139,689 results match your criteria dose reduction


High-Dose Compared With Standard-Dose Oxytocin Regimens to Augment Labor in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois; and the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Objective: To evaluate whether a high-dose oxytocin regimen reduces the risk for primary cesarean birth and other obstetric morbidities when compared with standard dosing.

Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial of nulliparous women at or beyond 36 weeks of gestation who were undergoing augmentation of labor, participants were assigned to high-dose (initial and incremental rates of 6 milliunits/min) or standard-dose (initial and incremental rates of 2 milliunits/min) oxytocin regimens. The primary outcome was cesarean birth. Read More

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The Effect of Amiloride on Proteinuria in Patients with Proteinuric Kidney Disease.

Am J Nephrol 2021 May 6:1-10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Introduction: Proteinuric kidney diseases share an aggressive clinical course of developing end-stage renal disease. However, the treatment is limited. Amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) inhibitor, was reported to reduce proteinuria in animal studies and case reports independent of ENaC inhibition. Read More

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Low dose radiation therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia: a randomized double-blind study.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Clinic of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: The morbidity and mortality of patients requiring mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is considerable. We studied the use of whole-lung low dose radiation therapy (LDRT) in this patient cohort.

Methods And Materials: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia were included in this randomized double-blind study. Read More

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Therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of action of curcumin against Zika virus: in silico and in vitro analyses.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 3:174144. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, that could cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), characterized by microcephaly, neurological complications and fetal deaths. No specific treatments for ZIKV are currently available, highlighting the urgent global need to identify and develop therapeutic agents. Drug repositioning of approved natural compounds can provide effective alternative solutions for novel antiviral development. Read More

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Potential gains: Comparison of a mono-isocentric three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning technique to hybrid intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT) to the whole breast and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) region.

J Med Radiat Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Until late 2018, standard of practice at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre (NSCC) for breast and nodal treatment was a conformal mono-isocentric technique. A planning study comparing an existing mono-isocentric three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning technique to a hybrid intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT) approach for the whole breast and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) region was undertaken with the aim to improve plan quality by improving dose conformity/homogeneity across target volumes and reducing hotspots outside the target.

Methods: A cohort of 17 patients was retrospectively planned using the proposed hIMRT technique, keeping the same planning constraints as the original treated breast and SCF 3D-CRT plan and normalising the 3D-CRT plans to achieve minimum breast/SCF target coverage to compare organs at risk (OARs). Read More

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Guidance on the treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia when switching the antipsychotic is not an option.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2021 May;78(10):862-871

University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Purpose: This article aims to evaluate management options for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and associated treatment considerations such as efficacy, tolerability, drug interactions, contraindications, and dosing regimens.

Summary: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotics. First-line management includes reducing the dose of the offending antipsychotic, discontinuing the antipsychotic, or switching to another antipsychotic associated with a lower risk of hyperprolactinemia. Read More

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Vaccinations and Vaccinators' Tracking System in Island Settlements: CHAD 2017-2018.

J Immunol Sci 2021 Apr;Spec Issue(2):1116

WHO Regional Office for African (WHO AFRO), Brazzaville, Congo.

Introduction: Chad is a country within the Lake Chad sub region, currently at risk for poliovirus infection. The Lake Chad Task Team on polio eradication in this sub region made significant efforts to reduce the risk of polio transmission in Chad by tacking immunization teams in the Island Settlement using a Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. This article demonstrates the application of GIS technology to track vaccination teams to monitor immunization coverage in the Island settlements, reduce the number of missed settlements, to provide evidence for vaccination implementation and accountability and improve team performance. Read More

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Clinical Features, Prognosis, and Long-Term Response to Ranibizumab of Macular CNVs in Pattern Dystrophies Spectrum: A Pilot Study.

J Ophthalmol 2021 16;2021:6698522. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

UOC Ophthalmology, Ospedale A. Fiorini Terracina, Sapienza University of Rome, Terracina 04120, Italy.

Introduction: To analyze the morphological and functional features of choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs) in eyes affected by pattern dystrophies (PD), evaluating their long-term response to intravitreal ranibizumab, and comparing them with CNVs in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The mean goal is to identify possible disease biomarkers and to evaluate the long-term prognosis of CNVs in PD.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of 42 patients with naïve CNV (26 PD and 16 AMD), for a total of 47 eyes (29 eyes in the PD group and 18 eyes in the AMD group). Read More

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Down regulation of lactate dehydrogenase initiates apoptosis in HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells through increased voltage-dependent anion channel protein and inhibition of BCL2.

Oncotarget 2021 Apr 27;12(9):923-935. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, AlAin, UAE.

Malignant cells commonly use aerobic glycolysis for ATP production; this is known as the Warburg effect, where pyruvate is converted to lactate, by enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A). In this study, we have investigated the effect of inhibition of LDH-A on cells viability and identifying the mechanism of cell death in HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells. Human cervical cancer HeLa cell line and breast cancer MCF-7 cell line were used to investigate the effect of inhibition of LDH-A by sodium oxamate on cell survival and proliferation using western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunofluorescent study. Read More

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Efficacy of GC-376 against SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in the K18 hACE2 transgenic mouse model.

Sci Rep 2021 05 5;11(1):9609. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the defining global health emergency of this century. GC-376 is a M inhibitor with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Using the K18-hACE2 mouse model, the in vivo antiviral efficacy of GC-376 against SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. Read More

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[Relationship between Dose Discontinuation or Dose Reduction for Safety Reasons in Clinical Trials and Lower-dose Prescriptions in the Post-marketing Setting].

Yakugaku Zasshi 2021 ;141(5):743-749

Department of Clinical Medicine (Pharmaceutical Medicine), Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University.

Dosage of pharmaceuticals is determined and approved based on pivotal clinical trial results in Phase 3. However, in the post-marketing setting, it is often adjusted according to conditions of individual patients. Some pharmaceuticals are used at a lower dose than the approved dose for safety reasons or in elderly patients. Read More

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January 2021

Specificity of tuberculin skin test improved by BCG immunization schedule change in Japan.

J Infect Chemother 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, 3-2, Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan.

Introduction: Tuberculin skin test (TST) has been used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated patients, TST tends to produce false-positive results. According to the previous vaccination schedule, Japanese people were mandated to receive up to three doses of BCG-vaccine. Read More

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Tauroursodeoxycholic acid alleviates pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum stress and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 May 5;21(1):149. Epub 2021 May 5.

Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Background: Several studies demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the process of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid with chaperone properties, is an inhibitor of ER stress. This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of TUDCA on BLM-induced EMT and lung fibrosis. Read More

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Rutaecarpine enhances the anti-diabetic activity and hepatic distribution of metformin via up-regulation of Oct1 in diabetic rats.

Xenobiotica 2021 May 6:1-36. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Henan Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with multiple complications, patients who receive metformin may have a simultaneous intake of herbal medicine containing rutaecarpine due to cardiovascular protection and hypolipidemic effects of rutaecarpine. There might be drug interactions between metformin and rutaecarpine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutaecarpine on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of metformin in diabetic rats. Read More

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Sarcopenia as a predictor of initial administration dose of afatinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology; Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition with increasing importance in lung cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sarcopenia on tolerance and efficacy of afatinib.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with first-line afatinib. Read More

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Exploration of High and Low Frequency Options for Subperception Spinal Cord Stimulation Using Neural Dosing Parameter Relationships: The HALO Study.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Boston Scientific Neuromodulation, Clinical and R&D departments, Valencia, California, USA.

Objectives: Subperception spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is described mostly utilizing waveforms that require high energy. However, the necessity of these waveforms for effective subperception has not been established. We aimed to explore whether effective subperception pain relief can be achieved using frequencies below 1 kHz. Read More

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In Situ Gene Therapy.

Curr Gene Ther 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratório células, tecidos e genes do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, R. Ramiro Barcelos 2350, 90035-903, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Gene therapy is a technique that aims at the delivery of nucleic acids to cells to obtain a therapeutic effect. In situ gene therapy consists of the administration of the gene product to a specific site. It possesses several advantages, such as the reduction in potential side effects, the need for a lower vector dose, and, as a consequence, reduced costs compared to intravenous administration. Read More

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Haematotoxic effects of methanolic extract of oleo gum resin (frankinccense) in rats.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211015102

Pharmaceutical Services Administration, Health Oasis Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

In several parts of the world, Fluck. is one of the most commonly used herbs for the treatment of arthritis. Its usage should be validated in light of recent findings of haematotoxicity. Read More

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease - from the point of view of a gastroenterologist, otolaryngologist and surgeon.

Otolaryngol Pol 2021 Apr;75(2):42-50

Klinika Chirurgii Ogólnej, Onkologicznej i Przewodu Pokarmowego CMKP, Szpital im. Prof. W. Orłowskiego, Warszawa.

Gastrooesophageal reflux disease is the regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus, which causes troublesome symptoms or complications for the patient. Before starting the treatment, it is always necessary to objectively confirm gastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in correlation with ENT symptoms, as extra esophageal complications. In diagnostics, the "gold standard" is a 24-hour impedance-pH supplemented with endoscopy. Read More

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Liver targeting of ledipasvir via galactosylated chitosan-coated spanlastics: chemical synthesis, statistical optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini St, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Introduction: Ledipasvir is an effective direct acting antiviral agent used in the treatment of hepatitis C virus. The high price of ledipasvir was a reason for its limited provision to wide population of HCV patients.

Objectives: Our objective is the formulation of liver targeted drug delivery system that can increase the amount of ledipasvir delivered to liver and prolong its liver residence in an attempt to reduce its recommended dose and its costing in the treatment of HCV. Read More

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Dose accuracy improvement on head and neck VMAT treatments by using the Acuros algorithm and accurate FFF beam calibration.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 25;26(1):73-85. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Medical Physics Group, Department of Radiology, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess dose accuracy improvement and dosimetric impact of switching from the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AA) to the Acuros XB algorithm (AXB) when performing an accurate beam calibration in head and neck (H&N) FFF-VMAT treatments.

Materials And Methods: Twenty H&N cancer patients treated with FFF-VMAT techniques were included. Calculations were performed with the AA and AXB algorithm (dose-to-water - AXB- and dose-to-medium - AXB-). Read More

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February 2021

Multi-functional cerium oxide nanoparticles regulate inflammation and enhance osteogenesis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 24;124:112041. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Biionix Cluster, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress increases bone loss and limits repair, in part, through immunoregulation and the formation and maintenance of low-grade chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) on (i) macrophage phenotype and cytokine expression under normal and simulated acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and, (ii) human mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSCs) proliferation, osteoinduction and osteogenic differentiation. Spherical particles composed of 60% Ce with a hydrodynamic size of ~35 nm and surface charge of 25. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Bevacizumab Plus Erlotinib in Patients with Renal Medullary Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in patients with RMC.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with RMC treated with bevacizumab plus erlotinib at our institution.

Results: Ten patients were included in the study. Read More

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The Management of Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplant Recipients with COVID-19 Disease: An Update and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 30;57(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery Sciences, Transplant and HPB Unit, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the management of immunosuppressive (IS) therapy in kidney transplant (KT) recipients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires attention. It is not yet understood whether IS therapy may protect from the cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or a temporary adjustment/withdrawal of IS therapy to restore the immune system may be necessary. We performed a systematic literature review to investigate the current management of IS therapy in KT recipients with COVID-1. Read More

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Evaluation of TiO Based Photocatalytic Treatment of Odor and Gaseous Emissions from Swine Manure with UV-A and UV-C.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH), hydrogen sulfide (HS), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study's objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH, and other gases (GHGs, O-sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. Read More

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Effect of Si-Miao-Yong-An decoction on the differentiation of monocytes, macrophages, and regulatory T cells in ApoE mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 1:114178. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Cardiology, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Si-Miao-Yong-An decoction (SMYAD) is a renowned traditional Chinese medicinal formula. SMYAD was originally recorded in the "Shi Shi Mi Lu", which was edited by medical scientist Chen Shi'duo during the Qing Dynasty. SMYAD has been traditionally used to treat thromboangiitis obliterans. Read More

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The Durability of Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression (mild ) Procedure in Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Long Term Follow-Up.

Pain Pract 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Evidence-Based Pain Management Research, Cleveland Clinic.

Background: Minimally invasive lumbar decompression (mild ) has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis patients with hypertrophic ligamentum flavum as a contributing factor. This study examines the long-term durability of the mild procedure through 5-year follow-up. Pain relief and opioid medications utilization during 12-month follow-up were also assessed. Read More

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Single- and Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of PN-943, a Gastrointestinal-Restricted Oral Peptide Antagonist of α4β7, in Healthy Volunteers.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Protagonist Therapeutics, Inc, Newark, California, USA.

PN-943 is an orally stable, gastrointestinal-restricted peptide that binds specifically to α4ß7 integrin on leukocytes, blocking leukocyte trafficking to and activation in the gut, inhibiting colon inflammation and reducing signs and symptoms of active ulcerative colitis. Two pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies were conducted in healthy volunteers. Study 1 was a first-in-human study with 40 male subjects receiving PN-943, 100 to 1400 mg or placebo, as single doses and 57 male subjects receiving PN-943, 100 to 1000 mg or placebo, as multiple doses. Read More

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Pembrolizumab-caused polyradiculoneuropathy as an immune-related adverse event.

Neuropathology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, Hiroshima, Japan.

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) commonly involve the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, skin, and liver, and rarely the nervous system. The pathomechanism of irAEs in the nervous system is unclear, and so characterizing these severe toxic effects is a priority, even if irAEs are uncommon in the nervous system. Our patient presented subacute muscle weakness and dysesthesia with colitis as irAEs caused by pembrolizumab, one of the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies. Read More

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