14,193 results match your criteria drugs chemicals


Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Multi-Stimulus-Responsive Drug Delivery Strategy for Personalized and Precise Cancer Treatment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, P. R. China.

The emergence of nano-targeted controlled release liposomal drug carriers has provided a breakthrough in cancer therapy. However, their clinical efficacy is unsatisfactory, which is related to individualized differences in targeted drugs and poor release efficiency. In this paper, we prepared a class of personalized targeted and precisely controlled-release therapeutic drug carriers (GF liposomes) by co-assembling targeting and traceable nitrobenzyl ester lipids to propose a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided personalized targeted drug screening strategy and a multi-stimulus superimposed controlled-release strategy. Read More

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October 2021

Changes in Sewage Sludge Chemical Signatures During a COVID-19 Community Lockdown, Part 1: Traffic, Drugs, Mental Health, and Disinfectants.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated shutdowns disrupted many aspects of daily life and thus caused changes in the use and disposal of many types of chemicals. While records of sales, prescriptions, drug overdoses, and so forth provide data about specific chemical uses during this time, wastewater and sewage sludge analysis can provide a more comprehensive overview of chemical changes within a region. We analyzed primary sludge from a wastewater-treatment plant in Connecticut, USA, collected March 19 to June 30, 2020. Read More

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October 2021

A Sequential Dual-Model Strategy Based on Photoactivatable Metallopolymer for On-Demand Release of Photosensitizers and Anticancer Drugs.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 18:e2103334. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Liaoning key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

The synergistic combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has attracted considerable attention for its enhanced antitumoral effects; however, it remains challenging to successfully delivery photosensitizers and anticancer drugs while minimizing drug leakage at off-target sites. A red-light-activatable metallopolymer, Poly(Ru/PTX), is synthesized for combined chemo-photodynamic therapy. The polymer has a biodegradable backbone that contains a photosensitizer Ru complex and the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) via a singlet oxygen ( O ) cleavable linker. Read More

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October 2021

Polydatin Ameliorates Osteoporosis via Suppression of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:730362. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Polydatin (POL) is a natural active compound found in with reported anti-oxidant and antiviral effects. With the aging population there has been a stark increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), rendering it an imposing public health issue. The potential effect of POL as a therapy for OP remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Improvement of the performance of anticancer peptides using a drug repositioning pipeline.

Biotechnol J 2021 Oct 17:e2100417. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

The use of anticancer peptides (ACPs) as an alternative/complementary strategy to conventional chemotherapy treatments has been shown to decrease drug resistance and/or severe side effects. However, the efficacy of the positively-charged ACP is inhibited by elevated levels of negatively-charged cell-surface components which trap the peptides and prevent their contact with the cell membrane. Consequently, this decreases ACP-mediated membrane pore formation and cell lysis. Read More

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October 2021

O-JMeSH: creating a bilingual English-Japanese controlled vocabulary of MeSH UIDs through machine translation and mutual information.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e26. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557, Japan.

Previous approaches to create a controlled vocabulary for Japanese have resorted to existing bilingual dictionary and transformation rules to allow such mappings. However, given the possible new terms introduced due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the emphasis on respiratory and infection-related terms, coverage might not be guaranteed. We propose creating a Japanese bilingual controlled vocabulary based on MeSH terms assigned to COVID-19 related publications in this work. Read More

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September 2021

Non-cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics: Focus on the regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Oct 9:108020. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Centre for Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Oxidative metabolism is one of the major biotransformation reactions that regulates the exposure of xenobiotics and their metabolites in the circulatory system and local tissues and organs, and influences their efficacy and toxicity. Although cytochrome (CY)P450s play critical roles in the oxidative reaction, extensive CYP450-independent oxidative metabolism also occurs in some xenobiotics, such as aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, flavin-containing monooxygenase, monoamine oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, or aldehyde dehydrogenase-dependent oxidative metabolism. Drugs form a large portion of xenobiotics and are the primary target of this review. Read More

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October 2021

Influence of New Compound Disinfectant From N-Dodecyl-2-(Piridin-1-Ium)Acetamide Chloride on Pathogenic Microorganisms in Poultry Houses.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:735859. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, HeiLongJiang BaYi Agricultural University, Daqing, China.

With the development of large-scale and intensive poultry farming, environmental disinfection has become particularly important, and the effectiveness of disinfection depends upon the performance of the disinfectants. Quaternate ammonium salt is a group of positively charged polyatomic ions with both antibacterial and antiviral activities. In order to prepare an ideal disinfectant for poultry farms, we combined a quaternate ammonium salt -dodecyl-2-(piridin-1-ium)acetamide chloride with two other disinfectants (chlorhexidine acetate and glutaraldehyde), respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Anthelmintic resistance: is a solution possible?

Exp Parasitol 2021 Oct 7;230:108169. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases Research Group (PARAVET), Department of Animal Production and Health, Veterinary Public Health and Food Science and Technology (PASAPTA), Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, Spain.

More than 50 years after anthelmintic resistance was first identified, its prevalence and impact on the animal production industry continues to increase across the world. The term "anthelmintic resistance" (AR) can be briefly defined as the reduction in efficacy of a certain dose of anthelmintic drugs (AH) in eliminating the presence of a parasite population that was previously susceptible. The main aim of this study is to examine anthelmintic resistance in domestic herbivores. Read More

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October 2021

Proximate causes and ultimate effects of common antidepressants, fluoxetine and venlafaxine, on fish behavior.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 7;807(Pt 2):150846. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Canada; Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada.

Antidepressant (AD) drugs are widely prescribed for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. The continuous use of ADs causes significant quantities of these bioactive chemicals to enter the aquatic ecosystems mainly through wastewater effluent discharge. This may result in many aquatic organisms being inadvertently affected by these drugs. Read More

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October 2021

Compositional variation of the human fecal microbiome in relation to azo-reducing activity: a pilot study.

Gut Pathog 2021 Oct 8;13(1):58. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Background: Through an arsenal of microbial enzymes, the gut microbiota considerably contributes to human metabolic processes, affecting nutrients, drugs, and environmental poisons. Azoreductases are a predominant group of microbiota-derived enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and drug activation, but little is known about how compositional changes in the gut microbiota correlate with its azo-reducing activity.

Results: To this end, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, with Illumina MiSeq, to determine the microbial community composition of stool samples from 16 adults with different azo-reducing activity. Read More

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October 2021

Tributyltin protects against ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss in C57BL/6J mice with an attenuated effect in high fat fed mice.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Oct 5;431:115736. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, USA. Electronic address:

Risk factors for poor bone quality include estrogen loss at menopause, a high fat diet and exposures to drugs/chemicals that activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). We previously reported that the PPARγ and retinoid X receptor dual ligand, tributyltin (TBT), repressed periosteal bone formation but enhanced trabecular bone formation in vivo. Here, we examined the interaction of diet, ovariectomy (OVX) and TBT exposure on bone structure. Read More

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October 2021

Assemblages of excess and pleasures: The sociosexual uses of online and chemical technologies among men who have sex with men.

Nurs Philos 2021 Oct 6:e12370. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Faculty of Health, School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Chemicals have penetrated everyday lives of men who have sex with men as never before, along with new online and mobile technologies used to seek pleasures and connections. Poststructuralist (including queer) explorations of these new intensities show how bodies exist in the form of (political) surfaces able to connect with other bodies and with other objects where they may find/create a function (e.g. Read More

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October 2021

Label-free photothermal disruption of cytotoxic aggregates rescues pathology in a C. elegans model of Huntington's disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 5;11(1):19732. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

Aggregation of proteins is a prominent hallmark of virtually all neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Little progress has been made in their treatment to slow or prevent the formation of aggregates by post-translational modification and regulation of cellular responses to misfolded proteins. Here, we introduce a label-free, laser-based photothermal treatment of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregates in a C. Read More

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October 2021

Discovery of sulfadrug-pyrrole conjugates as carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Oct 5:e2100242. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoenzymes are zinc ion-containing, widespread metalloenzymes and they classically play a role in pH homeostasis maintenance. CA inhibitors suppress the CA activity and their usage has been clinically established as antiglaucoma agents, antiepileptics, diuretics, and in some other disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder and a fatal disease of the brain. Read More

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October 2021

Biological Utility of Fluorinated Compounds: from Materials Design to Molecular Imaging, Therapeutics and Environmental Remediation.

Chem Rev 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

The applications of fluorinated molecules in bioengineering and nanotechnology are expanding rapidly with the controlled introduction of fluorine being broadly studied due to the unique properties of C-F bonds. This review will focus on the design and utility of C-F containing materials in imaging, therapeutics, and environmental applications with a central theme being the importance of controlling fluorine-fluorine interactions and understanding how such interactions impact biological behavior. Low natural abundance of fluorine is shown to provide sensitivity and background advantages for imaging and detection of a variety of diseases with F magnetic resonance imaging, F positron emission tomography and ultrasound discussed as illustrative examples. Read More

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October 2021

Determination of effective concentrations of drug absorption enhancers using in vitro and ex vivo models.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep 30;167:106028. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, 175 N. Mandela Drive, Arcadia 0001, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: Achievement of an effective concentration of the pharmaceutically active ingredient in the blood and/or at the target site is an important aspect in the formulation of drugs and therefore needs to be quantified. Any concentration above therapeutic levels can cause toxic effects whereas low concentrations can be sub-therapeutic. This paper investigated different concentrations of selected commercially sourced analytical-grade pure chemicals as potential drug absorption enhancers in vitro and ex vivo to determine the lowest effective concentrations for optimizing drug absorption in oral dosage forms. Read More

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September 2021

Towards standard methods for the classification of aquatic toxicity for biologically active household chemicals (BAHC) present in plastics, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products.

Authors:
Ricardo Beiras

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 2;193(10):685. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Ecology and Animal Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo, 36310, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.

A standard method to test the aquatic toxicity of biologically active household chemicals (BAHC), including those with very low water solubility, is proposed. The method uses the common marine models Paracentrotus lividus embryos and Acartia clausi larvae, in order to advance towards derivation of water quality criteria for these emerging pollutants that currently lack environmental standards. Depending on the water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient (K) of the substance, the protocol consists of testing the toxicity of the substances by serial dilutions of water stocks, dimethyl-sulfoxide stocks, or 100 mg/L lixiviates in seawater. Read More

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October 2021

Ascorbate: antioxidant and biochemical activities and their importance for in vitro models.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, 70 Ship Street, Room 507, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.

Ascorbate has many biological activities that involve fundamental cellular functions such as gene expression, differentiation, and redox homeostasis. Biochemically, it serves as a cofactor for a large family of dioxygenases (> 60 members) which control transcription, formation of extracellular matrix, and epigenetic processes of histone and DNA demethylation. Ascorbate is also a major antioxidant acting as a very effective scavenger of primary reactive oxygen species. Read More

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October 2021

Bacterial mutagenicity test data: collection by the task force of the Japan pharmaceutical manufacturers association.

Genes Environ 2021 Sep 30;43(1):41. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Safety Research Laboratories, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co., 2-2-50 Kawagishi, Toda-shi, Saitama, 335-8505, Japan.

Background: Ames test is used worldwide for detecting the bacterial mutagenicity of chemicals. In silico analyses of bacterial mutagenicity have recently gained acceptance by regulatory agencies; however, current in silico models for prediction remain to be improved. The Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) organized a task force in 2017 in which eight Japanese pharmaceutical companies had participated. Read More

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September 2021

New psychoactive and classic substances in pooled urine samples collected at the Ultra Europe festival in Split, Croatia.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2021 Sep 28;72(3):198-204. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

University Hospital Centre Split, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Split, Croatia.

We believe that analysing pooled urine samples for recreational drugs used at mass events can provide useful information about trends in drug use. An opportunity arose with the Ultra Europe music festival, which is attended by more than 150,000 people from over 150 countries every year. We analysed 30 pooled urine samples collected from portable chemical toilets located at or close to the Ultra Europe music festival venue in Split, Croatia in 2016-2018 to detect the presence of classic and new psychoactive substances (NPS). Read More

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September 2021

Challenges in Drug Discovery for Intracellular Bacteria.

Pathogens 2021 Sep 11;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy, High Point University, One University Parkway, High Point, NC 27268, USA.

Novel drugs are needed to treat a variety of persistent diseases caused by intracellular bacterial pathogens. Virulence pathways enable many functions required for the survival of these pathogens, including invasion, nutrient acquisition, and immune evasion. Inhibition of virulence pathways is an established route for drug discovery; however, many challenges remain. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-Target Actions of Acridones from towards Alzheimer's Pathogenesis and Their Pharmacokinetic Properties.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;14(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Ten acridones isolated from were evaluated for effects on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis including antioxidant effects, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, prevention of beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and neuroprotection. To understand the mechanism, the type of AChE inhibition was investigated in vitro and binding interactions between acridones and AChE or Aβ were explored in silico. Drug-likeness and ADMET parameters were predicted in silico using SwissADME and pKCSM programs, respectively. Read More

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Deciphering Structural Alterations Associated with Activity Reductions of Genetic Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 2A6 Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 19;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 is a monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous chemicals, such as nicotine and therapeutic drugs. The genetic polymorphisms in CYP2A6 are a cause of individual variation in smoking behavior and drug toxicities. The enzymatic activities of the allelic variants of CYP2A6 were analyzed in previous studies. Read More

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September 2021

Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Nitrosamine Contamination in Commonly Used Medications.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 8;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA 94612, USA.

Many nitrosamines are potent carcinogens, with more than 30 listed under California's Proposition 65. Recently, nitrosamine contamination of commonly used drugs for treatment of hypertension, heartburn, and type 2 diabetes has prompted numerous Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recalls in the US. These contaminants include the carcinogens NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine) and NDEA (N-nitrosodiethylamine) and the animal tumorigen NMBA (N-nitroso-N-methyl-4-aminobutyric acid). Read More

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September 2021

The road (not) taken - Placental transfer and interspecies differences.

Placenta 2021 Sep 22;115:70-77. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Placenta Lab, Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Species differences are among the main reasons for the high failure rate of preclinical studies. A better awareness and understanding of these differences might help to improve the outcome of preclinical research. In reproduction, the placenta is the central organ regulating fetal exposure to a substance circulating in the maternal organism. Read More

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September 2021

Key Characteristics of Cardiovascular Toxicants.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Sep 24;129(9):95001. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: The concept of chemical agents having properties that confer potential hazard called key characteristics (KCs) was first developed to identify carcinogenic hazards. Identification of KCs of cardiovascular (CV) toxicants could facilitate the systematic assessment of CV hazards and understanding of assay and data gaps associated with current approaches.

Objectives: We sought to develop a consensus-based synthesis of scientific evidence on the KCs of chemical and nonchemical agents known to cause CV toxicity along with methods to measure them. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic analysis of chemical-protein interactions from zebrafish embryo by proteome-wide thermal shift assay, bridging the gap between molecular interactions and toxicity pathways.

J Proteomics 2021 Sep 21;249:104382. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping 581 85, Sweden.; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena, s/n, Leioa 48940, Spain.. Electronic address:

The molecular interaction between chemicals and proteins often promotes alteration of cellular function. One of the challenges of the toxicology is to predict the impact of exposure to chemicals. Assessing the impact of exposure implies to understand their mechanism of actions starting from identification of specific protein targets of the interaction. Read More

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September 2021

Web-Based Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Resources Facilitate Effective Drug Discovery.

Top Curr Chem (Cham) 2021 Sep 23;379(6):37. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079, People's Republic of China.

Traditional drug discovery effectively contributes to the treatment of many diseases but is limited by high costs and long cycles. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods were introduced to evaluate the activity of compounds virtually, which saves the significant cost of determining the activities of the compounds experimentally. Over the past two decades, many web tools for QSAR modeling with various features have been developed to facilitate the usage of QSAR methods. Read More

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September 2021

Nano Spray-Dried Drugs for Oral Administration: A Review.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2021 Oct 21;19(7):412-441. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institute for Energy Systems, Eastern Switzerland University of Applied Sciences of Technology, Buchs, Switzerland.

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October 2021