21,203 results match your criteria drug mixtures


Analytical performance of the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 20;101(1):115397. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Tropical Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

In a manufacturer-independent laboratory validation study, the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay demonstrated equivalent limit of detection to Xpert MTB/RIF®, detected 100% of tested resistance mutations and showed some utility for resistance detection in strain mixtures. The Xpert MTB/XDR assay is a reliable, sensitive assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection. Read More

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Hydrogel microparticles for biomedical applications.

Nat Rev Mater 2020 Jan 7;5(1):20-43. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Hydrogel microparticles (HMPs) are promising for biomedical applications, ranging from the therapeutic delivery of cells and drugs to the production of scaffolds for tissue repair and bioinks for 3D printing. Biologics (cells and drugs) can be encapsulated into HMPs of predefined shapes and sizes using a variety of fabrication techniques (batch emulsion, microfluidics, lithography, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying and mechanical fragmentation). HMPs can be formulated in suspensions to deliver therapeutics, as aggregates of particles (granular hydrogels) to form microporous scaffolds that promote cell infiltration or embedded within a bulk hydrogel to obtain multiscale behaviours. Read More

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January 2020

Functional group interaction profiles: a general treatment of solvent effects on non-covalent interactions.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 21;11(17):4456-4466. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge Lensfield Road Cambridge CB2 1EW UK +44 (0)1223 336710.

Solvation has profound effects on the behaviour of supramolecular systems, but the effects can be difficult to predict even at a qualitative level. Functional group interaction profiles (FGIPs) provide a simple visual method for understanding how solvent affects the free energy contribution due to a single point interaction, such as a hydrogen bond, between two solute functional groups. A generalised theoretical approach has been developed, which allows calculation of FGIPs for any solvent or solvent mixture, and FGIPs for 300 different solvents have been produced, providing a comprehensive description of solvent effects on non-covalent chemistry. Read More

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Efficiency enhancement with chloride to iodide ion exchange of benzimidazolium salt as a redox mediator.

Turk J Chem 2021 28;45(2):333-341. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Erciyes University, Kayseri Turkey.

The new benzimidazolium derivative (SM-1) salt with ion exchange from the (SM-0) was fabricated and characterized by proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR), carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance (C-NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrospray ionization (EIS-MS), thermal analysis (TG), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), for electrolytes (liquid or dried) in the DSSC charge transportation mechanism. Also, the influence of ion exchange from chloride to iodine in the synthesized electrolytes, compared to other electrolytes (conventional or commercial), was investigated about DSSC performance efficiency. When using as a liquid electrolyte (SM-1), the power conversion efficiency (ƞ) of the working DSSC device was recorded as 1. Read More

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Repurposing ibuprofen-loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's disease: evidence of potential intranasal brain targeting.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1188-1203

Department of Pharmaceutics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Studies have shown the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen could reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The drug-repurposing strategy offers a bright opportunity for these patients. Intranasal administration through the olfactory pathway provides noninvasive and direct drug delivery to the target brain. Read More

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December 2021

Identification of new lead molecules against anticancer drug target TFIIH subunit P8 using biophysical and molecular docking studies.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 26;114:105021. Epub 2021 May 26.

Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan; H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21412, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The identification of molecules, which could modulate protein-protein interactions (PPIs), is of primary interest to medicinal chemists. Using biophysical methods during the current study, we have screened 76 compounds (grouped into 16 mixtures) against the p8 subunit of the general transcription factor (TFIIH), which has recently been validated as an anti-cancer drug target. 10% of the tested compounds showed interactions with p8 protein in STD-NMR experiments. Read More

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Toxicologic effect and transcriptome analysis for short-term orally dosed enrofloxacin combined with two veterinary antimicrobials on rat liver.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 8;220:112398. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Animal-derived Food Safety Testing Technology, Beijing 100193, China; Chinese National Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Drug Residues, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Presently, toxicological assessment of multiple veterinary antimicrobials has not been performed on mammals. In this study, we assessed the short-term toxicity of enrofloxacin (E) combined with colistin (C) and quinocetone (Q). Young male rats were orally dosed drug mixtures and single drugs in 14 consecutive days, each at the dose of 20, 80, and 400 mg/(kg·BW) for environmental toxicologic study. Read More

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Cholesterol modulates the interaction between paclitaxel and Langmuir monolayers simulating cell membranes.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 31;205:111889. Epub 2021 May 31.

São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The composition of Langmuir monolayers used as cell membrane models is an essential factor for the interaction with biologically-relevant molecules, including pharmaceutical drugs. In this paper, we report the modulation of effects from the antineoplastic drug paclitaxel by the relative concentration of cholesterol in the Langmuir monolayers of ternary mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. Since the dependence on cholesterol concentration for these monolayers simulating lipid rafts is non-monotonic, we analyzed the surface pressure and compressibility modulus data with the multidimensional projection technique referred to as interactive document mapping (IDMAP). Read More

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Chromatographic analysis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates produced by AJICAP first-generation technology using a recombinant FcγIIIa receptor-ligand affinity column.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jul 19;1177:122753. Epub 2021 May 19.

Ajinomoto Bio-Pharma Services, 11040 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Commercially approved conventional antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are produced as heterogeneous mixtures containing a stochastic distribution of payloads decorating the antibody molecules resulting in decreased efficacy and thus lowering their therapeutic index. Control of the DAR and conjugation site in the development of next-generation ADCs is believed to assist in increasing the therapeutic index of these targeted biologics leading to overall enhanced clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity. A chemical site-specific conjugation technology termed AJICAP® allows ADC developers to control both the location and quantity of the payload conjugation to an antibody. Read More

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Multiple Molecular Mechanisms to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer by Natural Secondary Metabolites.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:658513. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) common natural occurrences and the significantly lower toxicities of many SM have led to the approaching development and use of these compounds as effective pharmaceutical agents; especially in cancer therapy. A combination of two or three of plant secondary metabolites together or of one SM with specific anticancer drugs, may synergistically decrease the doses needed, widen the chemotherapeutic window, mediate more effective cell growth inhibition, and avoid the side effects of high drug concentrations. In mixtures they can exert additive or even synergistic activities. Read More

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Using lysozyme amyloid fibrils as a means of scavenging aggregation-inhibiting compounds.

Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 4:e2100138. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins is linked to several amyloidoses, including neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Currently there are very few effective cures or treatments available, despite countless screenings and clinical trials. One of the more challenging aspects of potential anti-amyloid drug discovery is finding which molecules are the actual inhibitors out of mixtures, which may contain hundreds of distinct compounds. Read More

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Applying different spectroscopic techniques for the selective determination of daclatasvir using merbromin as a probe: Applications on pharmaceutical analysis.

Luminescence 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt.

In this study, rapid resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), spectrophotometric, and spectrofluorimetric methods were performed for facile quantitation of daclatasvir dihydrochloride without interference from sofosbuvir (a co-formulated anti-hepatitis C virus drug). The proposed approaches were based on forming a binary complex between daclatasvir dihydrochloride and merbromin reagent at pH 4.1. Read More

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Small Molecule Compounds Identified from Mixture-Based Library Inhibit Binding between Infected Erythrocytes and Endothelial Receptor ICAM-1.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 26;22(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33428, USA.

Specific adhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE) in deep vascular beds can result in severe complications, such as cerebral malaria, placental malaria, respiratory distress, and severe anemia. Cerebral malaria and severe malaria syndromes were associated previously with sequestration of IE to a microvasculature receptor ICAM-1. The screening of Torrey Pines Scaffold Ranking library, which consists of more than 30 million compounds designed around 75 molecular scaffolds, identified small molecules that inhibit cytoadhesion of ICAM-1-binding IE to surface-immobilized receptor at IC range down to ~350 nM. Read More

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An In-Vitro Evaluation of the Characteristics of Zein-Based Films for the Release of Lactobionic Acid and the Effects of Oleic Acid.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 31;13(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Materials Department, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK.

Lactobionic acid (LBA) is widely used in different industrial sectors owing to its biocompatibility characteristics as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, mixtures of the protein zein with LBA and with the addition of oleic acid (OA) as a ternary system were investigated as drug delivery films for the release of LBA. The chosen combinations exploit the vast difference in water solubility between LBA and the other two components (zein and OA). Read More

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Neuroprotective Natural Products for Alzheimer's Disease.

Cells 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC 29325, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the number one neurovegetative disease, but its treatment options are relatively few and ineffective. In efforts to discover new strategies for AD therapy, natural products have aroused interest in the research community and in the pharmaceutical industry for their neuroprotective activity, targeting different pathological mechanisms associated with AD. A wide variety of natural products from different origins have been evaluated preclinically and clinically for their neuroprotective mechanisms in preventing and attenuating the multifactorial pathologies of AD. Read More

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Antibacterial Activities of Homemade Matrices Miming Essential Oils Compared to Commercial Ones.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 14;10(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutics (DPP), Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a worldwide concern. Essential oils are known to possess remarkable antibacterial properties, but their high chemical variability complicates their development into new antibacterial agents. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to standardize their chemical composition. Read More

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Solubility Enhancement of Ibuprofen by Adsorption onto Spherical Porous Calcium Silicate.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 21;13(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510, Chiba, Japan.

The solubility of a drug is higher when it is in an amorphous form than when it is in a crystalline form. To enhance the solubility of ibuprofen (IBU), a poorly water-soluble drug, we attempted to adsorb IBU onto spherical porous calcium silicate (Florite PS300, PS300) in two ways: the evaporation (EV) and sealed heating (SH) methods. The crystallinity of the samples was evaluated using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Read More

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Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based 3D Printed Tablets: Novel Insight into the Influence of Polymer Particle Size on Filament Preparation and Drug Release Performance.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 1;14(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 41 Victor Babeș Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) by fused deposition modeling (FDM) has gained momentum as a promising pharmaceutical manufacturing method due to encouraging forward-looking perspectives in personalized medicine preparation. The current challenges the technology has for applicability in the fabrication of solid dosage forms include the limited range of suitable pharmaceutical grade thermoplastic materials. Hence, it is important to investigate the implications of variable properties of the polymeric carrier on the preparation steps and the final output, as versatile products could be obtained by using the same material. Read More

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Assessment of pharmaceutical mixture (ibuprofen, ciprofloxacin and flumequine) effects to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: A multilevel analysis (biochemical, transcriptional and proteomic approaches).

Environ Res 2021 May 29;200:111396. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Ecology and Coastal Management, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Electronic address:

The knowledge about the effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms has been increasing in the last decade. However, due to the variety of compounds presents in the aquatic medium, exposure scenarios and exposed organisms, there are still many gaps in the knowledge on how mixtures of such bioactive compounds affect exposed non target organisms. The crayfish Procambarus clarkii was used to analyze the toxicity effects of mixtures of ciprofloxacin, flumequine and ibuprofen at low and high concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) over 21 days of exposure and to assess the recovery capacity of the organism after a depuration phase following exposure during additional 7 days in clean water. Read More

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Investigating the Influence of Excipients on the Stability of Levothyroxine Sodium Pentahydrate.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

A range of tablet excipients were evaluated for their influence on the physical form and chemical stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate (LSP; CHINNaO·5HO). LSP-excipient binary powder blends were stored under two conditions: (a) in hermetically sealed containers at 40 °C and (b) at 40 °C/75% RH. By use of synchrotron X-ray diffractometry, the disappearance of LSP could be quantified and the appearance of crystalline levothyroxine (free acid) could be identified. Read More

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A novel smartphone-based electrochemical cell sensor for evaluating the toxicity of heavy metal ions Cd, Hg, and Pb in rice.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Food Science and Engineering/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety/Key Laboratory of Grains and Oils Quality Control and Processing, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing, 210023, Jiangsu, China.

A novel smartphone-based electrochemical cell sensor was developed to evaluate the toxicity of heavy metal ions, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) ions on Hep G2 cells. The cell sensor was fabricated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum sulfide (MoS) composites to greatly improve the biological adaptability and amplify the electrochemical signals. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to measure the electrical signals induced by the toxicity of heavy metal ions. Read More

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Stability of calcium levofolinate, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) mixture.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2021 May 30:10781552211020808. Epub 2021 May 30.

Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Paris, UTCBS (Unité de Technologies Chimiques et Biologiques pour la Santé), Paris, France.

FOLFOX is the most common chemotherapy combination prescribed in colorectal cancer. It is composed of calcium levofolinate, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin which demonstrated synergistic outcome. Nowadays, the lack of all-in-one formulation is due to the chemical composition of the pharmaceutical products and the highly pH-dependent stability of each drug. Read More

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Drug preconcentration and direct quantification in biofluids using 3D-Printed paper cartridge.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 13;189:113266. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, 710126, Shaanxi, PR China; Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, PR China. Electronic address:

Drug detection in biofluids has always been great importance for clinical diagnosis. Many detection technologies such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, have been applied to the detection of drugs. However, these technologies required multi-step operations, including complicated and time-consuming pretreatment processes and operations of bulky detection instruments, significantly limiting development of drug detection in clinical diagnosis. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison of binary cress seed mucilage (CSM)/β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and ternary CSG-BLG-Ca (calcium) complexes as emulsifiers: Interfacial behavior and freeze-thawing stability.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 5;266:118148. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

Protein-polysaccharide complexes often exhibit amended techno-functional characteristics when compared to their individual participant biomolecules. In this study, a complex coacervation of cress seed mucilage (CSM)/β-lactoglobulin (Blg) was used for stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions; they were characterized in terms of physical properties, droplet-size distribution and microstructure. Also, a comprehensive study was carried out on interfacial rheological responses and on the corresponding emulsion stability of different complexes. Read More

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Shellac- a natural carrier for colon targeting of indomethacin using hot melt extrusion.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Jun 7:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Indomethacin (IND) is one of the supporting drug candidates for colonic targeting but it belongs to BCS class II category presenting a challenge in optimal targeting at the colonic site. To overcome this challenge, we sought to prepare a pH-dependent soluble ternary solid dispersion (SD) of IND of improved solubility and dissolution rate at the colon without the need for a coating. The current study focuses on the preparation of binary SDs of API (IND) with shellac (SSB 55) and Eudragit FS 100 (EFS) and ternary mixtures of IND, SSB 55 together with a new grade of HPMC (A15). Read More

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Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in bottled water and assessment of the associated risks.

Environ Int 2021 May 23;155:106651. Epub 2021 May 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence of 187 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was investigated in bottled water samples (35 and 33 from Chinese and foreign brands, respectively). Forty-four compounds belonging to 14 PPCP categories were detected in 56 of the 68 bottled water samples. Further, more than 35% of water samples contained at least three PPCPs, and in one particular sample, 11 different PPCPs were detected. Read More

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Development of self-microemulsifying lipid-based formulations of -resveratrol by systematically constructing lipid-surfactant-water phase diagrams using long-chain lipids.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 May 25:1-31. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY, USA.

The aim of this work was to develop self-microemulsifying lipid-based formulations of -resveratrol in cod liver oil, a long chain lipid, to increase its solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Ternary phase diagrams of cod liver oil with surfactant and water as well as pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the same by mixing cod liver oil (triglyceride) with glycerol monooleate (monoglyeride) were constructed to identify regions where microemulsions were formed. Kolliphor RH 40, Tween 80 and their 1:1-mixtures were evaluated as surfactants. Read More

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Spray-dried mucoadhesive microparticles based on S-protected thiolated hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for budesonide nasal delivery.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 23;603:120728. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Pharmacy - Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70125 Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Budesonide (BUD) is used as first choice therapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, a chronic allergic-immune condition with an increased incidence in the pediatric population. The main problem of BUD nasal formulations is related to its poor aqueous solubility (S = 5.03·10 M), sometimes compensated by the administration of high doses of the drug. Read More

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Characterization of positional isomers of drug intermediates by off-line RPLC x SFC hyphenated to high resolution MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 15;202:114142. Epub 2021 May 15.

Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100, Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:

Many steps are needed in the synthesis of a new active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In a practical case proposed by a French pharmaceutical company, an intermediate synthesis step, needed to protect 8 hydroxyl groups before oxidation, could produce a mixture of neutral compounds containing up to 652 structures being positional isomers of 18 molecular formulas. Some mixtures allowed obtaining the desired API, others did not. Read More

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The effect of headgroup methylation on polymorphic phase behaviour in hydrated -methylated phosphoethanolamine:palmitic acid membranes.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun;17(23):5763-5771

Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, W12 7SL, UK.

Mixtures of fatty acids and phospholipids can form hexagonal (HII) and inverse bicontinuous cubic phases, the latter of which are implicated in various cellular processes and have wide-ranging biotechnological applications in protein crystallisation and drug delivery systems. Therefore, it is vitally important to understand the formation conditions of inverse bicontinuous cubic phases and how their properties can be tuned. We have used differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron-based small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) to investigate the polymorphic phase behaviour of palmitic acid/partially-methylated phospholipid mixtures, and how headgroup methylation impacts on inverse bicontinuous cubic phase formation. Read More

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