid mine drainage: A laboratory column study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 17;792:148523. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Solid Wastes Pollution Control and Recycling, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

Acid mine drainage (AMD) poses a potential threat to human health worldwide, due to its high content of inorganic contaminants including heavy metals. Nevertheless, AMD is commonly used for irrigation of paddy soils. To determine the extent to which AMD affects contaminant levels in such practices, the effect of continuous AMD flooding on pH, redox potential Eh and the migration of Cu and Cd in contaminated paddy soil was studied in column experiments. Read More

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Integrating multi-fidelity blood flow data with reduced-order data assimilation.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 14;135:104566. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

High-fidelity patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular flows and hemodynamics is challenging. Direct blood flow measurement inside the body with in-vivo measurement modalities such as 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) suffer from low resolution and acquisition noise. In-vitro experimental modeling and patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are subject to uncertainty in patient-specific boundary conditions and model parameters. Read More

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