15,232 results match your criteria drugs rise

National trends in prescription drug expenditures and projections for 2021.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: To report historical patterns of pharmaceutical expenditures, to identify factors that may influence future spending, and to predict growth in drug spending in 2021 in the United States, with a focus on the nonfederal hospital and clinic sectors.

Methods: Historical patterns were assessed by examining data on drug purchases from manufacturers using the IQVIA National Sales Perspectives database. Factors that may influence drug spending in hospitals and clinics in 2021 were reviewed-including new drug approvals, patent expirations, and potential new policies or legislation. Read More

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Incidence, clinical evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from diabetic patients.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6(Supplementary)):2837-2846

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is classified as an endocrinological disorder of metabolism, which is marked by an increased rise in prevalence as well as incidence around the globe. The main aim of the study includes an assessment of the incidence, clinical profile evaluation and susceptibility pattern of bacteria against antimicrobial drugs in diabetic subjects. A total of 280 cases were included in the study of which the patients diagnosed with diabetes were assessed for their biochemical profiles as well as culture and sensitivity assays. Read More

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November 2020

The role of the human gut microbiota in colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-13

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany.

About 100 years ago, the first antibiotic drug was introduced into health care. Since then, antibiotics have made an outstanding impact on human medicine. However, our society increasingly suffers from collateral damage exerted by these highly effective drugs. Read More

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Comparing the interaction of the antibiotic levofloxacin with zwitterionic and anionic membranes: Calorimetry, fluorescence, and spin label studies.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Apr 15;1863(7):183622. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090, Brazil. Electronic address:

The present work compares the interaction of the antibiotic levofloxacin (LVX) with zwitterionic and anionic liposomes composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), respectively. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and with spin labels incorporated into liposomes at two different depths of the bilayers, we investigated the changes induced on the membrane by increasing concentrations of LVX. Further information was obtained using intrinsic LVX fluorescence. Read More

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Effect of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on the Psychology and Behavior of Patients on Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Wuhan, China: A Clinical Observational Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:653662. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Affiliated Wuhan Mental Health Center, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a national strategy adopted for the treatment of heroin dependency in China. The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resultant social isolation in Wuhan have also had a significant negative impact on local patients undertaking MMT. In this study, 76 patients on MMT from the Wuhan First Health Clinic were selected as the research objects to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as the withdrawal symptoms and craving and substance use. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of molar degree of substitution and its distribution fraction, degree of acetylation in hydroxypropyl chitosan by H NMR spectroscopy.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 24;263:117950. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, No.53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao, 266042, China. Electronic address:

Under the assistance of C NMR and H-C HSQC, we develop a novel H NMR assay for the substitution sites and degrees in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS) by optimizing sample preparation and measurement method. We find that the chemical shift of HOD peak increases linearly with the increase of DCl concentration but declines with the rise of measurement temperature. According to the regression line, the HOD peak could be moved to a desired position of non-interference with other peaks by changing DCl concentration. Read More

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The Rise and Fall of the Pale Puffy Lower Eyelid Pillow.

J Drugs Dermatol 2021 Apr;20(4):475-476

This case series demonstrates an exaggerated form of the clinical presentation of a known distressing late complication of retained hyaluronic acid filler – the “pale puffy pillow.” This presentation is often, unfortunately for the patient, misdiagnosed as festoons. However, the correction with liberal hyaluronidase is simple. Read More

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Research progress of metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus: a narrative review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar;10(3):3423-3437

Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; Clinical Skills Practice Teaching Center, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) refers to abnormal glucose metabolism that occurs during pregnancy, where blood glucose does not reach the level of overt diabetes during pregnancy. Poor blood glucose control in GDM patients can pose a serious threat to pregnant women and their fetuses by giving rise to adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and infants. In 2015, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recommended that insulin and metformin be used as the first-line medications for patients with GDM who did not reach the ideal blood glucose level following lifestyle interventions. Read More

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Dual-Colored Fluorescence Imaging of Mitochondrial HNO and Golgi-HNO in Mice with DILI.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, People's Republic of China.

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common reason for the post-marketing withdrawal of drugs. Poor understanding of the mechanisms of DILI presents a large challenge in clinical diagnosis. Previous evidences indicate a potential relationship between reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and DILI. Read More

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Drugs in Focus: Proton Pump Inhibitors.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 May;72(5):645-653

Neurogastroenterology and Motility Unit, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Abstract: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are amongst the most commonly prescribed drugs in infants and children with the last decades witnessing a dramatic rise in their utilization. Although PPIs are clearly effective when used appropriately and have been regarded as safe drugs, there is growing evidence regarding their potential adverse effects. Although, largely based on adult data it is clear that many of these are also relevant to pediatrics. Read More

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Repurposing Licensed Drugs for Use Against Alzheimer's Disease.

Leslie C Norins

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Alzheimer's Germ Quest, Naples, FL, USA.

Substantial evidence, composed of drug mechanisms of action, in vivo testing, and epidemiological data, exists to support clinical testing of FDA-approved drugs for repurposing to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Licensed compound investigation can often proceed at a faster and more cost-effective manner than un-approved compounds moving through the drug pipeline. As the prevalence of AD increases with life expectancy, the current rise in life expectancy amalgamated with the lack of an effective drug for the treatment of AD unnecessarily burdens our medical system and is an urgent public health concern. Read More

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Food addiction in a large community sample of Canadian adults: prevalence and relationship with obesity, body composition, quality of life and impulsivity.

Addiction 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, McMaster University and St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background And Aims: Parallels between the persistent overconsumption of food and addictive drugs have given rise to the notion of food addiction. In a large community sample of Canadian adults, the current study examined the prevalence of food addiction and its relationship with obesity, quality of life and multiple indicators of impulsivity. A secondary goal was to analyze differences between obese and non-obese individuals with and without food addiction. Read More

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Novel 1,2,4-oxadiazole-chalcone/oxime hybrids as potential antibacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, ADMET prediction and molecular docking study.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 1;111:104885. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt. Electronic address:

New antibacterial drugs are urgently needed to tackle the rapid rise in multi-drug resistant bacteria. DNA gyrase is a validated target for the development of new antibacterial drugs. Thus, in the present investigation, a novel series of 1,2,4-oxadiazole-chalcone/oxime (6a-f) and (7a-f) were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR (H and C) and elemental analyses. Read More

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Comparative study on anticancer drug access times between FDA, EMA and the French temporary authorisation for use program over 13 years.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 7;149:82-90. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

ANSM Agence Nationale de Sécurité des Médicaments Direction Onco-hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, 147 Boulevard Anatole France, Saint-Denis, France; Avec Groupe Hospitalier Mutualiste de Grenoble - Institut Daniel Hollard, 8, Rue Docteur Calmette, 38028 Grenoble cedex 1, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The cancer incidence continues to rise worldwide. Medical innovation has a major impact on patient survival, but within drug development, it can take more than 10 years to obtain marketing authorisation (MA). The time required for access to therapeutic innovation remains critical, so France has developed a specific expanded access program named ATU, which allows the administration of drugs before the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval. Read More

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Meet me halfway: Are in vitro 3D cancer models on the way to replace in vivo models for nanomedicine development?

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Electronic address:

The complexity and diversity of the biochemical processes that occur during tumorigenesis and metastasis are frequently over-simplified in the traditional in vitro cell cultures. Two-dimensional cultures limit researchers' experimental observations and frequently give rise to misleading and contradictory results. Therefore, in order to overcome the limitations of in vitro studies and bridge the translational gap to in vivo applications, 3D models of cancer cell were developed in the last decades. Read More

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The Permeation Mechanism of Cisplatin through a Dioleoylphosphocholine Bilayer.

Chemphyschem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Autonomous University of Madrid: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Chemistry, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 7, 28049, Madrid, SPAIN.

The investigation of the intermolecular interactions between platinum-based anticancer drugs and lipid bilayers is of special relevance to unveil the mechanisms involved in different steps of the anticancer mode of action of these drugs. We have simulated the permeation of cisplatin through a model membrane composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids by means of umbrella sampling classical molecular dynamics simulations. The initial physisorption of cisplatin into the polar region of the lipid membrane is controlled, in a first moment, by long-range electrostatic interactions with the choline groups and, in a second step, by long-range electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions with the phosphate groups. Read More

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Hypospadias induced by medications and environmental exposures- A scoping review.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Israel.

Objectives: Hypospadias is a congenital birth defect affecting around one in every 300 male infants, characterized by incomplete fusion of the urethralfold.Our objective was to identify drug and chemical exposure in pregnancy associated with increased risk for hypospadias.

Methods: We conducted a scoping review of studies of drugs and chemicals associated with hypospadias by searching Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Google and Google Scholar from inception to October 9, 2020 in any language. Read More

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January 2021

Risk assessment of importation and local transmissions of COVID-19 in South Korea.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Kyung Hee University, Seoul, KR.

Background: Despite recent achievements in vaccines, antiviral drugs, and medical infrastructure, the emergence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to humans worldwide. Most countries are well connected on a global scale, making it nearly impossible to implement perfect and prompt mitigation strategies for COVID-19 outbreaks. In particular, due to the explosive growth of international travel, the diverse networks and complexities of human mobility have become essential factors that give rise to the rapid spread of COVID-19 globally. Read More

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Effect of Correction of Hyperthyroidism with Anti-thyroid Drugs on the Glycated Hemoglobin in Non-diabetic Patients with Primary Hyperthyroidism.

Int J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan 19;19(1):e105751. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pathology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, India.

Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are dependent not only on the average blood glucose levels over the preceding 2 - 3 months but also on the turnover of erythrocytes. Hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with an increase in erythrocyte turnover that may falsely lower the HbA1c in relation to the level of glycemia.

Objectives: To assess the impact of medical correction of hyperthyroidism on HbA1c, independent of changes in the fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose. Read More

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January 2021

Urban-Rural Differences in Drug Overdose Death Rates, 1999-2019.

NCHS Data Brief 2021 Mar(403):1-8

Drug overdose death rates continue to rise in the United States (1-3), with significant urban-rural differences in rates by sex, age, and types of drugs involved (4). This report uses the most recent mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) to examine urban-rural differences in drug overdose death rates for all drugs and by selected types of opioids and stimula. Read More

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Recent Advancements in Polymer/Liposome Assembly for Drug Delivery: From Surface Modifications to Hybrid Vesicles.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Liposomes are consolidated and attractive biomimetic nanocarriers widely used in the field of drug delivery. The structural versatility of liposomes has been exploited for the development of various carriers for the topical or systemic delivery of drugs and bioactive molecules, with the possibility of increasing their bioavailability and stability, and modulating and directing their release, while limiting the side effects at the same time. Nevertheless, first-generation vesicles suffer from some limitations including physical instability, short in vivo circulation lifetime, reduced payload, uncontrolled release properties, and low targeting abilities. Read More

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Molecular Modeling of Histamine Receptors-Recent Advances in Drug Discovery.

Molecules 2021 Mar 22;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

The recent developments of fast reliable docking, virtual screening and other algorithms gave rise to discovery of many novel ligands of histamine receptors that could be used for treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders, central nervous system pathologies, pain, cancer and obesity. Furthermore, the pharmacological profiles of ligands clearly indicate that these receptors may be considered as targets not only for selective but also for multi-target drugs that could be used for treatment of complex disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, analysis of protein-ligand recognition in the binding site of histamine receptors and also other molecular targets has become a valuable tool in drug design toolkit. Read More

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Identification of Novel FNIN2 and FNIN3 Fibronectin-Derived Peptides That Promote Cell Adhesion, Proliferation and Differentiation in Primary Cells and Stem Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 16;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

In recent years, a major rise in the demand for biotherapeutic drugs has centered on enhancing the quality and efficacy of cell culture and developing new cell culture techniques. Here, we report fibronectin (FN) derived, novel peptides fibronectin-based intergrin binding peptide (FNIN)2 (18-mer) and FNIN3 (20-mer) which promote cell adhesion proliferation, and the differentiation of primary cells and stem cells. FNIN2 and 3 were designed based on the in silico interaction studies between FN and its receptors (integrin α5β1, αvβ3, and αIIbβ3). Read More

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The Evaluation of Drug Delivery Nanocarrier Development and Pharmacological Briefing for Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD): An Update.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Thoughts Formulation Laboratory, Discipline of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia.

Current research indicates that the next silent epidemic will be linked to chronic liver diseases, specifically non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which was renamed as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in 2020. Globally, MAFLD mortality is on the rise. The etiology of MAFLD is multifactorial and still incompletely understood, but includes the accumulation of intrahepatic lipids, alterations in energy metabolism, insulin resistance, and inflammatory processes. Read More

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Current State-of-the-Art and Unresolved Problems in Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopamine Neurons for Parkinson's Disease Drug Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Molecular Genetics, National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Kurchatov Square 2, 123182 Moscow, Russia.

Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to give rise to a new era in Parkinson's disease (PD) research. As a unique source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, iPS cells provide unparalleled capabilities for investigating the pathogenesis of PD, the development of novel anti-parkinsonian drugs, and personalized therapy design. Significant progress in developmental biology of midbrain DA neurons laid the foundation for their efficient derivation from iPS cells. Read More

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Increased Stress Resistance and Lifespan in Wildtype and Knockout Mutants-Implications for Depression Treatment by Medicinal Herbs.

Molecules 2021 Mar 24;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Depression and anxiety disorders are widespread diseases, and they belong to the leading causes of disability and greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide. It is expected that the numbers will dramatically rise during the COVID-19 pandemic. Established medications are not sufficient to adequately treat depression and are not available for everyone. Read More

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: An Ancient Commensal with Weapons of a Pathogen.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 24;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy.

is regarded as a life-threatening pathogen associated with community-acquired and nosocomial infections, mainly pneumonia. The rise in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains reduces effective therapies and increases mortality. Bacterial comparative genomic studies have unraveled the innate and acquired virulence factors of These virulence factors are involved in antibiotic resistance, environmental persistence, host-pathogen interactions, and immune evasion. Read More

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Recent trends and advances in the epidemiology, synergism, and delivery system of lycopene as an anti-cancer agent.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, National Engineering Research Centre for Fruit and Vegetable Processing, Key Laboratory of Fruits and Vegetables Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Engineering Research Centre for Fruits and Vegetables Processing, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Dietary interventions are key nutritional strategies to prevent, improve, and prolong the survival of cancer patients. Lycopene, one of the strongest natural antioxidants, and its biologically active metabolites, have shown significant potential to prevent a variety of cancers, including prostate, breast, and stomach cancers, making it a promising anti-cancer agent. We review the potential regulatory mechanisms and epidemiological evidences of lycopene and its metabolites to delay the progression of cancers at different developmental stages. Read More

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Evaluation of ethnopharmacologically selected Vitex negundo L. for In vitro antimalarial activity and secondary metabolite profiling.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 28;275:114076. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Biotechnology, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Madhya Pradesh, 484 887, India. Electronic address:

Ethanopharmacological Relevance: Limited drugs, rise in drug resistance against frontline anti-malarial drugs, non-availability of efficacious vaccines and high cost of drug development hinders malaria intervention programs. Search for safe, effective and affordable plant based anti-malarial agents, thus becomes crucial and vital in the current scenario. The Vitex negundo L. Read More

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Polymyxins for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections; lessons learned from the integration of clinical pharmacokinetic studies and clinical outcomes.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Mar 27:106328. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

The global rise in nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens and increasingly limited antibiotic treatment options are growing threats to modern medicine. As a result, older antibiotics like polymyxins are being used as drugs of last resort for MDR nosocomial pneumonia. Polymyxins are bactericidal against most aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, but the sub-therapeutic concentrations achieved at infection sites following high-dose intravenous administration make treatment challenging. Read More

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