Med Res Rev 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Endometriosis (EM) is defined as endometrial tissues found outside the uterus. Growth and development of endometriotic cells in ectopic sites can be promoted via multiple pathways, including MAPK/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-κB, Rho/ROCK, reactive oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor, estrogen, and cytokines. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, migration, invasion, fibrosis, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune escape. Read More