3,993 results match your criteria drug cocktail

Acute alcohol intoxication and the cocktail party problem: do "mocktails" help or hinder?

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, RG6 6AL, Reading, UK.

Rationale: To test the notion that alcohol impairs auditory attentional control by reducing the listener's cognitive capacity.

Objectives: We examined the effect of alcohol consumption and working memory span on dichotic speech shadowing and the cocktail party effect-the ability to focus on one of many simultaneous speakers yet still detect mention of one's name amidst the background speech. Alcohol was expected either to increase name detection, by weakening the inhibition of irrelevant speech, or reduce name detection, by restricting auditory attention on to the primary input channel. Read More

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Evaluation of the Effect of Bovis Calculus Artifactus on Eight Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Using LC-MS/MS and Cocktail Approach.

Xenobiotica 2021 Jul 22:1-30. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Anhui Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Hefei, China.

Bovis Calculus Artifactus (BCA) is the main substitute for natural Calculus bovis, a traditional drug in China used to treat high fever, convulsion, and sore throat. The effect of BCA on cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities is unknown. This study was to investigate the effect of BCA on eight rat hepatic microsomal CYPisozymes to evaluate the potential drug interactions using the cocktail approach. Read More

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Melatonin interferes with COVID-19 at several distinct ROS-related steps.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jul 17;223:111546. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C.S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have shown a correlation between COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and the distinct, exaggerated immune response titled "cytokine storm". This immune response leads to excessive production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause clinical signs characteristic of COVID-19 such as decreased oxygen saturation, alteration of hemoglobin properties, decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, vasoconstriction, elevated cytokines, cardiac and/or renal injury, enhanced D-dimer, leukocytosis, and an increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. Particularly, neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) is thought to be especially abundant and, as a result, contributes substantially to oxidative stress and the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Read More

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Is Curcumin the Answer to Future Chemotherapy Cocktail?

Molecules 2021 Jul 17;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

The rise in cancer cases in recent years is an alarming situation worldwide. Despite the tremendous research and invention of new cancer therapies, the clinical outcomes are not always reassuring. Cancer cells could develop several evasive mechanisms for their survivability and render therapeutic failure. Read More

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Restoring NK cells functionality via cytokine activation enhances cetuximab-mediated NK-cell ADCC: A promising therapeutic tool for HCC patients.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jul 17;137:221-227. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ein-Helwan, Cairo, 11795, Egypt. Electronic address:

Natural Killer (NK) cells are considered the first line of defense against viral infections and tumors. Several factors affect NK cytotoxic activity rendering it dysfunctional and thereby impeding the ability to scavenge abnormal cells as a part of immune escaping mechanisms induced by different types of cancers. NK cells play a crucial role augmenting the activity of various types of anticancer mAb since dysfunctional NK cells are the main reason for the low response to these therapies. Read More

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Perpetrator Characteristics of Azole Antifungal Drugs on Three Oral Factor Xa Inhibitors Administered as a Microdosed Cocktail.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Factor Xa inhibitors (FXaIs) are increasingly used without having sufficient drug-drug interaction data. Using a microdosed cocktail methodology could support filling the knowledge gap quickly.

Methods: In a randomised crossover trial, we investigated the drug-drug interactions between six oral azole antifungals and a microdosed FXaI cocktail containing 25 µg rivaroxaban, 25 µg apixaban, and 50 µg edoxaban. Read More

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Antibody Cocktail Exhibits Broad Neutralization Activity Against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

Virol Sin 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated multiple variants resistant to therapeutic antibodies. In this study, 12 high-affinity antibodies were generated from convalescent donors in early outbreaks using immune antibody phage display libraries. Of them, two RBD-binding antibodies (F61 and H121) showed high-affinity neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, whereas three S2-target antibodies failed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Bacteriophage Cocktails Protect Dairy Cows Against Mastitis Caused By Drug Resistant Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:690377. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai, China.

Mastitis caused by () remains a threat to dairy animals and impacts animal welfare and causes great economic loss. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance and the lagged development of novel antibacterial drugs greatly challenge the livestock industry. Phage therapy has regained attention. Read More

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Evaluation and Clinical Implication of Zhenwu Decoction on Seven Cytochrome P450 Enzyme in Chronic Heart Failure Rats.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Background: Recently, the combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulae and other drugs have been used frequently in clinical practice, while the possibility of herb-drug interaction (HDI) risk remains a challenge. Since metabolic enzymes mediate the majority of drug interactions, evaluating the effects of formulae on metabolic enzymes is instructive for the rational formulation of drug delivery plans.

Objective: Herein, we are devoted to estimating the effects of Zhenwu detection (ZWD) on activities and mRNA expression of 7 cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes in chronic heart failure (CHF) rats. Read More

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Integrated multi-biomarker responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to an environmentally relevant pharmaceutical mixture.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 29;221:112454. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), Institute of Life, Earth and Environment, University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.

Pharmaceuticals are emerging pollutants of concern for aquatic ecosystems where they are occurring in complex mixtures. In the present study, the chronic toxicity of an environmentally relevant pharmaceutical mixture on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated. Five pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, carbamazepine, diclofenac, naproxen and irbesartan) were selected based on their detection frequency and concentration levels in the Meuse river (Belgium). Read More

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September 2021

Exploration of inhibition potential of isoniazid and its metabolites towards CYP2E1 in human liver microsomes through LC-MS/MS analysis.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 24;203:114223. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), S.A.S Nagar, 160062, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Isoniazid (INH) is the first-line anti-tubercular drug that is used both for the prophylaxis as well as the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The patients with TB are more vulnerable to secondary infections and other health complications, hence, they are usually administered a cocktail of drugs. This increases the likelihood of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Read More

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September 2021

Successful Clearance of 300 Day SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Subject with B-Cell Depletion Associated Prolonged (B-DEAP) COVID by REGEN-COV Anti-Spike Monoclonal Antibody Cocktail.

Viruses 2021 06 23;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

A 59-year-old male with follicular lymphoma treated by anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion and ablative chemotherapy was hospitalized with a COVID-19 infection. Although the patient did not develop specific humoral immunity, he had a mild clinical course overall. The failure of all therapeutic options allowed infection to persist nearly 300 days with active accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 virus mutations. Read More

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Cell-Surface-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Protect Mice against Invasive Infection.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 7;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Louisiana State University-Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

is a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen that can cause disseminated bloodstream infections with up to 60% mortality in susceptible populations. Of the three major classes of antifungal drugs, most isolates show high resistance to azoles and polyenes, with some clinical isolates showing resistance to all three drug classes. We reported in this study a novel approach to treating disseminated infections through passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting cell surface antigens with high homology in medically important species. Read More

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The Death of Sodium Pentothal: The Rise and Fall of an Anesthetic Turned Lethal.

J Hist Med Allied Sci 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Harvard Medical School, USA.

For nearly a century, sodium pentothal was the undisputed king of anesthetics. Anesthesiologists were not, however, the sole consumers of pentothal, as psychiatrists used it to treat acute anxiety during psychoanalysis. The associated drug-induced inhibitions were attractive not only to psychotherapists, but also to a new generation of policing and Cold War espionage searching for the elusive truth serum. Read More

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The effect of a chemotherapy drug cocktail on myotube morphology, myofibrillar protein abundance, and substrate availability.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jul;9(13):e14927

School of Kinesiology and Health Science and Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Cachexia, a condition prevalent in many chronically ill patients, is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, and decreases in muscle mass and function. Cachexia is associated with tumor burden and disease-related malnutrition, but other studies implicate chemotherapy as being causative. We investigated the effects of a chemotherapy drug cocktail on myofibrillar protein abundance and synthesis, anabolic signaling mechanisms, and substrate availability. Read More

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Protection of newborn macaques by plant-derived HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies: a model for passive immunotherapy during breastfeeding.

J Virol 2021 Jun 30:JVI0026821. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon USA.

Preventing HIV infection in newborns by vertical transmission remains an important unmet medical need in resource poor areas where ART is not available and mothers and infants cannot be treated pre-partum or during the breastfeeding period. In the present study, the protective efficacy of the potent HIV neutralizing antibodies PGT121 and VRC07-523, both produced in plants, were assessed in a multiple SHIV challenge breastfeeding macaque model. Newborn macaques received either six weekly SC injections with PGT121 alone or as a cocktail of PGT121-LS+VRC07-523-LS injected three times every two weeks. Read More

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Bacteriophage cocktail and phage antibiotic synergism as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the control of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Virus Res 2021 Sep 25;302:198496. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal, 131039, Sonipat, Haryana, India.

Infections related to antibiotic resistant bacteria are accelerating on a global scale, and hence to encounter this problem in case of urinary tract infections; bacteriophages were isolated for biocontrol of multi-drug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPECs) isolates. Four lytic phages were purified, characterized, and evaluated for their effectiveness in the form of cocktail and in synergy with antibiotics. Morphological features and other life cycle specifications of phages revealed that two phages Escherichia phage FS11 and Escherichia phage FS17 belonged to Myoviridae and the other two phages Escherichia phage PS8 and Escherichia phage PS6 belonged to Siphoviridae family of order Caudovirales. Read More

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September 2021

Nanoplatform-based natural products co-delivery system to surmount cancer multidrug-resistant.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 25;336:396-409. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, QingDao, ShanDong 266071, PR China; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Binzhou Medical University, YanTai, ShanDong 264003, PR China. Electronic address:

The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in malignant tumors is the primary reason for invalid chemotherapy. Antitumor drugs are often adversely affected by the MDR of tumor cells. Treatments using conventional drugs, which have specific drug targets, hardly regulate the complex signaling pathway of MDR cells because of the complex formation mechanism of MDR. Read More

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Discovery of a "Cocktail" of Potential SARS-COV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors through Virtual Screening of Known Chemical Components of Vitex negundo L. ("Lagundi").

Med Chem 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines.

Aim: The prevailing crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demands the development of effective therapeutic agents that can be implemented with minimal to zero adverse effects.

Background: Vitex negundo L. (VNL) is a medicinal plant with reported efficacy against respiratory diseases and some of the COVID-19 symptoms. Read More

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Non-genotoxic conditioning facilitates hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for hemophilia A using bioengineered factor VIII.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 5;21:710-727. Epub 2021 May 5.

Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) lentiviral gene therapy is a promising strategy toward a lifelong cure for hemophilia A (HA). The primary risks associated with this approach center on the requirement for pre-transplantation conditioning necessary to make space for, and provide immune suppression against, stem cells and blood coagulation factor VIII, respectively. Traditional conditioning agents utilize genotoxic mechanisms of action, such as DNA alkylation, that increase risk of sterility, infection, and developing secondary malignancies. Read More

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Simultaneous multifocal intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in the setting of long-term cocaine usage.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 17;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottinghamshire, UK.

A 45-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to hospital following a collapse at home. On admission, this patient was noted to have a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score of 9 out of 15, fever and tachypnoea. The patient was identified to have bilateral limb weakness, predominately on the left side, with associated dysphagia. Read More

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Ocular pharmacokinetics of atenolol, timolol and betaxolol cocktail: Tissue exposures in the rabbit eye.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Sep 15;166:155-162. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Eastern Finland, School of Pharmacy, Biopharmaceutics, Yliopistonranta 1, 70210 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

Quantitative understanding of pharmacokinetics of topically applied ocular drugs requires more research to further understanding and to eventually allow predictive in silico models to be developed. To this end, a topical cocktail of betaxolol, timolol and atenolol was instilled on albino rabbit eyes. Tear fluid, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma with endothelium, bulbar conjunctiva, anterior sclera, iris-ciliary body, lens and vitreous samples were collected and analysed using LC-MS/MS. Read More

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September 2021

Potent Molecular Feature-based Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies as Promising Therapeutics Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 31;8:670815. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

The 2019-2020 winter was marked by the emergence of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) related disease (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China. Its high human-to-human transmission ability led to a worldwide spread within few weeks and has caused substantial human loss. Mechanical antiviral control approach, drug repositioning, and use of COVID-19 convalescent plasmas (CPs) were the first line strategies utilized to mitigate the viral spread, yet insufficient. Read More

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Novel antibody cocktail targeting Bet v 1 rapidly and sustainably treats birch allergy symptoms in a phase 1 study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, NY. Electronic address:

Background: The efficacy of an allergen-specific IgG cocktail to treat cat allergy suggests that allergen-specific IgG may be a major protective mechanism elicited by allergen immunotherapy.

Objectives: Extending these findings, we tested a Bet v 1-specific antibody cocktail in birch-allergic subjects.

Methods: This was a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, study with 2 parts. Read More

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Infectious crystalline keratitis induced by Citrobacter.

GMS Ophthalmol Cases 2021 17;11:Doc09. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Microbiology, J. N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Microbial keratitis is an important cause of ocular morbidity, with emerging organisms and drug resistance posing a real threat to vision of patients. A 30-year-old female presented with infective keratitis in the left eye. She had been using rose nectar as home remedy for her ailment. Read More

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Bacteriophage Therapy for Critical and High-Priority Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Phage Cocktail-Antibiotic Formulation Perspective.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biosciences, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 303007, India.

Phage therapy is revolving to address the issues mainly dealing with antibiotic resistance in the pathogenic bacteria. Among the drug-resistant microbial populations, the bacterial species have been categorized as high-priority or critical-priority bacteria. This review summarizes the efficiency and development in phage therapy used against these drug-resistant bacteria in the past few years mainly belonging to the critical- and high-priority list. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory and tight junction protective activity of the herbal preparation STW 5-II on mouse intestinal organoids.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 6;88:153589. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder, in which recurrent abdominal pain is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. STW 5-II is a combination of six medicinal herbs with a clinically proven efficacy in managing IBS.

Aim: This study aims to establish an in vitro IBS model using mouse intestinal organoids and to explore the anti-inflammatory and tight junction protective activities of the multi-herbal preparation STW 5-II. Read More

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PFKFB3-dependent glucose metabolism regulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte development.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21728

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, and other cell types, is accompanied by an increase in glucose uptake. Previous work showed that a pulse of high glucose was required during the first 3 days of differentiation in vitro, but was not required after that. The specific glucose metabolism pathways required for adipocyte differentiation are unknown. Read More

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The evolving proteome of SARS-CoV-2 predominantly uses mutation combination strategy for survival.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 5;19:3864-3875. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi Campus, Telangana State 502285, India.

The knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 proteome variations is important to understand its evolutionary tactics and in drug/vaccine design. An extensive analysis of 125,747 whole proteome reveals 7915 recurring mutations (involving 5146 positions) during December2019-November 2020. Among these, 10 and 51 are highly and moderately recurring mutations respectively. Read More

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Novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against tetanus neurotoxin.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12134. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki City, Osaka, 567-0085, Japan.

Tetanus is a fatal disease caused by tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). TeNT is composed of a light chain (Lc) and a heavy chain, the latter of which is classified into two domains, N-terminus Hn and C-terminus Hc. Several TeNT-neutralizing antibodies have been reported, but it remains unclear which TeNT domains are involved in neutralization. Read More

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