26,696 results match your criteria drought


Melatonin enhances drought stress tolerance in maize through coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen assimilation.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 8;167:958-969. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, 030800, China. Electronic address:

Melatonin is a pleiotropic regulatory molecule in plants and is involved in regulating plant tolerance to drought stress. Here, we conducted transcriptomic and physiological analyses to identify metabolic processes associated with the enhanced tolerance of the melatonin-treated maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings to water deficit. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding responses to climate-related water scarcity in Africa.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;806(Pt 1):150420. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Africa Climate and Development Initiative, 6th Floor, Geological Science Building, Upper Campus, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Water scarcity is a global challenge, yet existing responses are failing to cope with current shocks and stressors, including those attributable to climate change. In sub-Saharan Africa, the impacts of water scarcity threaten livelihoods and wellbeing across the continent and are driving a broad range of adaptive responses. This paper describes trends of water scarcity for Africa and outlines climate impacts on key water-related sectors on food systems, cities, livelihoods and wellbeing, conflict and security, economies, and ecosystems. Read More

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September 2021

Integrative small RNA and transcriptome analysis provides insight into key role of miR408 towards drought tolerance response in cowpea.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Abiotic Stress and Agro-Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.

Key Message: Drought stress response studies and overexpression of vun-miR408 proved it to be essential for abiotic stress tolerance in cowpea. Small RNA and transcriptome sequencing of an elite high-yielding drought-tolerant Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal revealed a differential expression of 198 highly conserved, 21 legume-specific, 14 less-conserved, and 10 novel drought-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) along with 3391 (up-regulated) and 3799 (down-regulated) genes, respectively, in the leaf and root libraries. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, vun-miR408-3p, showed an up-regulation of 3. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity in non-linear responses to soil moisture shapes evolutionary constraints in Brachypodium.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Water availability is perhaps the greatest environmental determinant of plant yield and fitness. However, our understanding of plant-water relations is limited because-like many studies of organism-environment interaction-it is primarily informed by experiments considering performance at two discrete levels-wet and dry-rather than as a continuously varying environmental gradient. Here we used experimental and statistical methods based on function-valued traits to explore genetic variation in responses to a continuous soil moisture gradient in physiological and morphological traits among ten genotypes across two species of the model grass genus Brachypodium. Read More

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September 2021

Ten years since the crises in Syria: lessons for planetary and public health.

Authors:
P Lal

Public Health Action 2021 Sep;11(3):110-111

International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, New Delhi, India.

Climate scientists have attributed the war in Syria to persistent droughts caused by damming of rivers and growing aridity due to climate change. As result of the war, there has been widespread migration, hunger, malnutrition, and a collapse of public health systems. While many climate researchers question the direct link of climate variability to civil unrest, there is no doubt that mitigating and reversing Syria's environmental degradation, and reviving food security and public health systems will play an important role in avoiding future unrest in the region. Read More

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September 2021

Can We Harness "Enviromics" to Accelerate Crop Improvement by Integrating Breeding and Agronomy?

Front Plant Sci 2021 10;12:735143. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Corteva Agriscience, Johnston, IA, United States.

The diverse consequences of genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions determine trait phenotypes across levels of biological organization for crops, challenging our ambition to predict trait phenotypes from genomic information alone. GxE interactions have many implications for optimizing both genetic gain through plant breeding and crop productivity through on-farm agronomic management. Advances in genomics technologies have provided many suitable predictors for the genotype dimension of GxE interactions. Read More

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September 2021

The Effect of Foliar Application of Melatonin on Changes in Secondary Metabolite Contents in Two Species Under Drought Stress Conditions.

Front Plant Sci 2021 8;12:692735. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Plant secondary metabolites are compounds that play an important role in plant interactions and defense. Persian lime and Mexican lime as the two most important sour lime varieties with high levels of secondary metabolites, are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a key role in protecting plants against drought stress through regulating the secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathway. Read More

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September 2021

Terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus: effects and prospects of environmental factors in metabolic engineering.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Key Laboratory of South China Agricultural Plant Molecular Analysis and Genetic Improvement, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China.

Plants synthesize a vast array of specialized metabolites that primarily contribute to their defense and survival under adverse conditions. Many of the specialized metabolites have therapeutic values as drugs. Biosynthesis of specialized metabolites is affected by environmental factors including light, temperature, drought, salinity, and nutrients, as well as pathogens and insects. Read More

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September 2021

Climate Change and Major Pests of Mediterranean Olive Orchards: Are We Ready to Face the Global Heating?

Insects 2021 Sep 8;12(9). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

BioLabs, Institute of Life Science, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri Della Libertà 33, 56127 Pisa, Italy.

Evidence of the impact of climate change on natural and agroecosystems is nowadays established worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, an area known to be very susceptible to heatwaves and drought. is one of the main income sources for the Mediterranean agroeconomy, and it is considered a sensitive indicator of the climate change degree because of the tight relationship between its biology and temperature trend. Despite the economic importance of the olive, few studies are nowadays available concerning the consequences that global heating may have on its major pests. Read More

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September 2021

EcoDragons: A Game for Environmental Education and Public Outreach.

Insects 2021 Aug 29;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Environmental education is crucial to tackling the pressing ecological and societal issues on our planet. Although there are various ways to approach environmental education and raise public awareness, games are potentially an effective vehicle of knowledge and engagement because they vulgarize the scientific information in a universal 'language' and bring people together. Here, we designed a game, EcoDragons, that integrates principles of ecology, biological conservation, life history, and taxonomy. Read More

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Sphingadienine-1-phosphate levels are regulated by a novel glycoside hydrolase family 1 glucocerebrosidase widely distributed in seed plants.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 23:101236. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biosciences, School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Tochigi 320-8551, Japan.

Long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs) such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and phytosphingosine-1-phosphate function as abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated signaling molecules that regulate stomatal closure in plants. Recently, a glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) β-glucosidase, Os3BGlu6, was found to improve drought tolerance by stomatal closure in rice, but the biochemical functions of Os3BGlu6 have remained unclear. Here we identified Os3BGlu6 as a novel GH1 glucocerebrosidase (GCase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide to ceramide. Read More

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September 2021

Maize root responses to drought stress depend on root class and axial position.

J Plant Res 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Vegetable Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Gamma St., Giza, 12613, Egypt.

In this study we tested the hypotheses that root classes would exhibit distinctive anatomical and architectural responses to drought stress, and that those responses would vary along the root axes. The root systems of four maize (Zea mays L.) sweet corn genotypes designated SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4 were phenotyped under well-watered and drought treatments in greenhouse mesocosms, permitting increasing stratification of moisture availability as the drought progressed. Read More

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September 2021

The CO record at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory: a new opportunity to study processes on seasonal and inter-annual scales.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Biogeochemical Signals Department, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745, Jena, Germany.

High quality atmospheric CO measurements are sparse in Amazonia, but can provide critical insights into the spatial and temporal variability of sources and sinks of CO . In this study we present the first six years (2014-2019) of continuous, high-precision measurements of atmospheric CO at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, 2.1◦S, 58. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring the GRAS gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): characterization, evolutionary relationships, and expression analyses in response to abiotic stresses.

Planta 2021 Sep 24;254(4):84. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Plant Genomics and Bioinformatics Laboratory, P.G. Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College (Autonomous), Rahara, Kolkata, 700118, India.

Main Conclusion: Genome-wide identification reveals 55 PvuGRAS genes belonging to 16 subfamilies and their gene structures and evolutionary relationships were characterized. Expression analyses highlight their prominence in plant growth, development and abiotic stress responses. GRAS proteins comprise a plant-specific transcription factor family involved in multiple growth regulatory pathways and environmental cues including abiotic/biotic stresses. Read More

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September 2021

Abiotic stress responses in plants.

Nat Rev Genet 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Plants cannot move, so they must endure abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and extreme temperatures. These stressors greatly limit the distribution of plants, alter their growth and development, and reduce crop productivity. Recent progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses of plants to abiotic stresses emphasizes their multilevel nature; multiple processes are involved, including sensing, signalling, transcription, transcript processing, translation and post-translational protein modifications. Read More

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September 2021

Spring arctic oscillation as a trigger of summer drought in Siberian subarctic over the past 1494 years.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19010. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Rapid changes in the hydrological and temperature regimes over the past decades at the northern latitudes enhance significantly permafrost degradation accelerating carbon release, increase the frequency of drought events and extensive wildfires. However, the mechanisms and dynamics driving drought events and their influence on Siberian forests are currently the subject of numerous research activities. Newly developed and annually resolved stable carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies of larch tree-ring cellulose (δC and δO) for the period 516-2009 CE allowed the reconstruction of July precipitation and Arctic Oscillation (AO) in May, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Population exposure to compound extreme events in India under different emission and population scenarios.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;806(Pt 1):150424. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

National Institute of Technology Warangal, India.

It is well understood that India is largely exposed to different climate extremes including floods, droughts, heat waves, among others. However, the exposure of co-occurrence of these events is still unknown. The present analysis, first study of its kind, provides the projected changeability of five different compound extremes under three different emission scenarios (SSP2-4. Read More

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September 2021

Energy-Positive Activity Recognition - From Kinetic Energy Harvesting to Smart Self-Sustainable Wearable Devices.

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst 2021 Sep 24;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Wearable, intelligent, and unobtrusive sensor nodes that monitor the human body and the surrounding environment have the potential to create valuable data for preventive human-centric ubiquitous healthcare. To attain this vision of unobtrusiveness, the smart devices have to gather and analyze data over long periods of time without the need for battery recharging or replacement. This article presents a software-configurable kinetic energy harvesting and power management circuit that enables self-sustainable wearable devices. Read More

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September 2021

Management of phosphorus nutrient amidst climate change for sustainable agriculture.

J Environ Qual 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Xavier Research Foundation, St. Xavier's College, Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, 620002, India.

Nutrients are essential for plant growth and development; they influence the overall agricultural production. Phosphorus (P) is a major nutrient required for many physiological and biochemical functions of the plant. Phosphate rock is the major source of phosphate fertilizer which is becoming increasingly limited in both developing and developed countries. Read More

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September 2021

Best-fit probability distribution models for monthly rainfall of Northeastern Brazil.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Sep;84(6):1541-1556

Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil; Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros, s/n - Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brasil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Biometria e Estatística Aplicada, Recife, Brazil.

The analysis of precipitation data is extremely important for strategic planning and decision-making in various natural systems, as well as in planning and preparing for a drought period. The drought is responsible for several impacts on the economy of Northeast Brazil (NEB), mainly in the agricultural and livestock sectors. This study analyzed the fit of 2-parameter distributions gamma (GAM), log-normal (LNORM), Weibull (WEI), generalized Pareto (GP), Gumbel (GUM) and normal (NORM) to monthly precipitation data from 293 rainfall stations across NEB, in the period 1988-2017. Read More

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September 2021

Synergistic effect of drought and rainfall events of different patterns on watershed systems.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18957. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, People's Republic of China.

The increase in extreme climate events such as flooding and droughts predicted by the general circulation models (GCMs) is expected to significantly affect hydrological processes, erosive dynamics, and their associated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, resulting in a major challenge to water availability for human life and ecosystems. Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model, we evaluated the synergistic effects of droughts and rainfall events on hydrology and water quality in an upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir based on the outputs of five GCMs. It showed substantial increases in air temperature, precipitation intensity, frequency of heavy rains and rainstorms, and drought duration, as well as sediment and nutrient loads in the RCP 8. Read More

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September 2021

Proteomics reveals the effects of drought stress on the kernel development and starch formation of waxy maize.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Sep 23;21(1):434. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, P. R. China.

Background: Kernel development and starch formation are the primary determinants of maize yield and quality, which are considerably influenced by drought stress. To clarify the response of maize kernel to drought stress, we established well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) conditions at 1-30 days after pollination (dap) on waxy maize (Zea mays L. sinensis Kulesh). Read More

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September 2021

Approaches to Investigate Crop Responses to Ozone Pollution: From O -FACE to Satellite-Enabled Modeling.

Plant J 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

USDA ARS Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Ozone (O ) is a damaging air pollutant to crops. As one of the most reactive oxidants known, O rapidly forms other reactive oxygen species (ROS) once it enters leaves through stomata. Those ROS in turn can cause oxidative stress, reduced photosynthesis, accelerated senescence and decreased crop yield. Read More

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September 2021

Drought stress-induced changes in redox metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

Biol Futur 2021 Sep 22;72(3):347-358. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, India.

In the present investigation, influence of water stress on redox metabolism was evaluated in the flag leaf and grains of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes viz DWRB 101, 432 ICARDA, Jyoti and 430 ICARDA at 10th, 20th and 30th days after anthesis (DAA). Relative water content, electrolyte leakage, antioxidative enzymes and their related metabolites were studied during drought stress. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in antioxidants and leaf pigments of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) affected by exogenous spermine under water deficit.

Biol Futur 2020 Sep;71(3):313-321

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Water deficit is one of the most limiting factors for plant growth and production. Polyamines are osmo-active compounds and have important roles in plant resistance to water limitation. A pot experiment was undertaken in a greenhouse as factorial based on complete randomized block design with three replications to assess the physiological and biochemical responses of safflower to different levels of water supply (100% and 40% field capacity) and spermine (0, 40 and 60 µM). Read More

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September 2020

Osmoprotectant and antioxidant effects of new synthesized 6-(2-hydroxyethyl)cyclohex-3-enol on barley under drought stress.

Biol Futur 2021 Jun 7;72(2):241-249. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Faculty of Medicine, Girne American University Drive, Karmi Campus, 10, Karaoglanoglu, Kyrenia, Mersin, Cyprus.

The aim of present study was synthesize 6-(2-hydroxyethyl)cyclohex-3-enol (11) and investigate its antioxidant properties in barley plants under drought stress. For this aim, 1,4-cyclohexadiene (7) was subjected to [2 + 2] ketene addition reaction with dichloro ketene and the chlorine atoms were reduced. After that, the cyclobutanone ring was converted to a lactone ring and the lactone ring was reduced with LiAlH. Read More

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Salicylic acid affects mycorrhizal features, antioxidant enzyme activities and seed yield of linseed under water-deficit stress in open-field conditions.

Biol Futur 2021 Jun 5;72(2):211-227. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.

The research aims were to study salicylic acid (SA) effects on mycorrhiza [hyphal width (HW), vesicle diameter (VD) and mycorrhizal colonization (MC)] and interaction between them on greenness index (GI), drought tolerance index (DTI), antioxidant enzymes activities, and seed yield of linseed under drought. A factorial experiment was conducted in an open-field place with mycorrhiza [non-inoculation, Funneliformis mosseae (FM), and Rhizoglomus intraradices (RI)], SA (250 μM and non-SA), and irrigation levels [100%, 70%, and 40% field capacity (FC)] as treatments. Severe drought increased VD, MC, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase activities while decreased GI, DTI, and yield. Read More

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SbCASP4 improves salt exclusion by enhancing the root apoplastic barrier.

Planta 2021 Sep 23;254(4):81. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Stress, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Main Conclusion: SbCASP4 improves the salt tolerance of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Mocnch] by enhancing the root apoplastic barrier and blocking the transport of sodium ions to the shoot. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Read More

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September 2021

Cacao ( L.) Response to Water Stress: Physiological Characterization and Antioxidant Gene Expression Profiling in Commercial Clones.

Front Plant Sci 2021 6;12:700855. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Plant and Crop Biology, Department of Biology, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

The increase in events associated with drought constraints plant growth and crop performance. Cacao ( L.) is sensitive to water deficit stress (DS), which limits productivity. Read More

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September 2021