33,320 results match your criteria dna fragmentation

SARS-CoV-2 targets glial cells in human cortical organoids.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May;16(5):1156-1164

Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA; Brain Health Consortium, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have manifested a variety of neurological complications, and there is still much to reveal regarding the neurotropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human stem cell-derived brain organoids offer a valuable in vitro approach to study the cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the brain. Here we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical organoids to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 could infect brain tissue in vitro and found that cortical organoids could be infected at low viral titers and within 6 h. Read More

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Fractions of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Compositae) induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in rats: Possible option in monosodium glutamate-induced hepatic and uterine pathological disorder.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 8:114192. Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratories for Biomembrane Research and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Several pathological disorders have been attributed to either oxidative stress or defect in apoptotic signaling pathway. Some bioactive compounds elicit their antiproliferative properties by induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening.

Aim Of Study: The present study therefore investigated the effects of various fractions of methanol extract of Ageratum conyzoides L. Read More

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Natural antioxidants enhance the power of physical and mental activities versus risk factors inducing progression of Alzheimer's disease in rats.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 7;96:107729. Epub 2021 May 7.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is exacerbated by social isolation (SI) and protein malnutrition (PM). Antioxidants, physical and mental activities (Ph&M) can maintain cognitive functions and protect against dementia.

Objective: To investigate the impact of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), Vitamin E (VE), Vitamin C (VC), and Selenium (Se), in enhancing the potential effect of Ph&M versus SI&PM as risk factors in the progression of AD in rats. Read More

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TOMATOMET: A metabolome database consists of 7118 accurate mass values detected in mature fruits of 25 tomato cultivars.

Plant Direct 2021 Apr 29;5(4):e00318. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University Uji Japan.

The total number of low-molecular-weight compounds in the plant kingdom, most of which are secondary metabolites, is hypothesized to be over one million, although only a limited number of plant compounds have been characterized. Untargeted analysis, especially using mass spectrometry (MS), has been useful for understanding the plant metabolome; however, due to the limited availability of authentic compounds for MS-based identification, the identities of most of the ion peaks detected by MS remain unknown. Accurate mass values of peaks obtained by high accuracy mass measurement and, if available, MS/MS fragmentation patterns provide abundant annotation for each peak. Read More

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Exploration of nutritional, antioxidative, antibacterial and anticancer status of : towards valorization of a traditionally preferred unique myco-food.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jun 19;58(6):2133-2147. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700019 India.

Healthy food trend is becoming popular these days fueling search for ingredients empowered by pharma-nutritional benefits. In contrast, numerous wild-growing mushrooms are traditionally cherished as health promoting gastronomies in India; although credibility of their effects has so far been limited. Hence the present study aimed to unveil a unique tribal cuisine, , with nutritional, chemical and pharmacological relevance. Read More

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Cryopreservation of spermatozoa obtained postmortem from the European common frog Rana temporaria.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cryopreserved spermatozoa offers a reliable, efficient and cost-effective means to perpetuate the genetic variation of endangered amphibian species in concert with conservation breeding programs. Here we describe successful cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa of the common frog Rana temporaria, preliminarily stored in the carcasses of decapitated animals at +4°C for 0, 1 and 4 days. The motility, membrane integrity and fertilisation capability of fresh testicular spermatozoa treated with cryoprotective medium supplemented with 15% dimethylformamide (DMF) or 15% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were examined. Read More

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Synthesis, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and in silico studies of new urea derivatives.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 29;112:104953. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sadat City, Menoufia, Egypt.

The reaction of an alkyl or aryl isocyanates with some primary amines in acetonitrile at room temperature afforded the corresponding alkyl- and aryl-urea derivatives. All the prepared urea compounds have been elucidated by FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Read More

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Neuroprotective effect of 6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline mediated via regulation of antioxidant system and inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Biochimie 2021 May 5;186:130-146. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathological Anatomy, Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko, Russia.

The aim of the study was the assessment of the neuroprotective potential of 6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (DHQ) and its effect on inflammation, apoptosis, and transcriptional regulation of the antioxidant system in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CIR) in rats. The CIR rat model was constructed using the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by reoxygenation. DHQ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg for three days. Read More

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Ergothioneine mitigates cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity via targeting Nrf2, NF-κB, and apoptotic signaling and inhibiting γ-glutamyl transpeptidase.

Life Sci 2021 May 6;278:119572. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751, Egypt.

Aim: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent whose therapeutic application is hindered by the associated nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity has been largely attributed to the induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The current study aimed at investigating the ability of ergothioneine to mitigate cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the underlining molecular mechanisms. Read More

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Sperm chromatin integrity in a man with macrocephaly syndrome.

Andrologia 2021 May 7:e14100. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

This study reports chromatin status and ICSI outcomes in a case of sperm macrocephaly syndrome(SMS), showing 100% of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation for TUNEL (31.7% versus 6. Read More

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Elevated sperm DNA fragmentation does not predict recurrent implantation failure.

Andrologia 2021 May 7:e14094. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

In this study, we sought to determine whether sperm DNA fragmentation (DFI%) and high DNA stainability (HDS%) evaluated by sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) predict recurrent implantation failure (RIF) or pregnancy rate. A retrospective study was performed of consecutive cycles of ICSI treatment from 2009 to 2018. A total of 386 couples that underwent 1,216 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were analysed. Read More

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Survivin Promoter-Driven DFF40 Gene Expression Sensitizes Melanoma Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy.

Int J Toxicol 2021 May 7:10915818211014170. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Downregulation of the apoptotic protein DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is correlated with poor overall survival in some malignancies, including melanoma. In this study, DFF40 gene expression driven by survivin promoter, a tumor-specific promoter, was used to selectively induce cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. The activity and strength of survivin promoter were examined in B16F10 murine melanoma, and L929 murine normal fibroblast cell lines using enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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[Varicocele and reproductive function: pathozoospermia treatment (a prospective comparative study)].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):62-68

Department of Urology and Andrology, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, and Head of the Clinic for Mens Health, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Varicocele does not always lead to infertility; varicocelectomy does not always improve sperm.

Objective: to evaluate the standardized effect (Es) of nutrient therapy, microsurgical and laparoscopic varicocelectomy for pathozoospermia.

Study Design: a multicenter case-control study with stratified randomization. Read More

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Digital PCR Detection of mtDNA/gDNA Ratio in Embryo Culture Medium for Prediction of Embryo Development Potential.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 30;14:521-531. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Women and Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The ratio of mitochondrial DNA to genomic DNA (mtDNA/gDNA) in embryo culture medium as a predictor of embryonic development is a new method of noninvasive embryo screening. However, current tests based on this concept have proven inconsistent. The aim of this study was to define the predictive value of the ratio of mtDNA/gDNA for embryonic developmental potential. Read More

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[Retracted] antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract in osteosarcoma cancer cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui, Henan 453100, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above paper, a concerned reader drew to the Editor's attention that several figures bore striking similarities to other papers that were published at around the same time written by different authors based in different research institutions. Fig. 3 (in colour) was essentially the same as a greyscale figure (Fig. Read More

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Acetylshikonin Induces Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cancer HCT-15 and LoVo Cells via Nuclear Translocation of FOXO3 and ROS Level Elevation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:6647107. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong 30016, Republic of Korea.

Acetylshikonin, a naphthoquinone, is a pigment compound derived from Arnebia sp., which is known for its anti-inflammatory potential. However, its anticarcinogenic effect has not been well investigated. Read More

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Prodigiosin induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell.

Res Pharm Sci 2021 Feb 30;16(1):26-34. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a myeloproliferative disease is characterized by increased cellularity of bone marrow. Implementing the latest treatment protocols is currently accompanied by serious and life-threatening side effects. There are worldwide attempts to find new effective and potent therapeutic agents with minimal side effects on CML patients. Read More

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February 2021

ERK/Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission contributes to HMGB1-induced autophagy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 4:e13048. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and aberrant mitochondrial fission mediated by excessive activation of GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) have been found to be elevated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and critically implicated in PAH pathogenesis. However, it remains unknown whether Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and which downstream targets of mitochondrial fission mediate HMGB1-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and migration leading to vascular remodelling in PAH. This study aims to address these issues. Read More

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A new synthetic antitumor naphthoquinone induces ROS-mediated apoptosis with activation of the JNK and p38 signaling pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 30;343:109444. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Biological Activity, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, Manaus, Amazonas, 69077-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present diverse pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and anticancer activities. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of a new naphthoquinone 6b,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta [b]naphtho [2,1-d]furan-5,6 (9aH)-dione) (CNFD) in different tumor cell lines. CNFD displayed cytotoxic activity against different tumor cell lines, especially in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, which showed IC values of 3. Read More

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Risk of embryo aneuploidy is affected by the increase in sperm DNA damage in recurrent implantation failure patients under ICSI-CGH array cycles.

Hum Fertil (Camb) 2021 May 3:1-9. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

This study investigates the relationship between sperm DNA damage in recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients treated with comparative genomic hybridisation array-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (CGH array-ICSI) cycles and embryo aneuploidy screening. Forty-two RIF couples were selected. Sperm DFI was measured using TUNEL by flow cytometry. Read More

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Recombinant Human erythropoietin reduces viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells from 3D culture without caspase activation.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 11;28(4):2549-2557. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

College of Science, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is the erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone that is being used concurrently with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of anemia of cancer. The effect of rHuEPO on cancer cells in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures is not known. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of rHuEPO on the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D cell cultures. Read More

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Naringin-generated ROS promotes mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in Candida albicans.

IUBMB Life 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of Life Sciences, BK21 FOUR KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Naringin is a flavonoid which has a therapeutic effect. However, the details of its antifungal mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated. This study focused on clarifying the relationship between naringin and Candida albicans, to understand its mode of antifungal action. Read More

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Fetal hypoxia and apoptosis following maternal porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 1;17(1):182. Epub 2021 May 1.

Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: Mechanisms of fetal death following maternal PRRSV2 infection remain uncharacterized, although hypoxia from umbilical cord lesions and/or placental detachment due to apoptosis are hypothesized. We performed two experiments examining hypoxia and apoptosis in PRRSV-infected and non-infected, third-trimester fetuses to elucidate possible associations with fetal death. Fetuses were selected based on four phenotypic infection groups: fetuses from non-challenged control gilts (CTRL); low viral load fetuses (LVL; Exp 1) or uninfected fetuses (UNINF; Exp 2) from inoculated gilts; viable high viral load fetuses (HVL-VIA); and HVL meconium-stained fetuses (HVL-MEC). Read More

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Gestational sleep apnea perturbations induce metabolic disorders by divergent epigenomic regulation.

Epigenomics 2021 May 30;13(10):751-765. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Child Health, Child Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Late-gestational sleep fragmentation (LG-SF) and intermittent hypoxia (LG-IH), two hallmarks of obstructive sleep apnea, lead to metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. We investigated specific biological processes that are epigenetically regulated by LG-SF and LG-IH. We analyzed DNA methylation profiles in offspring visceral white adipose tissues by MeDIP-chip followed by pathway analysis. Read More

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Melatonin Alleviates the Toxicity of High Nicotinamide Concentrations in Oocytes: Potential Interaction with Nicotinamide Methylation Signaling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 8;2021:5573357. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

Despite the numerous studies on melatonin and nicotinamide (NAM, the active form of vitamin B3), the linkage between these two biomolecules in the context of signaling pathways regulating preimplantation embryo development has not yet been investigated. In this study, we used bovine oocyte model to elucidate the effect of melatonin on the developmental competence of oocytes under the stress of high NAM concentrations. Results showed that NAM (20 mM) administration during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly reduced oocyte maturation and actin distribution, while induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, the multiple deleterious effects that were alleviated by melatonin (10 M). Read More

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High-Dose Supplementation of Folic Acid in Infertile Men Improves IVF-ICSI Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Trial (FOLFIV Trial).

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 26;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Service de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Médecine de la Reproduction, AP-HP Sorbonne Université site Tenon, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris, France.

Dietary supplementation is commonly used in men with male infertility but its exact role is poorly understood. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the impact of high-dose folic acid supplementation on IVF-ICSI outcomes. 162 couples with male infertility and an indication for IVF-ICSI were included for one IVF-ICSI cycle. Read More

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Microbiological Evaluation and Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Semen Samples of Patients Undergoing Fertility Investigation.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Napoli, Italy.

Fifteen percent of male infertility is associated with urogenital infections; several pathogens are able to alter the testicular and accessory glands' microenvironment, resulting in the impairment of biofunctional sperm parameters. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of urogenital infections on the quality of 53 human semen samples through standard analysis, microbiological evaluation, and molecular characterization of sperm DNA damage. The results showed a significant correlation between infected status and semen volume, sperm concentration, and motility. Read More

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Mangiferin Inhibits Apoptosis in Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cells via the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai 600 077, India.

Doxorubicin increases endothelial permeability, hence increasing cardiomyocytes' exposure to doxorubicin (DOX) and exposing myocytes to more immediate damage. Reactive oxygen species are major effector molecules of doxorubicin's activity. Mangiferin (MGN) is a xanthone derivative that consists of C-glucosylxanthone with additional antioxidant properties. Read More

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Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Anogenital Distance, Sperm Functions and DNA Methylation in Rat Offspring.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University (NTU) College of Medicine and NTU Hospital, Taipei 100229, Taiwan.

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the manufacture of polyvinylchloride plastics and has been associated with concerns regarding male reproductive toxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to DEHP induces transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset adverse reproductive outcomes through the male germline in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of male offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with 5 or 500 mg of DEHP/kg/day through gavage from gestation day 0 to birth. Read More

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Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration, Influences Tumor Cell Cycle and Exerts In Vivo Chemopreventive Effects.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide related to the endocannabinoid anandamide. PEA exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effects, but knowledge of its role in colon carcinogenesis is still largely fragmentary. We deepened this aspect by studying the effects of PEA (ultramicronized PEA, um-PEA) on colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle as well as its effects in a murine model of colon cancer. Read More

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