Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2119:25-42
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Center for Metabolism and Mitochondrial Medicine and the Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and how replication, transcription, repair, and degradation maintain mitochondrial function has been hampered due to the inability to identify mtDNA structural forms. Here we describe the use of 2D intact mtDNA agarose gel electrophoresis, or 2D-IMAGE, to identify up to 25 major mtDNA topoisomers such as double-stranded circular mtDNA (including supercoiled molecules, nicked circles, and multiple catenated species) and various forms containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structures. Using this modification of a classical 1D gel electrophoresis procedure, many of the identified mtDNA species have been associated with mitochondrial replication, damage, deletions, and possibly transcription. Read More