7,517 results match your criteria driving forces

The non-covalent interaction between two polyphenols and caseinate as affected by two types of enzymatic protein crosslinking.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 16;364:130375. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Biology and Food Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, 525000 Maoming, PR China; Research Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Healthcare, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, 525000 Maoming, PR China; Maoming Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, 525000 Maoming, PR China. Electronic address:

Caseinate was crosslinked by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or microbial transglutaminase (TGase) and mixed with kaempferol and quercetin at 293-313 K (i.e. 20-40 °C), respectively. Read More

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Smart Cargo Delivery System based on Mesoporous Nanoparticles for Bone Disease Diagnosis and Treatment.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 16;8(12):e2004586. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Bone diseases constitute a major issue for modern societies as a consequence of progressive aging. Advantages such as open mesoporous channel, high specific surface area, ease of surface modification, and multifunctional integration are the driving forces for the application of mesoporous nanoparticles (MNs) in bone disease diagnosis and treatment. To achieve better therapeutic effects, it is necessary to understand the properties of MNs and cargo delivery mechanisms, which are the foundation and key in the design of MNs. Read More

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Relating atomic energy, radius and electronegativity through compression.

Chem Sci 2021 Jan 28;12(7):2397-2403. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Chemical Science, Life Science and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma Parma Italy.

Trends in atomic properties are well-established tools for guiding the analysis and discovery of materials. Here, we show how compression can reveal a long sought-after connection between two central chemical concepts - van-der-Waals (vdW) radii and electronegativity - and how these relate to the driving forces behind chemical and physical transformations. Read More

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January 2021

Ligand design by targeting a binding site water.

Chem Sci 2020 Nov 19;12(3):960-968. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University SE-75124 Uppsala Sweden

Solvent reorganization is a major driving force of protein-ligand association, but the contribution of binding site waters to ligand affinity is poorly understood. We investigated how altered interactions with a water network can influence ligand binding to a receptor. A series of ligands of the A adenosine receptor, which either interacted with or displaced an ordered binding site water, were studied experimentally and by molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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November 2020

Uncovering the interactions driving carotenoid binding in light-harvesting complexes.

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 15;12(14):5113-5122. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam De Boelelaan 1081 1081 HV Amsterdam The Netherlands

Carotenoids are essential constituents of plant light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), being involved in protein stability, light harvesting, and photoprotection. Unlike chlorophylls, whose binding to LHCs is known to require coordination of the central magnesium, carotenoid binding relies on weaker intermolecular interactions (such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces), whose character is far more elusive. Here we addressed the key interactions responsible for carotenoid binding to LHCs by combining molecular dynamics simulations and polarizable quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations on the major LHC, LHCII. Read More

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February 2021

Unraveling Genome Evolution Throughout Visual Analysis: The XCout Portal.

Bioinform Biol Insights 2021 8;15:11779322211021422. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Computer Architecture Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Due to major breakthroughs in sequencing technologies throughout the last decades, the time and cost per sequencing experiment have reduced drastically, overcoming the data generation barrier during the early genomic era. Such a shift has encouraged the scientific community to develop new computational methods that are able to compare large genomic sequences, thus enabling large-scale studies of genome evolution. The field of comparative genomics has proven itself invaluable for studying the evolutionary mechanisms and the forces driving genome evolution. Read More

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Impairing flow-mediated endothelial remodeling reduces extravasation of tumor cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13144. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Tumor Biomechanics, INSERM UMR_S1109, CRBS, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Tumor progression and metastatic dissemination are driven by cell-intrinsic and biomechanical cues that favor the growth of life-threatening secondary tumors. We recently identified pro-metastatic vascular regions with blood flow profiles that are permissive for the arrest of circulating tumor cells. We have further established that such flow profiles also control endothelial remodeling, which favors extravasation of arrested CTCs. Read More

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Measurements of periodically perturbed dewetting force fields and their consequences on the symmetry of the resulting patterns.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13149. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Straße 3a, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

We studied the origin of breaking the symmetry for moving circular contact lines of dewetting polymer films suspended on a periodic array of pillars. There, dewetting force fields driving polymer flow were perturbed by elastic micro-pillars arranged in a regular square pattern. Elastic restoring forces of deformed pillars locally balance driving capillary forces and broke the circular symmetry of expanding dewetting holes. Read More

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Two-dimensional oxide quasicrystal approximants with tunable electronic and magnetic properties.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 16;13(24):10771-10779. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour - UMR 7198, F-54011, Nancy, France.

Recently, the discovery of the quasiperiodic order in ultra-thin perovskite films reinvigorated the field of 2-dimensional oxides on metals, and raised the question of the reasons behind the emergence of the quasiperiodic order in these systems. The effect of size-mismatch between the two separate systems has been widely reported as a key factor governing the formation of new oxide structures on metals. Herein, we show that electronic effects can play an important role as well. Read More

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Mining the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors under the impact of long-term strong-flavor production.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 23:AEM0088521. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P.R. China.

Mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor (SFB). Recent researches and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice, however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Read More

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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality drives biogeographic patterns of soil bacterial communities and their association networks in semi-arid regions.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun;97(7)

Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA.

It is of great interest to elucidate the biogeographic patterns of soil microorganisms and their driving forces, which is fundamental to predicting alterations in microbial-mediated functions arising from environment changes. Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents an important resource for soil microorganisms, knowledge of how its quality affects microbial biogeography is limited. Here, we characterized soil bacterial communities and DOM quality in 45 soil samples collected from a 1500-km sampling transect through semi-arid regions in northern China which are currently suffering great pressure from climate change, using Illumina Miseq sequencing and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Read More

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Nursing Academic Leadership: An Urgent Workforce Shortage in Nursing Education.

Nurs Educ Perspect 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

About the Authors Lynette V. Apen, DNP, RN, CNS, CNE, is division dean of nursing and allied health, Evergreen Valley College, San Jose, California. Ruth Rosenblum, DNP, MS, RN, PNP-BC, CNS, is associate professor, Valley Foundation School of Nursing, San Jose State University, San Jose, California. Nanette Solvason, PhD, is regional director, Employer Engagement for Health, Health Workforce Initiative. Garrett K. Chan, PhD, APRN, FAEN, FPCN, FCNS, FNAP, FAAN, is president and CEO, HealthImpact, Oakland, California, and associate adjunct professor, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Lynette V. Apen acknowledges Colleen O'Leary-Kelley, PhD, RN, director and professor, The Valley Foundation School of Nursing, for her support on this project. Dr. Nanette Solvason acknowledges John Cordova, PHN, RN, statewide director for health, Health Workforce Initiative, for his guidance and support of this project. For more information regarding this publication, contact Lynette V. Apen at

Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the California nursing academic leader workforce shortage, identify succession planning activities, analyze driving and restraining forces of the role, and distinguish critical leadership competencies and onboarding strategies.

Background: Several studies have projected a workforce shortage for nursing academic leaders and studied the leadership competencies and driving and restraining forces impacting the role.

Method: The study was a secondary descriptive analysis of an existing cross-sectional needs assessment survey administered to California nursing academic leaders of prelicensure programs. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial ATP synthesis.

Math Biosci 2021 Jun 16:108646. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, MI, USA. Electronic address:

We present a computational framework for analyzing and simulating mitochondrial ATP synthesis using basic thermodynamic and kinetic principles. The framework invokes detailed descriptions of the thermodynamic driving forces associated with the processes of the electron transport chain, mitochondrial ATP synthetase, and phosphate and adenine nucleotide transporters. Assembling models of these discrete processes into an integrated model of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, we illustrate how to analyze and simulate in vitro respirometry experiments and how models identified from in vitro experimental data effectively explain cardiac respiratory control in vivo. Read More

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Nobel Turing Challenge: creating the engine for scientific discovery.

Hiroaki Kitano

NPJ Syst Biol Appl 2021 Jun 18;7(1):29. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The Systems Biology Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate School, Okinawa, Japan; Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; Sony AI, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; and The Alan Turing Institute, London, UK.

Scientific discovery has long been one of the central driving forces in our civilization. It uncovered the principles of the world we live in, and enabled us to invent new technologies reshaping our society, cure diseases, explore unknown new frontiers, and hopefully lead us to build a sustainable society. Accelerating the speed of scientific discovery is therefore one of the most important endeavors. Read More

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Superflexible and Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanogenerator as a Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Sensor for Human Motion Monitoring.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Apr 30;13(1):117. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

For traditional piezoelectric sensors based on poled ceramics, a low curie temperature (T) is a fatal flaw due to the depolarization phenomenon. However, in this study, we find the low T would be a benefit for flexible piezoelectric sensors because small alterations of force trigger large changes in polarization. BaTiSnO (BTS) with high piezoelectric coefficient and low T close to human body temperature is taken as an example for materials of this kind. Read More

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Toward a First-Principles Framework for Predicting Collective Properties of Electrolytes.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Physical Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States.

ConspectusGiven the universal importance of electrolyte solutions, it is natural to expect that we have a nearly complete understanding of the fundamental properties of these solutions (e.g., the chemical potential) and that we can therefore explain, predict, and control the phenomena occurring in them. Read More

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Standard Thermodynamic Properties, Biosynthesis Rates, and the Driving Force of Growth of Five Agricultural Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:671868. Epub 2021 May 31.

Biothermodynamics, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

Elemental composition of L. (cotton), L. (Asian rice), L. Read More

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Diffusion of active particles with angular velocity reversal.

Phys Rev E 2021 May;103(5-1):052608

Department of Physics, PoreLab, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Biological and synthetic microswimmers display a wide range of swimming trajectories depending on driving forces and torques. In this paper we consider a simple overdamped model of self-propelled particles with a constant self-propulsion speed but an angular velocity that varies in time. Specifically, we consider the case of both deterministic and stochastic angular velocity reversals, mimicking several synthetic active matter systems, such as propelled droplets. Read More

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Mean-field theories for depinning and their experimental signatures.

Phys Rev E 2021 May;103(5-1):052114

Laboratoire de Physique de l'Ećole Normale Supérieure, ENS, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France.

Mean-field theory is an approximation replacing an extended system by a few variables. For depinning of elastic manifolds, these are the position u of its center of mass and the statistics of the forces F(u). There are two proposals how to model the latter: as a random walk (ABBM model), or as uncorrelated forces at integer u (discretized particle model, DPM). Read More

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Polymer-induced microcolony compaction in early biofilms: A computer simulation study.

Phys Rev E 2021 May;103(5-1):052407

Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.

Microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, have the ability of colonizing surfaces and developing biofilms that can determine diseases and infections. Most bacteria secrete a significant amount of extracellular polymer substances that are relevant for biofilm stabilization and growth. In this work, we apply computer simulation and perform experiments to investigate the impact of polymer size and concentration on early biofilm formation and growth. Read More

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The nature of cell division forces in epithelial monolayers.

J Cell Biol 2021 Aug 16;220(8). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Epithelial cells undergo striking morphological changes during division to ensure proper segregation of genetic and cytoplasmic materials. These morphological changes occur despite dividing cells being mechanically restricted by neighboring cells, indicating the need for extracellular force generation. Beyond driving cell division itself, forces associated with division have been implicated in tissue-scale processes, including development, tissue growth, migration, and epidermal stratification. Read More

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Activation and conversion of alkanes in the confined space of zeolite-type materials.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Instituto de Tecnología Química, Universitat Politècnica de València-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avenida de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Microporous zeolite-type materials, with crystalline porous structures formed by well-defined channels and cages of molecular dimensions, have been widely employed as heterogeneous catalysts since the early 1960s, due to their wide variety of framework topologies, compositional flexibility and hydrothermal stability. The possible selection of the microporous structure and of the elements located in framework and extraframework positions enables the design of highly selective catalysts with well-defined active sites of acidic, basic or redox character, opening the path to their application in a wide range of catalytic processes. This versatility and high catalytic efficiency is the key factor enabling their use in the activation and conversion of different alkanes, ranging from methane to long chain n-paraffins. Read More

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Modulated self-assembly of metal-organic frameworks.

Ross S Forgan

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 6;11(18):4546-4562. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

WestCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow Glasgow UK

Exercising fine control over the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is key to ensuring reproducibility of physical properties such as crystallinity, particle size, morphology, porosity, defectivity, and surface chemistry. The principle of modulated self-assembly - incorporation of modulator molecules into synthetic mixtures - has emerged as the primary means to this end. This perspective article will detail the development of modulated synthesis, focusing primarily on coordination modulation, from a technique initially intended to cap the growth of MOF crystals to one that is now used regularly to enhance crystallinity, control particle size, induce defectivity and select specific phases. Read More

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Nonlinear material and ionic transport through membrane nanotubes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jun 9;1863(10):183677. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biofisika Institute (CSIC, UPV/EHU), University of the Basque Country, barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 6 solairua, 48013 Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Membrane nanotubes (NTs) and their networks play an important role in intracellular membrane transport and intercellular communications. The transport characteristics of the NT lumen resemble those of conventional solid-state nanopores. However, unlike the rigid pores, the soft membrane wall of the NT can be deformed by forces driving the transport through the NT lumen. Read More

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy β-cardiac myosin mutation (P710R) leads to hypercontractility by disrupting super relaxed state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304;

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited form of heart disease, associated with over 1,000 mutations, many in β-cardiac myosin (MYH7). Molecular studies of myosin with different HCM mutations have revealed a diversity of effects on ATPase and load-sensitive rate of detachment from actin. It has been difficult to predict how such diverse molecular effects combine to influence forces at the cellular level and further influence cellular phenotypes. Read More

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Microbiota and Microglia Interactions in ASD.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:676255. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Snyder Institute of Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious, highly variable neurodevelopmental disorders, commonly characterized by the manifestation of specific behavioral abnormalities, such as stereotypic behaviors and deficits in social skills, including communication. Although the neurobiological basis for ASD has attracted attention in recent decades, the role of microglial cells, which are the main resident myeloid cell population in the brain, is still controversial and underexplored. Microglia play several fundamental roles in orchestrating brain development and homeostasis. Read More

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Order-disorder transition of a rigid cage cation embedded in a cubic perovskite.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 10;12(1):3548. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The structure and properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are impacted by the order-disorder transition, whose driving forces from the organic cation and the inorganic framework cannot easily be disentangled. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and properties of a cage-in-framework perovskite AthMn(N), where Ath is an organic cation 4-azatricyclo[2.2. Read More

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Recent advances in DNA walker machines and their applications coupled with signal amplification strategies: A critical review.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 17;1171:338523. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Science for Food Safety and Biology (MOE & Fujian Province), Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

DNA walkers, a type of dynamic nanomachines, have become the subject of burgeoning research in the field of biology. These walkers are powered by driving forces based on strand displacement reactions, protein enzyme/DNAzyme reactions and conformational transitions. With the unique properties of high directionality, flexibility and efficiency, DNA walkers move progressively and autonomously along multiple dimensional tracks, offering abundant and promising applications in biosensing, material assembly and synthesis, and early cancer diagnosis. Read More

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Chemokines and Eicosanoids Fuel the Hyperinflammation Within the Lungs of Patients with Severe COVID-19.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Axe maladies infectieuses et immunitaires, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec- Université Laval, Canada; Département de microbiologie-infectiologie et d'immunologie, Université Laval, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to a variety of clinical outcomes ranging from the absence of symptoms to severe acute respiratory disease and ultimately death. A feature of patients with severe Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the blood. Elevated levels of cytokine are predictive of infection severity and clinical outcome. Read More

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Multiple Self-Organized Phases and Spatial Solitons in Cold Atoms Mediated by Optical Feedback.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(20):203201

SUPA and Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland, United Kingdom.

We study the transverse self-structuring of cold atomic clouds with effective atomic interactions mediated by a coherent driving beam retroreflected by means of a single mirror. The resulting self-structuring due to optomechanical forces is much richer than that of an effective-Kerr medium, displaying hexagonal, stripe and honeycomb phases depending on the interaction strength parametrized by the linear susceptibility. Phase domains are described by Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equations with real coefficients. Read More

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