37 results match your criteria dna coprolite


REVIEW OF PARASITES FOUND IN EXTINCT ANIMALS: WHAT CAN BE REVEALED.

J Parasitol 2021 03;107(2):275-283

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Parasitos, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, 21041-210, Brazil.

Parasitism is inherent to life and observed in all species. Extinct animals have been studied to understand what they looked like, where and how they lived, what they fed on, and the reasons they became extinct. Paleoparasitology helps to clarify these questions based on the study of the parasites and microorganisms that infected those animals, using as a source material coprolites, fossils in rock, tissue, bone, mummy, and amber, analyses of ancient DNA, immunodiagnosis, and microscopy. Read More

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Metagonimus yokogawai Ancient DNA Recovered from 16th- to 17th-Century Korean Mummy Feces of the Joseon Dynasty.

J Parasitol 2020 11;106(6):802-808

Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Metagonimiasis is foodborne intestinal parasitism occurring by the definitive hosts' ingestion of raw or undercooked fish, mostly commonly sweetfish. Most Metagonimus infection is caused by Metagonimus yokogawai but also rarely by Metagonimus takahashii as well as Metagonimus miyatai. Despite recent molecular work on Metagonimus spp. Read More

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November 2020

Functional diversity of microbial ecologies estimated from ancient human coprolites and dental calculus.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 11 5;375(1812):20190586. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research (LMAMR), University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.

Human microbiome studies are increasingly incorporating macroecological approaches, such as community assembly, network analysis and functional redundancy to more fully characterize the microbiome. Such analyses have not been applied to ancient human microbiomes, preventing insights into human microbiome evolution. We address this issue by analysing published ancient microbiome datasets: coprolites from Rio Zape ( = 7; 700 CE Mexico) and historic dental calculus ( = 44; 1770-1855 CE, UK), as well as two novel dental calculus datasets: Maya ( = 7; 170 BCE-885 CE, Belize) and Nuragic Sardinians ( = 11; 1400-850 BCE, Italy). Read More

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November 2020

CoproID predicts the source of coprolites and paleofeces using microbiome composition and host DNA content.

PeerJ 2020 17;8:e9001. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or microscopic features alone. Here we present a reproducible and scalable pipeline using both host and microbial DNA to infer the host source of fecal material. Read More

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Comparison of extraction methods for recovering ancient microbial DNA from paleofeces.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 02 30;171(2):275-284. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Objectives: Paleofeces are valuable to archeologists and evolutionary biologists for their potential to yield health, dietary, and host information. As a rich source of preserved biomolecules from host-associated microorganisms, they can also provide insights into the recent evolution and changing ecology of the gut microbiome. However, there is currently no standard method for DNA extraction from paleofeces, which combine the dual challenges of complex biological composition and degraded DNA. Read More

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February 2020

Are immunoenzymatic tests for intestinal protozoans reliable when used on archaeological material?

Exp Parasitol 2019 Oct 19;205:107739. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca - Fundação Owaldo Cruz, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, CEP, 21041-210, Brazil; Fundação Benedito Pereira Nunes - Faculdade de Medicina de Campos, Av. Alberto Torres, 206, Centro, Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ, CEP 28035-582, Brazil.

Intestinal protozoans found in ancient human samples have been studied primarily by microscopy and immunodiagnostic assays. However, such methods are not suitable for the detection of zoonotic genotypes. The objectives of the present study were to utilize immunoenzimatic assays for coproantigen detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Read More

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October 2019

Genetic Analysis of Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and ATP Synthase Subunit 8 of Ancient DNA Retrieved from the 15th to 18th Century Joseon Dynasty Mummies' Coprolites from Korea.

J Parasitol 2019 08;105(4):539-545

1   Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, South Korea.

Although parasitic infection by is a very common intestinal helminthic disease worldwide, there is still insufficient information on the genetic characteristics of ancient in different spatiotemporal perspectives. Utilizing coprolite specimens obtained from 15th-18th century mummies dating to the Joseon Dynasty, we analyzed small-subunit ribosomal RNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and ATP synthase subunit 8 of ancient DNA (aDNA). In BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, the aDNA sequences of this study belong to a separate cluster that is evidently distinct from the other genus spp. Read More

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Ancient parasitic DNA reveals presence in Final Pleistocene of South America.

Parasitology 2019 09 3;146(10):1284-1288. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Laboratorio de Parasitología de Sitios Arqueológicos, CONICET-UNMdP, Dean Funes 3250 (7600), Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Parasitological analysis of coprolites has allowed exploring ecological relationships in ancient times. Ancient DNA analysis contributes to the identification of coprolites and their parasites. Pleistocene mammalian carnivore coprolites were recovered from paleontological and archaeological site Peñas de las Trampas 1. Read More

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September 2019

Analysis of COI and ITS2 regions of DNA obtained from Paragonimus westermani eggs in ancient coprolites on Joseon dynasty mummies.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 16;114:e180595. Epub 2019 May 16.

Seoul National University College of Medicine, Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Seoul, South Korea.

The genetic information of ancient Paragonimus westermani, the oriental lung fluke infecting over 20 million people worldwide, has not been thoroughly investigated thus far. We analysed genetic markers (COI and ITS2) of P. westermani from coprolite specimens (n = 6) obtained from 15th to 18th century Korean mummies. Read More

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Methodological innovations for the study of irreplaceable samples reveal giardiasis in extinct animals (Nothrotherium maquinense and Palaeolama maior).

Parasitol Int 2018 Dec 25;67(6):776-780. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Avenida Dom José Gaspar, 290 Coração Eucarístico, Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais CEP: 30535-901, Brazil.

The use of diagnostic methods that prevent irreplaceable samples (from museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples) of being consumed or that increase their yield is relevant. For museum collections, archaeological and paleontological samples it is essential to conserve samples, subsamples or portions for future research. We are addressing methods for conservation of irreplaceable samples that could be fully consumed. Read More

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December 2018

Genome data on the extinct Bison schoetensacki establish it as a sister species of the extant European bison (Bison bonasus).

BMC Evol Biol 2017 02 10;17(1):48. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), IBITECS, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France.

Background: The European bison (Bison bonasus), now found in Europe and the Caucasus, has been proposed to originate either from the extinct steppe/extant American bison lineage or from the extinct Bison schoetensacki lineage. Bison schoetensacki remains are documented in Eurasian Middle Pleistocene sites, but their presence in Upper Pleistocene sites has been questioned. Despite extensive genetic studies carried out on the steppe and European bison, no remains from the fossil record morphologically identified as Bison schoetensacki has been analyzed up to now. Read More

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February 2017

Recovery of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in experimentally mummified skin and bones: Prospects for paleoparasitological studies to unveil the origin of toxoplasmosis.

Exp Parasitol 2016 Sep 10;168:51-5. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Paleoparasitology, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Paleoparasitology studies parasite infections by finding the parasites' remains in preserved organic remains such as natural or artificial mummy tissues, skeletons, teeth, and coprolites, among others. However, some currently important infections like toxoplasmosis have not been studied by paleoparasitology. The reasons include this parasite's complex life cycle, the resulting difficulties in locating this protozoan in the intermediate host tissues, and the limitation of coprolite studies to felines, the protozoan's definitive host. Read More

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September 2016

Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

J Parasitol 2016 Apr 7;102(2):222-8. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

LABTRIP, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Sala 518, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900, RJ, Brazil.

The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. Read More

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The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors.

Adv Parasitol 2015 18;90:1-51. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

Knowledge concerning the diversity of parasitism and its reach across our current understanding of the tree of life has benefitted considerably from novel molecular phylogenetic methods. However, the timing of events and the resolution of the nature of the intimate relationships between parasites and their hosts in deep time remain problematic. Despite its vagaries, the fossil record provides the only direct evidence of parasites and parasitism in the fossil record of extant and extinct lineages. Read More

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Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

Sci Rep 2015 11 13;5:16498. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.

To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. Read More

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November 2015

Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

Korean J Parasitol 2015 Apr 22;53(2):237-42. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Bioanthropology and Paleopathology Lab, Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples. Read More

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Ancient human microbiomes.

J Hum Evol 2015 Feb 3;79:125-36. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, 101 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73019, USA. Electronic address:

Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. Read More

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February 2015

Paleomicrobiology: revealing fecal microbiomes of ancient indigenous cultures.

PLoS One 2014 10;9(9):e106833. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Coprolites are fossilized feces that can be used to provide information on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and, as we show, possibly on diet. We analyzed human coprolites from the Huecoid and Saladoid cultures from a settlement on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. While more is known about the Saladoid culture, it is believed that both societies co-existed on this island approximately from 5 to 1170 AD. Read More

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Insights about echinostomiasis by paleomolecular diagnosis.

Parasitol Int 2014 Aug 26;63(4):646-9. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Laboratório de Paleoparasitologia, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões 1480, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21.041-210, Brazil.

Echinostomiasis is a zoonosis caused by intestinal trematodes and transmitted by the ingestion of mollusks, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, either raw or poorly cooked. Today human infection is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Far East, but has been reported more recently in other regions of the world. Interestingly eggs identified as Echinostoma sp. Read More

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Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2014 May 7;80(9):2648-55. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Aix Marseille University, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France.

Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Read More

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Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Oct 30;110(42):16910-5. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Landcare Research, Lincoln, Canterbury 7640, New Zealand.

Knowledge of extinct herbivore community structuring is essential for assessing the wider ecological impacts of Quaternary extinctions and determining appropriate taxon substitutes for rewilding. Here, we demonstrate the potential for coprolite studies to progress beyond single-species diet reconstructions to resolving community-level detail. The moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand are an intensively studied group of nine extinct herbivore species, yet many details of their diets and community structuring remain unresolved. Read More

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October 2013

Microbial communities in pre-columbian coprolites.

PLoS One 2013 5;8(6):e65191. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States of America.

The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an "unaltered" composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. Read More

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January 2014

Clarifying Prehistoric Parasitism from a Complementary Morphological and Molecular Approach.

J Archaeol Sci 2013 Jul;40(7):3060-3066

University of Oklahoma, Department of Anthropology, 455 West Lindsey, Dale Hall Tower 521, Norman, OK 73019.

This paper reports an approach to the identification of prehistoric parasitic infection, which integrates traditional morphological methods with molecular methods. The approach includes the strengths of each method while mitigating the limitations. Demonstrating the efficacy of this approach, we provide a case study from a 1,400 year old desiccated fecal sample from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos, archaeological site, near Rio Zape, Durango, Mexico. Read More

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Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes.

PLoS One 2012 12;7(12):e51146. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.

In an effort to better understand the ancestral state of the human distal gut microbiome, we examine feces retrieved from archaeological contexts (coprolites). To accomplish this, we pyrosequenced the 16S rDNA V3 region from duplicate coprolite samples recovered from three archaeological sites, each representing a different depositional environment: Hinds Cave (~8000 years B.P. Read More

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A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology.

Conserv Biol 2012 Dec 1;26(6):1091-9. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Landcare Research, P.O. Box 40, Lincoln, Canterbury 7640, New Zealand.

Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Read More

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December 2012

High-resolution coproecology: using coprolites to reconstruct the habits and habitats of New Zealand's extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus).

PLoS One 2012 29;7(6):e40025. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Landcare Research, Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand.

Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand's largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Read More

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November 2012

Coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena.

Proc Biol Sci 2012 Jul 28;279(1739):2825-30. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

iBiTec-S/SBiGeM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France.

We performed high-throughput sequencing of DNA from fossilized faeces to evaluate this material as a source of information on the genome and diet of Pleistocene carnivores. We analysed coprolites derived from the extinct cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), and sequenced 90 million DNA fragments from two specimens. The DNA reads enabled a reconstruction of the cave hyena mitochondrial genome with up to a 158-fold coverage. Read More

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Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

Ann Anat 2012 Jan 17;194(1):26-30. Epub 2011 May 17.

McMaster Ancient DNA Center, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. Read More

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January 2012

Molecular breeding of polymerases for resistance to environmental inhibitors.

Nucleic Acids Res 2011 Apr 4;39(8):e51. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.

Potent inhibitors limit the use of PCR assays in a wide spectrum of specimens. Here, we describe the engineering of polymerases with a broad resistance to complex environmental inhibitors using molecular breeding of eight different polymerase orthologues from the genus Thermus and directed evolution by CSR in the presence of inhibitors. Selecting for resistance to the inhibitory effects of Neomylodon bone powder, we isolated 2D9, a chimeric polymerase comprising sequence elements derived from DNA polymerases from Thermus aquaticus, Thermus oshimai, Thermus thermophilus and Thermus brockianus. Read More

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Comment on "DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America".

Science 2009 Jul;325(5937):148; author reply 148

Department of Archaeology, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Gilbert et al. (Reports, 9 May 2008, p. 786) presented DNA analysis of coprolites recovered from an Oregon cave as evidence for a human presence in North America before the Clovis culture. Read More

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