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Enteral Iron Supplementation in Extremely Preterm Infants and its Positive Correlation with Neurodevelopment; Post Hoc Analysis of the PENUT Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Objectives: To test whether an increased iron dose is associated with improved neurodevelopment as assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) among infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT).

Study Design: This is a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial which enrolled infants born at 24 to 28 completed weeks of gestation. All PENUT infants who were assessed with BSID-III at 2 years were included in this study. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Public School District Employees Following a District-Wide Vaccination Program - Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, March 21-April 23, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Jul 30;70(30):1040-1043. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The School District of Philadelphia reopened for in-school instruction the week of March 21, 2021, and required weekly testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, for all employees returning to in-school responsibilities. The resumption of in-school instruction followed a mass vaccination program using the Pfizer-BioNTech 2-dose vaccine offered under a partnership between the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to all 22,808 School District of Philadelphia employees during February 23-April 3, 2021.* The subsequent mandatory testing program provided an opportunity to assess the percentage of positive BinaxNow point-of-care antigen tests (Abbott Laboratories) identified among school staff members based on their self-reported vaccination status (i. Read More

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Comparison of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected health care workers.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 29:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Memorial Ataşehir Hospital, Clinic of Pediatrics, İstanbul, Turkey.

The effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) on previously naturally infected individuals are unknown. This study compared immunogenicity and reactogenicity of CoronaVac in once naturally infected health-care workers (HCWs) and uninfected HCWs. All HCWs were immunized with two doses of CoronaVac (600 U/0. Read More

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Association Between High Deductible Health Plans and Cost-Related Non-adherence to Medications Among Americans with Diabetes: an Observational Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: For people with diabetes, adherence to prescribed medications is essential. However, the rising prevalence of high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), and prices of diabetes medications such as insulin, could deter adherence.

Objective: To assess the impact of HDHP on cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) among non-elderly adults with diabetes in the US. Read More

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Extracellular matrix and Hippo signaling as therapeutic targets of antifibrotic compounds for uterine fibroids.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Jul;11(7):e475

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproductive Sciences & Women's Health Research, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Uterine fibroids are highly prevalent, collagen-rich, mechanically stiff, fibrotic tumors for which new therapeutic options are needed. Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness activates mechanical signaling and Hippo/YAP promoting fibroid growth, but no prior studies have tested either as a therapeutic target. We tested the hypothesis that injection of a purified form of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) that selectively digests type I and type III collagens would alter ECM stiffness, Hippo signaling, and selectively reduce fibroid cell growth. Read More

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Comparison of Photon-Counting and Flat-Panel Digital Mammmography for the Purpose of 3D Imaging Using a Novel Image Processing Method.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Biology, Universitätsplatz 2, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

The purpose of the present work was to compare the quality of low-dose projections from a photon-counting with a flat-panel system, and to evaluate a novel image processing method. Images were acquired of phantoms in both systems at average glandular doses ranging from ~ 0.15 to 1. Read More

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Low Dose Hyperoxia Primes Airways for Fibrosis in Mice after Influenza A Infection.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, grid.16416.34University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States.

It is well known that supplemental oxygen used to treat preterm infants in respiratory distress is associated with permanently disrupting lung development and the host response to influenza A virus (IAV). However, many infants who go home with normally functioning lungs are also at risk for hyperreactivity after a respiratory viral infection. We recently reported a new, low-dose hyperoxia mouse model (40% for 8 days; 40x8) that causes a transient change in lung function that resolves, rendering 40x8 adult animals functionally indistinguishable from room air controls. Read More

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[The Effects of Ginsenoside Compound K on PDGF-BB-Induced PASMCs Proliferation and Phenotypic Conversion of Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jul;52(4):643-648

Department of Pediatrics, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.

Objective: To explore the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside compound K (CK) on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and phenotypic conversion and investigate its related mechanisms.

Methods: PASMCs cultured were examined in the study. They were induced with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and then treated with CK. Read More

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Gentamicin-induced sensorineural auditory loss in healthy adult horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Irreversible sensorineural auditory loss has been reported in humans treated with aminoglycosides but not in horses.

Objective: Investigate if auditory loss occurs in horses treated using the recommended IV daily dosage of gentamicin for 7 consecutive days.

Animals: Ten healthy adult horses (7-15 years; females and males, 5 each). Read More

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Wound complications and bleeding with new oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Aims: The results of associations between new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and wound complications after total joint arthroplasty remain inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to make comparisons with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) on the clinical outcomes of total wound complications, together with other efficacy and safety endpoints to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of NOACs.

Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted based on a published protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42019140841). Read More

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Protective effect of Beta vulgaris roots supplementation on anemic phenylhydrazine-intoxicated rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt.

Anemia is a public health problem that affects many people worldwide. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is a plant supposed to have many healthy features. The present study was done to evaluate the anti-anemic effect of beetroot supplement on anemia induced by phenylhydrazine in albino rats. Read More

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Disparities in antimicrobial consumption and resistance within a country: the case of beta-lactams in Argentina.

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2021 26;45:e76. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

National Administration of Drugs, Food and Technology Buenos Aires Argentina National Administration of Drugs, Food and Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study.

Methods: Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of and to beta-lactams was recorded. Read More

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Contamination With Fumonisin B and Deoxynivalenol Is a Threat to Egg Safety and Contributes to Gizzard Ulcerations of Newborn Chickens.

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:676671. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, China.

Fumonisin B (FB) and other fumonisins, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins (secondary metabolites of fungi) present at high levels of contamination in poultry diets and threatening the sustainability of the poultry industry and egg safety for consumers. However, residual mycotoxins in breeder eggs and their effects on chicken progeny and gizzard ulcerations remain unclear. To unveil mycotoxin contaminations from daily diets to breeder eggs, 293 poultry feed samples were collected from three large-scale poultry provinces across Northern China to Southern China. Read More

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Effective and Safe Daclatasvir Drug Exposures Predicted in Children Using Adult Formulations.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

From the AMS-PHPT Research Collaboration, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand MIVEGEC, University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt PENTA Foundation, Padova, Italy Department, NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Department of Global HIV, Hepatitis and STI Programmes, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; and Pediatric Department, Ain Shams University, and Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Research Institute Clinical Research Center (MASRI-CRC), Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Sofosbuvir (SOF)/daclatasvir (DCV) is the direct-acting antiviral regimen of choice in many low- and middle-income countries for curative treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults, but data on the use of DCV in children are lacking. We performed a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis to predict DCV exposure in children treated with available adult formulations.

Methods: DCV concentration data from HCV-infected adolescents receiving SOF/DCV [400/60 mg, once daily (OD)] who participated in a PK study in Egypt were used for model development. Read More

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Infusion of aerial parts of Salvia chudaei Batt. & Trab. from Algeria: Chemical, toxicological and bioactivities characterization.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 25:114455. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Salvia chudaei Batt. & Trab. from Algeria is traditionally used to relieve several dysfunctions, including inflammatory and pain-related situations. Read More

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Operating characteristics are needed to properly evaluate the scientific validity of phase I protocols.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jul 25:106517. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Division of Translational Research & Applied Statistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: Operating characteristics for proposed clinical trial designs provide insight into performance regarding safety and accuracy, allowing the study team and review entities to determine the design's suitability to achieve the study's proposed objectives. Advances in cancer therapeutics have augmented the needs of early phase clinical trial design. Additionally, advances in research on early-phase trial design have led to the availability of a wide range of methods that show vast improvement over outdated approaches. Read More

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Early resistance training-mediated stimulation of daily muscle protein synthetic responses to higher habitual protein intake in middle-aged adults.

J Physiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Key Points: The ingestion of protein potentiates the stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis rates after an acute bout of resistance exercise. Protein supplementation (eating above the protein Recommended Dietary Allowance) during resistance training has been shown to maximize lean mass and strength gains in healthy young and older adults. Here, we assessed contractile, oxidative, and structural protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in response to a moderate or higher protein diet during the early adaptive phase of resistance training in middle-aged adults. Read More

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Time to achieve delivery of nutrition targets is associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Optimal nutrition in critically ill children involves a complex interplay between the doses, route, and timing of macronutrient delivery.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between the time to achieve delivery of 60% of the prescribed energy and protein targets and clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated children.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of mechanically ventilated children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) worldwide. Read More

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Can lung ultrasound score accurately predict the need for surfactant  replacement in preterm neonates? A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0255332. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants due to primary surfactant deficiency. Surfactant replacement has greatly improved the short and long term prognosis of RDS but its administration criteria remain uncertain. Lung ultrasound has been recently shown as a non-invasive, repeatable, bedside tool to estimate parenchymal aeration using a semiquantitative score (LUS). Read More

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Macrophage depletion increases target specificity of bone-targeted nanoparticles.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 28:e37279. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Despite efforts to achieve tissue selectivity, the majority of systemically administered drug delivery systems (DDSs) are cleared by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) before reaching target tissues regardless of disease or injury pathology. Previously, we showed that while tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) binding peptide (TBP)-targeted polymeric nanoparticles (TBP-NP) delivering a bone regenerative Wnt agonist improved NP fracture accumulation and expedited healing compared with controls, there was also significant MPS accumulation. Here we show that TBP-NPs are taken up by liver, spleen, lung, and bone marrow macrophages (Mϕ), with 76 ± 4%, 49 ± 11%, 27 ± 9%, and 92 ± 5% of tissue-specific Mϕ positive for NP, respectively. Read More

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Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jul 28;7:CD015017. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Background: Ivermectin, an antiparasitic agent used to treat parasitic infestations, inhibits the replication of viruses in vitro. The molecular hypothesis of ivermectin's antiviral mode of action suggests an inhibitory effect on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in the early stages of infection. Currently, evidence on efficacy and safety of ivermectin for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 treatment is conflicting. Read More

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Betaine downregulates microRNA 34a expression via a p53-dependent manner in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Jul 28:e22856. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan.

Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity limits its wide application as a chemotherapeutic drug. Betaine is a natural trimethylglycine compound involved in several biological reactions. In this study, the protective effect of betaine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through modulating the expression of microRNA 34a (miRNA 34a), p53, apoptosis, and inflammation was investigated. Read More

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G-quadruplexes mark alternative lengthening of telomeres.

NAR Cancer 2021 Sep 21;3(3):zcab031. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

About 10-15% of all human cancer cells employ a telomerase-independent recombination-based telomere maintenance method, known as alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), of which the full mechanism remains incompletely understood. While implicated in previous studies as the initiating signals for ALT telomere repair, the prevalence of non-canonical nucleic acid structures in ALT cancers remains unclear. Extending earlier reports, we observe higher levels of DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loops) in ALT-positive (ALT+) compared to telomerase-positive (TERT+) cells. Read More

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September 2021

A novel siRNA-gemcitabine construct as a potential therapeutic for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

NAR Cancer 2020 Sep 11;2(3):zcaa016. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Sirnaomics Inc., Suite 280, 401 Professional Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, USA.

The non-nucleoside analog gemcitabine has been the standard of care for treating pancreatic cancer. The drug shows good potency in pancreatic cancer cells but, due to poor bioavailability, requires administration in large doses by infusion and this systemic exposure results in significant toxicity for the patient. Genes have been identified that, when silenced by siRNA, synergize with gemcitabine treatment and offer a means of reducing the gemcitabine dosage required for efficacy. Read More

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September 2020

Determination of Silver Nanoparticle Dose .

NanoImpact 2019 Apr;14:100156

Toxicity Assessment Division, MD B105-04, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.

An important issue for interpreting nanomaterial testing is quantifying the dose delivered to target cells. Considerations include the concentration added to the culture, the proportion of the applied dose that interacts with the target cells, and the amount that is eventually absorbed by the target cells. Rapid and efficient techniques are needed to determine delivered doses. Read More

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Effect of Majapahit ( L.) fruit powder on the immune profile of after infection with spp.

Vet World 2021 Jun 10;14(6):1480-1486. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of PGRI Ronggolawe, Tuban 62381, East Java, Indonesia.

Background And Aim: The use of bioactive compounds is a promising tool to improve shrimp health regarding vibriosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the dietary Majapahit ( L.) fruit powder on the cellular immune response of vannamei shrimp () infected with , , and . Read More

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Comparison of medium-term adverse reactions induced by the first and second dose of mRNA BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine: a post-marketing Italian study conducted between 1 January and 28 February 2021.

Eur J Hosp Pharm 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Hospital Pharmacy, IRCCS Ospedale Sacro Cuore Don Calabria, Negrar di Valpolicella, Italy

Objectives: On 21 December 2020 the European Commission granted conditional marketing authorisation in the European Union for the anti-COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Bnt162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). The main endpoint of this epidemiological, observational, prospective and monocentric study was to identify the number, types, and severity of adverse events following immunisation that occurred in subjects who had been previously infected with COVID-19, and in those who had not, after vaccination with Comirnaty, and to compare the two groups of subjects looking at events that occurred within a month after the first and the second dose.

Methods: Data were gathered by a questionnaire. Read More

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Factors associated with malaria vaccine uptake in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana.

Malar J 2021 Jul 27;20(1):325. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Malaria continues to be a major disease of public health concern affecting several million people worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) started a pilot study on a malaria vaccine (RTS,S) in Ghana and two other countries in 2019. This study aimed at assessing the factors associated with uptake of the vaccine in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana. Read More

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Feasibility and acceptability of instructions of daily care in overweight and obese knee osteoarthritis participants.

Curr Rheumatol Rev 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Hospital Lahore. Pakistan.

Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a weight-bearing joint disease and more common in the overweight and obese persons. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of instructions of daily care (IDC) on pain, mobility and body mass index (BMI) among knee OA participants who are overweight or obese.

Material And Method: The study was an open-label randomized controlled trial of six-weeks. Read More

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Granisetron or ondansentron to prevent hypotension after spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Jul 24;75:110469. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; Anesthesiology Clinical Research Office, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Study Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of high doses of ondansetron and granisetron before spinal anesthesia on hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing elective cesarean section.

Design: A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: Operating room. Read More

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