78,316 results match your criteria dose volume

Ampicillin Pharmacokinetics in Peripartum and Laboring Women.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, United States.

Objective: Ampicillin is used for multiple peripartum indications including prevention of neonatal group beta streptococcus (GBS) and treatment of chorioamnionitis. Despite its widespread use in obstetrics, existing pharmacokinetic data for ampicillin do not address contemporary indications or dosing paradigms for this population. We sought to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of ampicillin administered to laboring women. Read More

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October 2021

High-Dose Rate Interstitial Spine Brachytherapy Using an Intraoperative Mobile Computed Tomography-Guided Surgical Navigation System.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Up to 15% of previously irradiated metastatic spine tumors will progress. Re-irradiation of these tumors poses a significant risk of exceeding the radiation tolerance to the spinal cord. High-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a treatment alternative. Read More

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October 2021

MR Spectroscopy Shows Long Propylene Glycol Half-Life in Neonatal Brain.

Neonatology 2021 Oct 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Neonatal propylene glycol (PG) clearance is low with long plasma half-life. We hypothesized that neonatal brain PG clearance is diminished and may be related to perinatal asphyxia, infection, or stroke, via different blood-brain barrier permeability. This study aimed to estimate cerebral PG half-life with a clearance model including PG measured with MR spectroscopy (MRS) in neonates that received phenobarbital as the only PG source and to evaluate whether PG clearance was related to intracerebral pathology, for example, perinatal asphyxia, infection, or stroke. Read More

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October 2021

Automated Plan Checking Software Demonstrates Continuous and Sustained Improvements in Safety and Quality: A 3-year Longitudinal Analysis.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 Oct 17. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: Perform a longitudinal analysis of the performance of our automated plan checking software by retrospectively evaluating the number of errors identified in plans delivered to patients in three, month-long, data collection periods taken between 2017 and 2020.

Methods: 11 automated checks were retrospectively run on 1169 external beam radiotherapy treatment plans identified as meeting the following criteria: planning target volume (PTV) based multi-field photon plans receiving a status of treatment approved in either March 2017, March 2018, or March 2020. The number of "passes" (true positives) and "flags" were recorded. Read More

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October 2021

Radiation therapy with elective lymph node irradiation for breast cancer: dosimetric study and impact on cardiovascular risk and second neoplasms.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2021 Aug;67(8):1118-1123

A.C. Camargo Cancer Center - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to perform dosimetric analysis of radiotherapy (RT) plans with or without elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and estimate whether the increase in mean doses (MDs) in the heart and lungs with ENI may lead to late side effects that may surpass the benefits of treatment.

Methods: The dosimetric analysis of 30 treatment plans was done with or without ENI. The planning and dose-volume histograms were analyzed, and the impact on the mortality of cardiovascular and lung cancer was estimated based on the correlation of the dosimetric data with data from population studies. Read More

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Ultrashort echo time MRI of the lung in children and adolescents: comparison with non-enhanced computed tomography and standard post-contrast T1w MRI sequences.

Eur Radiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Paediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany.

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic value of ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the lung versus the gold standard computed tomography (CT) and two T1-weighted MRI sequences in children.

Methods: Twenty-three patients with proven oncologic disease (14 male, 9 female; mean age 9.0 + / - 5. Read More

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October 2021

Early phase clinical studies of AR-42, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for neurofibromatosis type 2-associated vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021 Oct 20;6(5):1008-1019. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood diseases Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus Ohio USA.

Objectives: Two pilot studies of AR-42, a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, in human neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), vestibular schwannomas (VS), and meningiomas are presented. Primary endpoints included safety, and intra-tumoral pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD).

Methods: Pilot 1 is a subset analysis of a phase 1 study of AR-42 in solid tumors, which included NF2 or sporadic meningiomas. Read More

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October 2021

Dosimetric justification for the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy in head and neck cancer-A systematic review of the literature.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021 Oct 16;6(5):999-1007. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Faculty of Physics West University of Timisoara Timisoara Romania.

Introduction: Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) has evolved rapidly in the past decades from conformal three-dimensional technique (3D-CRT) to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This paper presents a dosimetric comparative study between VMAT and IMRT delivery based on current literature, while also presenting the potential challenges encountered with volumetric arc therapy.

Methods: A systematic search of the scientific literature was conducted within Medline/Pubmed databases. Read More

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October 2021

Safety and efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of a novel enhanced protein solution (JTA-004) compared to hylan G-F 20 in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled phase II/III study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Oct 19;22(1):888. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine & Sport Traumatology Department, University and University Hospital of Liège, Avenue de l'Hôpital 35, 4000, Liège, Belgium.

Background: New minimally invasive treatments are vital to delay joint replacement surgery in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed to select the most effective among three formulations of an enhanced protein solution containing clonidine, hyaluronic acid, and human plasma (JTA-004), and compare the safety and efficacy of intra-articular administration of the selected formulation with a reference treatment (hyaluronic acid) in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients.

Methods: In this two-stage, double-blind, phase II/III study conducted in 12 Belgian centers, 50-79-year-old patients with primary knee osteoarthritis were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive one dose of one of three JTA-004 formulations (differing in clonidine concentration [50 or 100 μg/ml] and volume [2 or 4 ml]) or the reference treatment (hylan G-F 20). Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy of macrogol 4000 plus electrolytes in bowel preparation for colonoscopy in patients with chronic constipation.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Oct 19;21(1):387. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 1-6 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8309, Japan.

Background: Chronic constipation is a significant factor in poor bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Macrogol 4000 plus electrolytes (Movicol, EA Pharma, Tokyo, Japan), containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) and electrolytes, have been used recently to treat patients with constipation. However, prospective studies on the use of macrogol 4000 for bowel cleansing for colonoscopy are lacking. Read More

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October 2021

Pretherapy metabolic tumor volume associates with response to CD30 CAR T cells in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

UNC Chapel Hill Lineberger Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.

Our group has recently demonstrated that chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy targeting the CD30 antigen (CD30.CAR-T) is highly effective in patients with relapsed and refractory (r/r) classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL). Despite high rates of clinical response, relapses and progression were observed in a subset of patients. Read More

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October 2021

Profeel-An open source dosimetry data visualization and analysis software.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Oct 8;212:106457. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Physics and Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background And Objectives: This article presents Profeel, a Matlab (MathWorks Inc., MA) based open source dosimetry data visualization and analysis software. Profeel aims to support quality assurance, dosimetry and research in the field of radiotherapy by providing an environment to visualize, process and analyse measured and simulated dosimetry data from several data sources used in radiotherapy practice and research. Read More

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October 2021

The Impact of Pelvic Nodal Radiotherapy on Hematologic Toxicity: A Systematic Review with Focus on Leukopenia, Lymphopenia and Future Perspectives in Prostate Cancer Treatment.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Oct 16:103497. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Introduction: Hematologic toxicity (HT), particularly leukopenia, is a common side-effect of oncologic treatments for pelvic malignancies. Pelvic nodal radiotherapy (PNRT) has been associated with HT development mainly through incidental bone marrow (BM) irradiation; however, several questions remain about the clinical impact of radiotherapy-related HT. Herein, we perform a systematic review of the available evidence on PNRT and HT. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanistic models for USP2 dissolution apparatus, including fluid hydrodynamics and sedimentation.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Innovation Sciences & External Liaisons, Pharmaceutical Technology & Development, Operations, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Drug product dissolution is a key input to Physiologically Based Biopharmaceutics Models (PBBM) to be able to predict in vivo dissolution. The integration of product dissolution in PBBMs for immediate release drug products should be mechanistic, i.e. Read More

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October 2021

Urine volume to hydration volume ratio is associated with pharmacokinetics of high-dose methotrexate in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 Dec;9(6):e00883

Department of Pharmacy, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), but is associated with severe adverse effects, including myelosuppression and renal impairment. MTX is primarily excreted by the kidneys. Renal function calculated using serum creatinine (Scr) derived from muscle may be overestimated in elderly PCNSL patients. Read More

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December 2021

Pharmacokinetics and safety of a novel influenza treatment (baloxavir marboxil) in Korean subjects compared with Japanese subjects.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Baloxavir marboxil, a novel influenza therapeutic agent, is a prodrug rapidly metabolized into its active form, baloxavir acid, which inhibits cap-dependent endonuclease. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of baloxavir acid in healthy Korean subjects and compared them with published data in Japanese subjects. This open-label and single-ascending dose study was conducted in 30 Korean male subjects, with a single oral dose of baloxavir marboxil (20, 40, or 80 mg) administered to eight subjects each; additionally, 80 mg was administered to six subjects (body weight >80 kg). Read More

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October 2021

Assessment of predictive indicators of acute gastrointestinal toxicity using in vivo transmission images.

Med Phys 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92037.

Purpose: For pelvic and abdominal treatments, excess dose to the bowel can result in acute toxicities. Current estimates of bowel toxicity are based on pre-treatment dose-volume histogram data. However, the actual dose the bowel receives depends on interfraction variations, such as patient anatomy changes. Read More

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October 2021

Valproic acid during pregnancy decrease the number of spermatogenic cells and testicular volume in the offspring of mice: Stereological quantification.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Oct 19:18380. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Center of Biotechnology on Reproduction (CEBIOR-BIOREN), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders and headaches. As a secondary effect, this antiepileptic drug can cause a decrease in androgens and gonadotropins, and dose-dependent testicular defects, such as reduction of testicular weights, sperm motility and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. In offspring exposed to VPA, its effects have not been evaluated, so the study aimed to determine the morphological effects of the use of VPA along testicular development in mice. Read More

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October 2021

Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer of Patients with Prior Pelvic Irradiation.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for salvage of previously X-ray-irradiated (XRT) locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC).

Methods: Between September 2005 and December 2017, 77 patients with LRRC were treated with CIRT re-irradiation. All the patients had received prior XRT with a median dose of 50. Read More

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October 2021

Estimating the accumulative dose uncertainty for intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy.

Biomed Eng Online 2021 Oct 18;20(1):106. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Radiation Physics, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Basic Medicine and Cancer (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1. East Banshan Road, Gongshu District, Hangzhou, 310022, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy shows the ability to deliver high doses to tumors while sparing normal tissues. However, interfraction dose delivery introduces uncertainties to high dose estimation, which relates to normal tissue toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-dose regions of two applicator approaches in brachytherapy. Read More

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October 2021

Multiple myeloma cells induce lipolysis in adipocytes and uptake fatty acids through fatty acid transporter proteins.

Blood 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Adipocytes occupy 70% of the cellular volume within the bone marrow (BM), wherein multiple myeloma (MM) originates and resides. However, the nature of the interaction between MM cells and adipocytes remains unclear. Cancer-associated adipocytes support tumor cells through various mechanisms, including metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Read More

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October 2021

Dosimetry Comparison of Palliative Radiation Plans Generated From Available Diagnostic CT Images Versus Dedicated CT Simulation for Inpatients.

Cureus 2021 Sep 7;13(9):e17799. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Radiation Oncology, The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Tucson, Tucson, USA.

Introduction The morbidity sequelae of advanced cancer are often irreversible. Early palliative radiation can prevent, delay, and even improve these consequences. Treatment may be delayed due to a packed computed tomography (CT) simulation schedule or other logistics, including the cost and burden of arranging ambulance transportation when radiation centers are off-site. Read More

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September 2021

Variation of Tumor Volume During Moderate Hypo-Fractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer.

Cureus 2021 Sep 5;13(9):e17743. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe, JPN.

Aim To investigate the variation of tumor volume during moderate hypo-fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Patients and Methods Twenty patients, who received SBRT at our institution, were included in the analysis. A prescribed dose was 56 Gy at iso-center in seven fractions. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of DIBH and VMAT in Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancers After Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Planning Study.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211048706

Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were compared among 3 different radiotherapy (RT) modalities in left breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Eleven patients with left breast cancer after BCS were enrolled and underwent CT simulation in the free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) position. Three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for each patient in the DIBH positions. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison Between Same-Day and Split-Dose Preparations with Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate: A Randomized Noninferiority Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Oct 17. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, 500, Taiwan.

Background: Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (SPMC) is a small-volume bowel cleansing agent with similar efficacy to and better tolerability than polyethylene glycol. However, we found no data on which SPMC preparation (same-day vs. split-dose) provides better bowel cleansing efficacy for afternoon colonoscopy. Read More

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October 2021

Associations between depression, oxidative stress, and semen quality among 1,000 healthy men screened as potential sperm donors.

Fertil Steril 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the association between depression and semen quality and the mediating role of oxidative stress.

Design: Cross-sectional study with repeated measures of semen quality.

Setting: Human Sperm Bank of Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. Read More

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October 2021

Stereotactic radiosurgery in alveolar soft part sarcoma brain metastases: Case series and literature review.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Nov 24;93:227-230. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital, Singapore.

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) has the highest incidence of brain metastasis amongst sarcomas. There is a paucity of literature published focusing on radiation therapy for this condition. This is a single centre retrospective review of the treatment of three patients with 12 ASPS brain metastasis using single dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Read More

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November 2021

Impact of silicone oil tamponade on intravitreally injected vancomycin pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkey eyes.

Int J Pharm 2021 Oct 13;609:121185. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan; Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kyoto University Hospital, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan(1). Electronic address:

Intravitreal injections of vancomycin (VCM) and ceftazidime (CAZ) are commonly used to treat infectious endophthalmitis. When patient cases require retinal detachment with silicone oil (SO) tamponade, the antibiotic doses are empirically reduced to 25 %. Currently, there is no scientific evidence for these empirical dose reductions. Read More

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October 2021

Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis as a Sequelae of COVID-19 Treatment: A Case Report & Literature Review.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Program director, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Tennessee Medical Center in Knoxville, Knoxville, TN.

A large volume of reports detailing a marked increase in Mucormycosis infections in India has filtered its way into world news articles. These patients frequently have 2 risk factors: recent treatment of COVID-19 with high dose steroids, and uncontrolled diabetes. Recently, at the University of Tennessee Medical Center in Knoxville, we successfully treated an uncontrolled diabetic patient with rhinocerebral Mucormycosis as a sequela of his COVID-19 treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 S-2P protein vaccine MVC-COV1901: interim results of a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in Taiwan.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Paediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20-49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan.

Methods: This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Read More

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October 2021