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Effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood markers in ulcerative colitis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Health Sciences and Engineering, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China.

Objective: Observational studies have shown that vitamin D levels are inversely related to ulcerative colitis activity, yet evidence from population interventions remains inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials to clarify the effect of vitamin D on blood markers in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched for studies published before June 2020. Read More

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Efficacy of Bilberry and Grape Seed Extract Supplement Interventions to Improve Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism and Blood Pressure in Different Populations-A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Nutrients 2021 May 17;13(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK.

Intervention with fruit extracts may lower glucose and lipid levels, as well as blood pressure. We reviewed the efficacy of bilberry and grape seed extracts to affect these outcomes across populations with varying health status, age and ethnicity, across intervention doses and durations, in 24 intervention studies with bilberry and blackcurrant ( = 4) and grape seed extract ( = 20). Bilberry and blackcurrant extract lowered average levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), at least in Chinese subjects, especially in those who were older, who were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and who were participating in longer-term studies. Read More

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Chronic valproic acid administration enhances oxidative stress, upregulates IL6 and downregulates Nrf2, Glut1 and Glut4 in rat's liver and brain.

Neuroreport 2021 Jul;32(10):840-850

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

Valproic acid (VPA) is a powerful antiepileptic drug that was associated with several neurological and hepatic problems especially with increasing its dose and duration. These problems may be metabolic in origin and related to glucose homeostasis. So, the present study investigated the effect of different doses and durations of VPA on the expression of glucose transporters (Glut1 and Glut4), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) in the liver and specific brain regions. Read More

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Adherence to Adjuvant Tamoxifen in Mexican Young Women with Breast Cancer.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2021 19;15:1039-1049. Epub 2021 May 19.

Breast Cancer Center, Hospital Zambrano Hellion TecSalud, Tecnologico de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) in young women is characterized by an unfavorable prognosis in hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative tumors, which may be explained by low rates of tamoxifen adherence. In Mexico, up to 14% of all BC diagnoses occur in young women and no data on tamoxifen adherence has been reported.

Objective: To estimate the rate of adherence to adjuvant tamoxifen in Mexican young women with BC (YWBC). Read More

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The Use of Methadone in Pediatric Cancer Pain - A Retrospective Study from a Governmental Cancer Center in India.

Indian J Palliat Care 2021 Jan-Mar;27(1):133-138. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Institute for Palliative Care, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The management of cancer-related pain relies on access to opioids. When regular opioids are not tolerated, or are insufficient, methadone is an affordable and effective analgesic.

Aim: The aim of the project was to describe the pattern of use and clinical experience of methadone in pediatric cancer pain at a governmental cancer hospital in Hyderabad, one of the four Indian cancer centers with permission to prescribe methadone. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D on Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Lines.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Adnan Menderes (Vatan) Avenue, 34093, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To assess the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) either alone or under oxidative damage on human retinal pigment epithelium cell lines.

Methods: The human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines were pretreated with hydrogen peroxide with different concentrations (100-1000 μM) and durations (4, 12 and 24 h) to determine the appropriate dose. A group of cells were treated with vitamin D alone, and another group of cells were co-treated with different concentrations of (10-100 nM) vitamin D and hydrogen peroxide. Read More

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Ocular findings in Japanese patients with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy developing within 3 years of treatment.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Rheumatic Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To describe the characteristics of Japanese patients with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy developing within 3 years of treatment outset.

Study Design: Retrospective case series METHODS: Three patients with HCQ retinopathy developing within 3 years of treatment outset have been identified in Japan since HCQ became available in 2015. Their medical charts, containing optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual field tests, were reviewed. Read More

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Evidence-Based Treatment and Monitoring Strategies for Dementia-Related Psychosis.

Authors:
Clive Ballard

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Apr 27;82(3). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

University of Exeter College of Medicine and Health, UK.

Atypical antipsychotics play a limited role in the management of dementia-related psychosis (DRP). Major adverse outcomes are associated with most antipsychotics in patients with dementia, and guidelines recommend that these drugs not be prescribed for long durations. When treating symptoms of DRP, clinicians should follow guidelines such as using medication only if the patient or others are in distress or danger and starting with low doses. Read More

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Durability of VEGF Suppression With Intravitreal Aflibercept and Brolucizumab: Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Understand Clinical Outcomes.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Apr;10(4)

Medical Affairs Ophthalmology, Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: To investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-suppression durations contribute to our understanding of clinical trial outcomes by simulating vitreous molar concentrations (Cvm) of intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) and brolucizumab (IVT-BRO) using pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling.

Methods: A PK model simulated Cvm after single-dose IVT-AFL, IVT-BRO, and ranibizumab (IVT-RAN), and extrapolated intraocular VEGF-suppression thresholds and durations. Vitreous PK after multidose regimens used in studies of IVT-AFL versus IVT-BRO were simulated and compared with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) data. Read More

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Glucocorticoid signaling in pancreatic islets modulates gene regulatory programs and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009531. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Glucocorticoids are key regulators of glucose homeostasis and pancreatic islet function, but the gene regulatory programs driving responses to glucocorticoid signaling in islets and the contribution of these programs to diabetes risk are unknown. In this study we used ATAC-seq and RNA-seq to map chromatin accessibility and gene expression from eleven primary human islet samples cultured in vitro with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone at multiple doses and durations. We identified thousands of accessible chromatin sites and genes with significant changes in activity in response to glucocorticoids. Read More

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Differences in Radiation Exposure of CT-Guided Percutaneous Manual and Powered Drill Bone Biopsy.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147, Essen, Germany.

Purpose: Apart from the commonly applied manual needle biopsy, CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions can be performed with battery-powered drill biopsy systems. Due to assumably different radiation doses and procedural durations, the aim of this study is to examine radiation exposure and establish local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of CT-guided bone biopsies of different anatomical regions.

Methods: In this retrospective study, dose data of 187 patients who underwent CT-guided bone biopsy with a manual or powered drill biopsy system performed at one of three different multi-slice CT were analyzed. Read More

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Efficacy of perineural versus intravenous dexmedetomidine as a peripheral nerve block adjunct: a systematic review.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Anesthesia, University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Background: Dexmedetomidine is an effective local anesthetic adjunct for peripheral nerve blocks. The intravenous route for administering dexmedetomidine has been suggested to be equally effective to the perineural route; but comparative evidence is conflicting.

Objectives: This evidence-based review evaluated trials comparing the effects of intravenous to perineural dexmedetomidine on peripheral nerve block characteristics in adult surgical patients. Read More

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Rapidly progressive cognitive decline associated with teprotumumab in thyroid eye disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 10;14(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Endocrinology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Teprotumumab (Tepezza), an insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor antagonist, was approved for treatment of thyroid eye disease in 2020. Teprotumumab is administered intravenously every 3 weeks for a total of eight doses. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhoea, muscle spasms, hearing impairment, dysgeusia, headaches, dry skin, infusion reactions and hyperglycaemia. Read More

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Dydrogesterone versus medroxyprogesterone acetate co-treatment ovarian stimulation for IVF: a matched cohort study of 236 freeze-all-IVF cycles.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Apr 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Antalya IVF, Antalya, Turkey.

This matched cohort study was retrospectively performed, with cycles extracted from freeze-all-IVF treatments performed between March and November 2019, to compare the efficacy of flexible-start dydrogesterone (DYG) co-treatment ovarian stimulations (OS) with flexible-start medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) co-treatment OS. DYG cycles were matched 1:1 with MPA cycles using female age and antral follicle count, resulting in 236 matched cycles. OS durations and total FSH doses were similar in DYG and MPA OS cycles. Read More

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Unexpected beta-amyloid production by middle doses of resveratrol through stabilization of APP protein and AMPK-mediated inhibition of trypsin-like proteasome activity in a cell model of Alzheimer's disease.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 14;152:112185. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Resveratrol is a drug candidate used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and shows beneficial effects in various toxicity and production models, although recent clinical trial data did not show satisfactory results. Here we demonstrated the potential side effects of resveratrol in AD. We demonstrated resveratrol concentration- and time-dependent Aβ production using Aβ secreted cellular model and analyzed resveratrol-related molecular signaling. Read More

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Magnitude of open-field thigmotaxis during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats is influenced by mecamylamine dose, duration of nicotine infusion, number of withdrawal episodes, and age.

Authors:
Andrew C Harris

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Jun 6;205:173185. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America; Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Relief from increases in anxiety during nicotine withdrawal contributes to tobacco addiction. While a variety of anxiogenic stimuli elicit avoidance of the center of an open field (thigmotaxis) in rodents, effects of nicotine withdrawal on thigmotaxis have not been studied extensively. The goal of this study was to evaluate determinants of increases in thigmotaxis during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats. Read More

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Utilization of Isoflavones in Soybeans for Women with Menopausal Syndrome: An Overview.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzu-Chi Medical Foundation, Taipei 231, Taiwan.

Based on their nutrient composition, soybeans and related foods have been considered to be nutritious and healthy for humans. Particularly, the biological activity and subsequent benefits of soy products may be associated with the presence of isoflavone in soybeans. As an alternative treatment for menopause-related symptoms, isoflavone has gained much popularity for postmenopausal women who have concerns related to undergoing hormone replacement therapy. Read More

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Recent Advances in Anti-Metastatic Approaches of Herbal Medicines in 5 Major Cancers: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Drug Discovery.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related death. Despite its high fatality, a comprehensive study that covers anti-metastasis of herbal medicines has not yet been conducted. The aim of this study is to investigate and assess the anti-metastatic efficacies of herbal medicines in the five major cancers, including lung, colorectal, gastric, liver, and breast cancers. Read More

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Reappraisal of the Prognostic Factors of Outcome and Recovery Time in Patients with Idiopathic Bell's Palsy: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei 105, Taiwan.

Study Objectives: This retrospective study investigated prognostic factors and recovery time in patients with Bell's palsy after different doses and durations of oral glucocorticoid treatments.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 396 patients initially diagnosed with Bell's palsy that had visited the Department of Neurology of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, a tertiary referral medical center in Taiwan, between January 2014 and December 2018 were included. Medical records, facial electroneurography (fENoG), and blink reflex (BR) tests were reviewed and analyzed. Read More

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Differences in phototherapy among skin diseases and genders in real-life conditions-A retrospective analysis of the cumulative doses, numbers of sessions, side effects and costs in 561 patients.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Phototherapy has been a mainstay therapy for dermatological diseases since more than a century. Although phototherapy is still extensively used and some recommendations exist, only scarce data are available addressing disease-specific differences in cumulative doses, treatment durations and costs. Knowledge of such differences could help to avoid over-/undertreatment, predict treatment duration and costs. Read More

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Dental Opioid Prescription Characteristics and the Risk of New, Persistent Use.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jun 17;60(6):831-839. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

ICES, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Dentists are a common source of opioid exposure. This study investigates the association between initial dental opioid prescription characteristics and subsequent persistent use and examines the rate of opioid overdose after initiation.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among Ontario residents who were dispensed an initial opioid prescription originating from a dentist between October 2014 and September 2018 (data were analyzed in October 2019-May 2020). Read More

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Recent Randomized Trials of Antithrombotic Therapy for Patients With COVID-19: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 04 16;77(15):1903-1921. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Endothelial injury and microvascular/macrovascular thrombosis are common pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, the optimal thromboprophylactic regimens remain unknown across the spectrum of illness severity of COVID-19. A variety of antithrombotic agents, doses, and durations of therapy are being assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focus on outpatients, hospitalized patients in medical wards, and patients critically ill with COVID-19. Read More

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Sulforaphane (SFA) protects neuronal cells from oxygen & glucose deprivation (OGD).

PLoS One 2021 18;16(3):e0248777. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Perinatal brain injury results in neurodevelopmental disabilities (neuroDDs) that include cerebral palsy, autism, attention deficit disorder, epilepsy, learning disabilities and others. Commonly, injury occurs when placental circulation, that is responsible for transporting nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, is compromised. Placental insufficiency (PI) is a reduced supply of blood and oxygen to the fetus and results in a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) environment. Read More

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Radiation exposure to the urology surgeon during retrograde intrarenal surgery.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(3):e0247833. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Urology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Retrograde intrarenal surgery is a common procedure that carries a risk of radiation exposure for urologists. This study aimed to measure the amount of radiation that urologists are exposed to during surgery, and to estimate how many procedures can be safely performed by one urologist per year. Variables that affect radiation exposure were also identified. Read More

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Deciphering the functional role of EGR1 in Prostaglandin F2 alpha induced luteal regression applying CRISPR in corpus luteum of buffalo.

Biol Res 2021 Mar 12;54(1). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Physiology & Climatology Division, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India.

Background: PGF2α is essential for the induction of the corpus luteum regression which in turn reduces progesterone production. Early growth response (EGR) proteins are Cys2-His2-type zinc-finger transcription factor that are strongly linked to cellular proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Rapid elevation of EGR1 was observed after luteolytic dose of PGF2α. Read More

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Effect of adalimumab interventions on general infection among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Apr 13:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Evidence-based Medicine Center, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai, Zhejiang China.

Background: This study assessed the safety of adalimumab in different dosages and durations of treatment.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to explore the infection risk in people who received adalimumab. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE from inception to December 8, 2020. Read More

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Can vitamin E supplementation affect obesity indices? A systematic review and meta-analysis of twenty-four randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 10;40(5):3201-3209. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Several mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of vitamin E on weight loss. Yet various interventional studies with wide ranges of doses and durations have reported contradictory results.

Methods: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched up to December 2020. Read More

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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Involved in Glucocorticoid-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2021 12;2021:5565671. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center of Forensic Medical Molecular Identification, College of Forensic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China.

Objective: The present study selected PC12 cells to construct a neuronal injury model induced by glucocorticoids (GC) in vitro, aiming to explore whether the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol requirement 1 (IRE1)-apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways are associated with the neuronal injury process induced by GC and provide morphological evidence.

Methods: Cell models with different doses and different durations of GC exposure were established. The viability of PC12 cells was detected by the CCK-8 assay, and the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells was detected by the flow cytometry assay. Read More

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February 2021

Influence of titration of antiseizure medications on treatment selection: Results of an online survey with clinicians in the United States.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 04 21;117:107840. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Eisai, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, United States.

Introduction: Most antiseizure medications (ASM) need to be titrated before the optimal dose is achieved. Titration can last several weeks to months. We assessed the impact titration schedules have on ASM treatment-related decisions in the United States (US). Read More

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Evaluation of the nephrotoxicity and safety of low-dose aristolochic acid, extending to the use of Xixin (Asurum), by determination of methylglyoxal and d-lactate.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 19;272:113945. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, No.250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei, 110, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Most Aristolochiaceae plants are prohibited due to aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), except Xixin (Asarum spp.). Xixin contains trace amounts of aristolochic acid (AA) and is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Read More

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