6,174,223 results match your criteria drug anorectic


Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of 12 medicinal plant ethyl acetate extracts using LC-MS feature-based molecular networking.

Phytochem Anal 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Natural Products Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilisation, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, P. R. China.

Introduction: Widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in bacterial multiple drug resistance, thereby searching for natural antimicrobial agents from plants becomes an effective and alternative approach. In the present study, we selected six foodborne bacteria to evaluate the antibacterial activities of 12 medicinal plants ethyl acetate (EA) extracts.

Objective: This study aims to search for natural antibiotic substitutes from plant extracts. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential of the Selective COX-2 Inhibitor Enflicoxib in a Battery of in vitro and in vivo Genotoxicity Assays.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Ecuphar Veterinaria S.L.U. (Animalcare Group). Avgda. Río de Janeiro 60 - 66, planta 13, Barcelona - Spain.

Aim: Enflicoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs (Daxocox [Ecuphar/Animalcare Group]) was assessed for its genotoxic potential in a battery of and genotoxicity assays. These comprised a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), an human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay and an mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Methods: Relevant vehicle and positive control cultures and animals were included in all assays. Read More

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January 2022

In silico Investigation of Lon Protease as a Promising Therapeutic Target.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Considering the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistance, the need for new therapeutic strategies is inevitable. Bacterial proteases are a broad set of enzymes that play a vital role in cell survival, stress response, and pathogenicity. This study was aimed to focus on the crucial role of Lon protease in the regulation of toxin-antitoxin systems in and to design inhibitory peptides against the action of this protease. Read More

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January 2022

Classical and Molecular Techniques to Diagnose HAP/VAP.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Nosocomial pneumonia, including hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), are the most common nosocomial infections occurring in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. However, challenges exist in making a timely and accurate diagnosis of HAP and VAP. Under diagnosis of HAP and VAP can result in greater mortality risk, especially if accompanied by delays in the administration of appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Read More

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January 2022

Nebulized Antibiotics for Healthcare- and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

INSERM U1070 Université de Poitiers, UFR de Médecine Pharmacie and Service des Urgences Adultes & SAMU 86, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Global emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensive drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria has increased the risk of treatment failure, especially for healthcare- or ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP). Nebulization of antibiotics, by providing high intrapulmonary antibiotic concentrations, represents a promising approach to optimize the treatment of HAP/VAP due to multidrug-resistant and extensive drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, while limiting systemic antibiotic exposure. Aminoglycosides and colistin methanesulfonate are the most common nebulized antibiotics. Read More

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January 2022

Factors Affecting Nivolumab Therapy Outcome in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Single-Center Analysis.

Oncology 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Background Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 antibody, is an immune checkpoint inhibitor approved in Japan in March 2017 for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancers (RM-HNCs) after platinum drug administration. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of nivolumab and to determine the prognostic factors affecting the treatment outcome, in a real-world setting in Japanese RM-HNCs. Methods Forty-six patients with RM-HNCs treated with nivolumab between April 2017 and April 2021 at Shinshu University Hospital were retrospectively assessed in this cohort study. Read More

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January 2022

Recent advances of engineered and artificial drug delivery system towards solid tumor based on immune cells.

Biomed Mater 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-Bionics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, CHINA.

Precise drug delivery in cancer treatment is a long-standing concern of modern medicine. Compared with traditional molecular medicines and nano-medicines, emerging cell-based biomimetic delivery strategies display numerous merits, including successive biological functions, innate biocompatibility and superior security since they originate from living organisms, providing a very promising approach. Among them, immune cells receive increasing attention because of their inherent ability in tumor resistance, pathogen elimination, and other significant physiological functions. Read More

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January 2022

Biomaterials-assisted exosomes therapy in osteoarthritis.

Biomed Mater 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Sichuan University, Wangjiang Road 29, Chengdu, 610064, CHINA.

Due to the avascular characteristic of articular cartilage, its self-repair capacity is limited. When cartilage is damaged or forms osteoarthritis, clinical treatment is necessary. However, conventional treatments, including joint replacement, microfracture, cell and drug therapies, have certain limits. Read More

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January 2022

Fluoxetine ameliorates Alzheimer's disease progression and prevents the exacerbation of cardiovascular dysfunction of socially isolated depressed rats through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and hindering TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jan 15;104:108488. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sinai University, El Arish, Egypt. Electronic address:

Depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer's (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, depression treatment restricts its deteriorating effects on mood, memory and CV system. Fluoxetine is the most widely used antidepressant drug, it has neuroprotective effect through its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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January 2022

Twenty-year trends in the use of anti-seizure medication among pregnant women in the Netherlands.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jan 15;127:108549. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

PHARMO Institute for Drug Outcomes Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology & Data Science, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are used to treat conditions such as epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Some of these drugs are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations and adverse developmental outcomes.

Objectives: To examine trends in use of ASMs among pregnant women in the Netherlands according to medication safety profile. Read More

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January 2022

Neuropsychological effects in children exposed to anticonvulsant monotherapy during gestation: Phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jan 15;127:108533. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Medical Genetics Unit, Boston, MA, United States.

Objective: Usage during pregnancy of the antiseizure medication (ASM), phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ), and phenytoin (PHT), has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While morphological effects on offspring are well-documented, inconsistent findings have been reported on neuropsychological development, possibly due to differences in attention to maternal demographics, and other design characteristics. Herein, we report the results of a carefully designed protocol used to examine the effects of gestational monotherapy with PB, CBZ, or PHT upon children's general mental abilities, when compared to age- and gender- matched children born to unexposed women of similar age, education, and socioeconomic status. Read More

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January 2022

"I got a little addiction": Adolescent and young adult cigarillo users' self-perceptions of addiction.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Dec 24;231:109235. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Rd., Portland, OR 97239, USA.

Background: While prior research has informed how cigarette smokers understand and apply the term addiction, little is known about how this term is used by cigarillo smokers. This is an important area of study given the decline in cigarette use and increase in cigar product consumption.

Purpose/objectives: This paper examines how cigarillo smokers self-identify in terms of addiction and the association of this identification with tobacco use, quitting experiences, and level of nicotine dependence. Read More

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December 2021

A measure of subjective substance use disorder awareness - Substance Use Awareness and Insight Scale (SAS).

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Oct 27;231:109129. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Multimodal Imaging Group, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Campbell Institute Research Program, CAMH, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Geriatric Mental Health Division, CAMH, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Impaired illness awareness or inability to recognize that one has a substance use disorder can be a barrier to treatment seeking and rehabilitation. A validated scale is needed to better understand the clinical impact of impaired substance use disorder awareness. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Substance Use Awareness and Insight Scale (SAS), a novel scale to assess impaired illness awareness in individuals with substance use disorder. Read More

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October 2021

Oligomerization, albumin binding and catabolism of therapeutic peptides in the subcutaneous compartment: An investigation on lipidated GLP-1 analogs.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022 Jan 7;210:114566. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, IRBM SpA, Via Pontina Km 30 600, 00 071 Pomezia, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Lipidation, a common strategy to improve half-life of therapeutic peptides, affects their tendency to oligomerize, their interaction with plasmatic proteins, and their catabolism. In this work, we have leveraged the use of NMR and SPR spectroscopy to elucidate oligomerization propensity and albumin interaction of different analogs of the two marketed lipidated GLP-1 agonists liraglutide and semaglutide. As most lipidated therapeutic peptides are administered by subcutaneous injection, we have also assessed in vitro their catabolism in the SC tissue using the LC-HRMS-based SCiMetPep assay. Read More

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January 2022

More than saving lives: Qualitative findings of the UNODC/WHO Stop Overdose Safely (S-O-S) project.

Int J Drug Policy 2022 Jan 15;100:103482. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Alcohol, Drugs and Addictive Behaviours Unit, Department of Mental Health and Substance Use, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The Stop Overdose Safely (S-O-S) initiative-developed in compliance with WHO guidelines-aims to prevent opioid overdose deaths. Under the umbrella of this initiative a multi-country project was implemented in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Ukraine, that involved overdose recognition and response training, including the provision of take-home naloxone (THN). More than 14,000 potential overdose witnesses were trained and more than 16,000 THN kits were distributed across the participating countries. Read More

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January 2022

Determination of the aqueous pK of very insoluble drugs by capillary electrophoresis: Internal standards for methanol-water extrapolation.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Dec 31;1665:462795. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Departament de Química Analítica and Institut de Biomedicina (IBUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11 E, Barcelona 08028, Spain. Electronic address:

A fast determination of acidity constants (pK) of very insoluble drugs has become a necessity in drug discovery process because it often produces molecules that are highly lipophilic and sparingly soluble in water. In this work the high throughput internal standard capillary electrophoresis (IS-CE) method has been adapted to the determination of pK of water insoluble compounds by measurement in methanol/aqueous buffer mixtures. For this purpose, the reference pK values for a set of 46 acid-base compounds of varied structure (internal standards) have been established in methanol-water mixtures at several solvent composition levels (with a maximum of 40% methanol). Read More

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December 2021

One-step immunoassay for food allergens based on screened mimotopes from autodisplayed F-antibody library.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 Jan 8;202:113976. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea. Electronic address:

One-step immunoassay detects a target analyte simply by mixing a sample with a reagent solution without any washing steps. Herein, we present a one-step immunoassay that uses a peptide mimicking a target analyte (mimotope). The key idea of this strategy is that the mimotopes are screened from an autodisplayed F-antibody library using monoclonal antibodies against target analytes. Read More

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January 2022

Amiloride is a suitable fluorescent substrate for the study of the drug transporter human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1).

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Jan 8;592:113-118. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100, Kusumoto, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8650, Japan. Electronic address:

Human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1; SLC47A1) is highly expressed in the kidneys and the liver. It plays a significant role in drug and endogenous compound disposition, and therefore, a rapid evaluation of its inhibition is important for drug development and for the understanding of renal and hepatic physiology. Amiloride is a potassium-sparing diuretic used for treating hypertension; it also demonstrates strong fluorescence in organic solvent or detergent solutions. Read More

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January 2022

Cost of Hepatitis C care facilitation for HIV/Hepatitis C Co-infected people who use drugs.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jan 10;232:109265. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medical College, 425 E 61st St, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Using data from a randomized trial, we evaluated the cost of HCV care facilitation that supports moving along the continuum of care for HIV/HCV co-infected individuals with substance use disorder.

Methods: Participants were HIV patients residing in the community, initially recruited from eight US hospital sites. They received HCV care facilitation (n = 51) or treatment as usual (n = 62) for up to six months. Read More

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January 2022

Alcohol consumption on unprovoked seizure and epilepsy: An updated meta-analysis.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jan 11;232:109305. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Although a positive association between alcohol consumption and epilepsy has been demonstrated in previous meta-analyses of case-control studies, the results of several recently published large cohort studies are contradictory. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis that included more recent data to clarify the association between alcohol consumption and epilepsy. Read More

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January 2022

Opioid related deaths in Norway in 2000-2019.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jan 12;232:109281. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF), Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Aims: The aim of the study is to present autopsy-based findings of the most prevalent opioids in overdose deaths in Norway from 2000 to 2019, as such data are lacking in the current literature.

Methods: Data on cause of death obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry (NCoDR) were linked with forensic toxicological results from forensic autopsies.

Results: From year 2000 the annual numbers of overdose deaths decreased, specifically during 2000-2003, thereafter a relatively stable annual number was observed. Read More

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January 2022

Prevalence and socio-structural determinants of tobacco exposure in young women: Data from the Healthy Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study in urban Soweto, South Africa.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jan 10;232:109300. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3 Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa; School of Health and Human Development, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.

Background: Tobacco use is a major public health risk worldwide, which has increased on the African continent over the past 40 years. Socio-economic factors impact tobacco use and exposure, but little is known about the scope of this problem in young women living in an urban, historically disadvantaged township in contemporary South Africa. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of tobacco use in a cohort of young South African women using serum cotinine, and to assess the association between a number of socio-economic and social factors and tobacco use in this setting. Read More

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January 2022

Association of depression symptom level with smoking urges, cigarette withdrawal, and smoking reinstatement: A preliminary laboratory study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jan 10;232:109267. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, 2001 N. Soto St., Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cigarette smoking urges, withdrawal, and smoking reinstatement may be especially relevant to people with elevated depression symptoms who smoke. This laboratory study aimed to assess relations between depression symptom level and smoking urges for reward and relief, cigarette withdrawal, and smoking reinstatement in people who smoke cigarettes daily during acute abstinence and while smoking as usual.

Methods: Participants with low (n = 51) or elevated (n = 29) baseline depression symptoms underwent two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (i. Read More

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January 2022

Examining a brief measure and observed cutoff scores to identify reward and relief drinking profiles: Psychometric properties and pharmacotherapy response.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Dec 31;232:109257. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Center on Alcohol, Substance use, & Addictions, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: Precision medicine approaches attempt to reduce variability in alcohol use disorder (AUD) outcomes by identifying patient characteristics that predict response to a particular treatment. Recent work has examined the extent to which individuals with AUD may seek alcohol to enhance positive experiences (reward drinking) or relieve negative states (relief drinking) and shown that a high reward/low relief phenotype predicts naltrexone treatment response. Yet, limitations of reward/relief drinking measures may hamper efforts to translate findings to clinical practice. Read More

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December 2021

How structural and functional MRI can inform dual-site tACS parameters: A case study in a clinical population and its pragmatic implications.

Brain Stimul 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Abnormalities in frontoparietal network (FPN) were observed in many neuropsychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. A growing number of studies are using dual-site-tACS with frontoparietal synchronization to engage this network. However, a computational pathway to inform and optimize parameter space for frontoparietal synchronization is still lacking. Read More

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January 2022

Targeted protein degradation: Emerging concepts and protein state-specific targeting principles.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2022 Jan 15;67:102114. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Targeted protein degraders are heterobifunctional small molecules that link a target ligand or bait to an E3-ligase binder via a chemical spacer. Upon entering the cell, these ligands trigger the formation of a ternary complex between the target protein, degrader and E3-ligase, which leads to target polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In recent years, TPD has expanded rapidly as a field, becoming the modality of choice in drug discovery and chemical probe development. Read More

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January 2022

Cost of Illness of Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran, From a Social Perspective: A Comparison of the Human-Capital and Friction-Cost Methods.

Value Health Reg Issues 2022 Jan 15;30:26-30. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and neurodegenerative changes and associated with high levels of disability. This study aimed to investigate direct and indirect costs of illness of patients with MS in Isfahan using and comparing human-capital and friction-cost methods from a societal perspective.

Methods: A total of 300 patients with MS of 2 main centers of the disease in Isfahan, the MS center of Ayatollah Kashani hospital and Isfahan MS center, were included. Read More

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January 2022

Cell Therapy in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation.

Biomed J 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Center for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung Medical College and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Allograft rejection is one of the obstacles in achieving a successful vascularized composite allotransplantation. Treatments of graft rejection with lifelong immunosuppression subject the recipients to a lifelong risk of cancer development and opportunistic infections. Cell therapy has recently emerged as a promising strategy to modulate the immune system, minimize immunosuppressant drug dosages, and induce allograft tolerance. Read More

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January 2022

Metabolomics as a promising tool for improving understanding of Multiple Sclerosis: a review of recent advances.

Biomed J 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects young adults. The development of MS is closely related to the changes in the metabolome. Metabolomics studies have been performed using biofluids or tissue samples from rodent models and human patients to reveal metabolic alterations associated with MS progression. Read More

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January 2022

One day at a time.

Biomed J 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

In this issue of Biomedical Journal we get to know measures to prevent a nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak, a compound that is able to stall SARS-CoV-2 replication, and the connection between air pollution and COVID-19 cases. Another article allows an insight into the potential of treating HIV combining a conventional drug and low level laser therapy. Furthermore, the advantages of awake craniotomy are presented, the efficacy of IRES is examined, and plant extracts are on the one hand explored as a nociceptive agent and on the other hand as therapeutic approach against breast cancer. Read More

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January 2022