23,447 results match your criteria doses reduce

Does methylprednisolone reduce the mortality risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients? A meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Objectives: The questions remained if mortality benefits with dexamethasone seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also extend to other systemic corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone. This article presents a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ascertain if methylprednisolone can be recommended for use in patients with COVID-19 to prevent deaths.

Methods: Systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and preprint servers until 13 April 2021. Read More

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Missed childhood immunizations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: Analyses of routine statistics and of a national household survey.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: There is widespread concern that disruption to health services during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to declines in immunization coverage among young children, but there is limited information on the magnitude of such impact. High immunization coverage is essential for reducing the risk of vaccine preventable diseases.

Methods: We used data from two nationwide sources covering the whole of Brazil. Read More

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Observational multicentre prospective study to assess changes in cognitive function in patients treated with PCSK9i. Study protocol.

Farm Hosp 2021 Mar 5;45(3):150-154. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Servicio de Cardiología, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña). Spain..

Objective: PCSK9 inhibitors have been shown to reduce LDLc by up to about 60% and 85% when used with high doses of statins and ezetimibe (2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines). These therapies may lead to very low levels of LDLc and have been associated with possible cognitive deterioration. No significant differences were found in the only specific  study (EBBINGHAUS). Read More

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Accelerated vaccine rollout is imperative to mitigate highly transmissible COVID-19 variants.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 25;35:100865. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis (CIDMA), Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: More contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged around the world, sparking concerns about impending surge in cases and severe outcomes. Despite the development of effective vaccines, rollout has been slow. We evaluated the impact of accelerated vaccine distribution on curbing the disease burden of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. Read More

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Synbiotic sheep milk ice cream reduces chemically induced mouse colon carcinogenesis.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, and Engineering (DAFNE), University of Foggia (UNIFG), Foggia, 71122, Italy. Electronic address:

Sheep dairy products containing prebiotic and probiotic ingredients may have health-promoting properties. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of sheep milk ice cream [conventional full-fat (CONV), full-fat enriched with probiotic (PROB, 100 mg % wt/wt of Lacticaseibacillus casei 01), or nonfat synbiotic (SYNB, Lacticaseibacillus casei 01 and inulin, 10% wt/wt)] on carcinogen-induced colonic crypt cytotoxicity and premalignant lesion development. Male Swiss mice received 2 doses of colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg of body weight) at wk 3 and 4. Read More

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FXYD1 Is Protective Against Vascular Dysfunction.

Hypertension 2021 May 3:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016884. Epub 2021 May 3.

From the University of Sydney, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Cardiothoracic and Vascular Health (K.J.B., O.T., C.G., S.M.M., T.H., C.-C.L., B.A.D.B., G.A.F.).

Nitric oxide (NO) production by eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) is critical for vascular health. Oxidative stress-induced uncoupling of eNOS leads to decreased NO bioavailability, compounded by increased superoxide generation. FXYD1 (FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 1), a caveolar protein, protects against oxidative inhibition of the Na-K-ATPase. Read More

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Artesunate restores the levels of inhibitory synapse proteins and reduces amyloid-β and C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of the amyloid precursor protein in an AD-mouse model.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 29:103624. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia, characterized histopathologically by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is a major component of amyloid plaques and is released together with carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic cleavage, thought to contribute to synapse dysfunction and loss along the progression of AD. Artemisinins, primarily antimalarial drugs, reduce neuroinflammation and improve cognitive capabilities in mouse models of AD. Read More

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Within-country age-based prioritisation, global allocation, and public health impact of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: A mathematical modelling analysis.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, and the Abdul Latif Jameel Institute for Disease and Emergency Analytics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The worldwide endeavour to develop safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has been extraordinary, and vaccination is now underway in many countries. However, the doses available in 2021 are likely to be limited. We extend a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different country settings to evaluate the public health impact of potential vaccines using WHO-developed target product profiles. Read More

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Effects of an interprofessional Quality Circle-Deprescribing Module (QC-DeMo) in Swiss nursing homes: a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Geriatr 2021 May 1;21(1):289. Epub 2021 May 1.

Community Pharmacy, Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 44, CH-1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are common among nursing homes (NH) residents, as is polypharmacy. Deprescribing has emerged in the past decade as a safe and effective way to reduce the use of PIMs and improve patient outcomes. However, effective deprescribing interventions are expensive, as they require specialised staff and a great amount of time for each resident. Read More

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Effects of parecoxib after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A single center randomized controlled trial.

Int J Surg 2021 Apr 28:105962. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of General Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China. Electronic address:

Background: Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, is a potential alternative analgesic to reduce opioid consumption after Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Further, the safety and efficacy of long-term use of parecoxib for patients after PD remain a major concern.

Materials And Methods: In this single-center, randomized clinical trial, 134 patients undergoing open PD were randomized into the parecoxib group (group P) and control group (group C) at a 1:1 ratio. Read More

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Combating immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 by dietary carbon supplementation in broiler chickens.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite of some Aspergillus species that contaminate the agricultural commodities intended for animal and human consumption. The present in vivo study aimed to evaluate activated charcoal (AC) for its ability to reduce AFB1-induced immune suppressive effects in broiler chickens. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 12 groups (n = 30) and raised until 42 days of age. Read More

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Dichloroacetate and PX-478 exhibit strong synergistic effects in a various number of cancer cell lines.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 30;21(1):481. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Background: One key approach for anticancer therapy is drug combination. Drug combinations can help reduce doses and thereby decrease side effects. Furthermore, the likelihood of drug resistance is reduced. Read More

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in chemotherapeutic drugs resistance: An emerging targeting candidate.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 27;278:119557. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

There is no definitive cure for cancer, and most of the current chemotherapy drugs have limited effects due to the development of drug resistance and toxicity at high doses. Therefore, there is an ongoing need for identifying the causes of chemotherapeutic resistance, and it will be possible to develop innovative treatment approaches based on these novel targeting candidates. Cigarette smoking is known to be one of the main causes of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Read More

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Is it Time to Expand Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Use for Weight Loss in Patients Without Diabetes?

Drugs 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

USF Health Taneja College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd MDC 30, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

The obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus epidemics demonstrate that simply emphasizing a healthy lifestyle is insufficient. While weight loss medications have historically been considered "cosmetic", glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) also reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we assessed whether GLP1-RAs warrant use in patients who are overweight (body mass index 27. Read More

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Antioxidants in Smokers.

Nutr Res Rev 2021 Apr 30:1-77. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biosciences (Department of Excellence 2018-2022), Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milan, Italy.

Cigarette smoke (CS) is likely the most common preventable cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, inexpensive interventional strategies for preventing CS-related diseases would positively impact health systems. Inhaled CS is a powerful inflammatory stimulus and produces a shift in the normal balance between antioxidants and oxidants inducing oxidative stress in both the respiratory system and throughout the body. Read More

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Initially Reduced Linezolid Dosing Regimen to Prevent Thrombocytopenia in Hemodialysis Patients.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Toyama University Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.

This retrospective cohort study investigated the effects of an initially reduced linezolid dosing regimen in hemodialysis patients through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Patients were divided into two groups depending on their initial dose of linezolid (standard dose of 600 mg every 12 h or initially reduced dose of 300 mg every 12 h/600 mg every 24 h). The cumulative incidence rates of thrombocytopenia and severe thrombocytopenia were compared between both groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Read More

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Nano Selenium-Enriched Probiotics as Functional Food Products against Cadmium Liver Toxicity.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

"Aurel Ardelean" Institute of Life Sciences, Vasile Goldis Western University of Arad, 86 Liviu Rebreanu St., 310414 Arad, Romania.

Since cadmium is a toxic metal that can cause serious health problems for humans, it is necessary to find bioremediation solutions to reduce its harmful effects. The main goal of our work was to develop a functional food based on elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) obtained by green synthesis using and to validate their ability to annihilate the hepatic toxic effects induced by cadmium. The characterization of SeNPs was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, DLS and TEM. Read More

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Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Develop a Veterinary Amorphous Enrofloxacin Solid Dispersion.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Zoonotic intestinal pathogens threaten human health and cause huge economic losses in farming. Enrofloxacin (ENR) shows high antibacterial activity against common intestinal bacteria. However, its poor palatability and low aqueous solubility limit the clinical application of ENR. Read More

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Impact of Pharmaceutical Prophylaxis on Radiation-Induced Liver Disease Following Radioembolization.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany.

Background: Radioembolization (RE) with yttrium-90 (Y) resin microspheres yields heterogeneous response rates in with primary or secondary liver cancer. Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a potentially life-threatening complication with higher prevalence in cirrhotics or patients exposed to previous chemotherapies. Advances in RILD prevention may help increasing tolerable radiation doses to improve patient outcomes. Read More

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The Impact of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Gastrointestinal Injury on the Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Donepezil and Its Active Metabolite 6--desmethyldonepezil, and Gastric Myoelectric Activity in Experimental Pigs.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centre of Biomedical Research, University Hospital, 500 05 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Gastrointestinal side effects of donepezil, including dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, occur in 20-30% of patients. The pathogenesis of these dysmotility associated disorders has not been fully clarified yet. Pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil and its active metabolite 6--desmethyldonepezil were investigated in experimental pigs with and without small intestinal injury induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Read More

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Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Systemic IL13 Blockade by Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: A Free Assay Disguised as Total.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clinical Pharmacology and Quantitative Pharmacology, AstraZeneca, Cambridge CB21 6GH, UK.

A sequential pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model was built with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modelling based on data from a first-in-human trial of a novel biologic, MEDI7836. MEDI7836 is a human immunoglobulin G1 lambda (IgG1λ-YTE) monoclonal antibody, with an Fc modification to reduce metabolic clearance. MEDI7836 specifically binds to, and functionally neutralizes interleukin-13. Read More

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Enhancing Anti-Tumoral Potential of CD-NHF by Modulating PI3K/Akt Axis in U87 Ex Vivo Glioma Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Regional Institute of Oncology, 2-4, General Henri Mathias Berthelot Street, 700483 Iasi, Romania.

Background: In the latest years, there has been an increased interest in nanomaterials that may provide promising novel approaches to disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Our previous results demonstrated that Carbon-dots prepared from -hydroxyphthalimide (CD-NHF) exhibited anti-tumoral activity on several cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-231, A375, A549, and RPMI8226, while U87 glioma tumor cells were unaffected. Gliomas represent one of the most common types of human primary brain tumors and are responsible for the majority of deaths. Read More

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Superoxide Dismutase 1 Nanoparticles (Nano-SOD1) as a Potential Drug for the Treatment of Inflammatory Eye Diseases.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

Inflammatory eye diseases remain the most common clinical problem in ophthalmology. The secondary processes associated with inflammation, such as overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhaustion of the endogenous antioxidant system, frequently lead to tissue degeneration, vision blurring, and even blindness. Antioxidant enzymes, such as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), could serve as potent scavengers of ROS. Read More

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Low Doses of Resveratrol Protect Human Granulosa Cells from Induced-Oxidative Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Resveratrol is a phytoalexin present in plant-derived foods, including grape's skin, cocoa, and peanuts. Evidence suggests that it has beneficial effects on human health because of its antioxidant properties. However, there is limited knowledge about the part played by resveratrol in ovarian function. Read More

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COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with a SARS-CoV-2 R.1 Lineage Variant in a Skilled Nursing Facility After Vaccination Program - Kentucky, March 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 30;70(17):639-643. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Although COVID-19 mRNA vaccines demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials (1), they were not 100% efficacious. Thus, some infections postvaccination are expected. Limited data are available on effectiveness in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and against emerging variants. Read More

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Poria cocos polysaccharide attenuates damage of nervus in Alzheimer's disease rat model induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(8):727-737

Department of Febrile Disease, Basic Medicine College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) is a compound from Poria cocos, and which is used as a classical tonic agent. This article aims to investigate the effects of PCP on neuronal damage of hippocampus and cognitive function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride. Oxiracetam (ORC) was used as a positive drug in this experiment. Read More

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The Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Dexmedetomidine for Procedural Sedation and Postoperative Behaviors in Pediatric Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Apr 29:10600280211009845. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, China.

Background: This study systematically evaluated the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation and postoperative behaviors in a pediatric population as well as whether the results met the information required to draw conclusions.

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy evaluation of dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation and postoperative behaviors in a pediatric population.

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science and Ovid MEDLINE were searched to obtain randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing dexmedetomidine with control medicine and comparing different doses of dexmedetomidine. Read More

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Hemodynamic Effects of an Increased Midodrine Dosing Frequency.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Apr 26;3(4):e0405. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

In practice, midodrine has been used to reduce IV vasopressor requirements and decrease ICU length of stay. However, recent publications have failed to show clinical success when midodrine was administered every 8 hours. One possible reason for the lack of clinical efficacy at this dosing interval may be the pharmacokinetic properties of midodrine that support a more frequent dosing interval. Read More

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Dosimetric Comparison of Radiation Techniques for Comprehensive Regional Nodal Radiation Therapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: A Treatment Planning Study.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:645328. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: How modern cardiac sparing techniques and beam delivery systems using advanced x-ray and proton beam therapy (PBT) can reduce incidental radiation exposure doses to cardiac and pulmonary organs individually or in any combination is poorly investigated.

Methods: Among 15 patients with left-sided breast cancer, partial wide tangential 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) delivered in conventional fractionation (CF) or hypofractionated (HF) schedules; PBT delivered in a CF schedule; and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivered in an HF schedule, each under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and free-breathing (FB) conditions, were examined. Target volume coverage and doses to organs-at-risk (OARs) were calculated for each technique. Read More

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