273,800 results match your criteria diversity


Lizard osteoderms - morphological characterisation, biomimetic design and manufacturing based on three species.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University College London, Mechanical Engineering, London, WC1E 6JE, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Osteoderms (OD) are mineralised dermal structures consisting mainly of calcium phosphate and collagen. The sheer diversity of OD morphologies and their distribution within the skin of lizards makes these reptiles an ideal group in which to study ODs. Nonetheless, our understanding of the structure, development, and function of lizard ODs remains limited. Read More

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September 2021

Investigating inbreeding in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 29;100(11):101366. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada; Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3001, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The detrimental effects of increased homozygosity due to inbreeding have prompted the development of methods to reduce inbreeding. The detection of runs of homozygosity (ROH), or contiguous stretches of homozygous marker genotypes, can be used to describe and quantify the level of inbreeding in an individual. The estimation of inbreeding coefficients can be calculated based on pedigree information, ROH, or the genomic relationship matrix. Read More

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The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109697

Neurodevelopmental Genetics, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are diverse in their projection targets, effect on behavior, and susceptibility to neurodegeneration. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms establishing this diversity during development. We show that the transcription factor BCL11A is expressed in a subset of mDA neurons in the developing and adult murine brain and in a subpopulation of pluripotent-stem-cell-derived human mDA neurons. Read More

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September 2021

The neuroimmune response during stress: A physiological perspective.

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1933-1947

Department of immunology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3525422, Israel. Electronic address:

Stress is an essential adaptive response that enables the organism to cope with challenges and restore homeostasis. Different stressors require distinctive corrective responses in which immune cells play a critical role. Hence, effects of stress on immunity may vary accordingly. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes serogroups in different food products from Transylvania Region, Central Romania.

J Food Prot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine ROMANIA Timasoara.

The aim of this study was to assess the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the molecularly serogrouped Listeria monocytogenes isolates in different animal origin food products, collected from a county situated in the historical region of Transylvania, Central Romania. A total of 7.7% (17/221) of the screened samples were positive for L. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic Change in Oral Microbiota of Children With Cleft Lip and Palate After Alveolar Bone Grafting.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Sep 15:10556656211044396. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

159460Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, P.R. China.

To investigate the longitudinal influence of alveolar bone grafting on the oral microbiota of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP).

Twenty-eight children with nonsyndromic CLP were recruited and underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting at the first time. Unstimulated saliva and plaque samples were collected from the subjects preoperatively and at 2 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Read More

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September 2021

Infection of Glia by Human Pegivirus Suppresses Peroxisomal and Antiviral Signaling Pathways.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0107421. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Human pegivirus (HPgV) infects peripheral leukocytes but was recently shown to be a neurotropic virus associated with leukoencephalitis in humans. In the present study, we investigated the neural cell tropism of HPgV as well as its effects on host immune responses. HPgV wild type (WT) as well as a mutant virus with a deletion in the HPgV gene (ΔNS2) were able to productively infect human astrocytes and microglia but not neurons or an oligodendrocyte-derived cell line. Read More

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September 2021

Genomes of novel Myxococcota reveal severely curtailed machineries for predation and cellular differentiation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0170621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics.

Cultured Myxococcota are predominantly aerobic soil inhabitants, characterized by their highly coordinated predation and cellular differentiation capacities. Little is currently known regarding yet-uncultured Myxococcota from anaerobic, non-soil habitats. We analyzed genomes representing one novel order (o__JAFGXQ01) and one novel family (f__JAFGIB01) in the Myxococcota from an anoxic freshwater spring (Zodletone spring) in Oklahoma, USA. Read More

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September 2021

Genomic insights into the ecological role and evolution of a novel Thermoplasmata order, " Sysuiplasmatales".

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0106521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR China.

Recent omics studies have provided invaluable insights into the metabolic potential, adaptation and evolution of novel archaeal lineages from a variety of extreme environments. We have utilized a genome-resolved metagenomic approach to recover eight medium- to high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that likely represent a new order (" Sysuiplasmatales") within Thermoplasmata from mine tailings and acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments sampled from two copper mines in South China. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed a narrow habitat range for these uncultured archaea limiting to AMD and hot spring-related environments. Read More

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September 2021

Distinct assembly processes and determinants of soil microbial communities between farmland and grassland in arid and semiarid areas.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0101021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

It is critical to identify the assembly processes and determinants of soil microbial communities to better predict soil microbial responses to environmental change in arid and semiarid areas. Here, soils from 16 grassland-only, 9 paired grassland and farmland, and 16 farmland-only sites were collected across the central Inner Mongolia Plateau covering a steep environmental gradient. Through analyzing the paired samples, we discovered that land uses had strong effects on soil microbial communities, but weak effects on their assembly processes. Read More

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September 2021

Genomic epidemiology and strain taxonomy of .

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:JCM0158121. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institut Pasteur, Biodiversity and Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens.

is highly transmissible and can cause large diphtheria outbreaks where vaccination coverage is insufficient. Sporadic cases or small clusters are observed in high-vaccination settings. The phylogeography and short timescale evolution of are not well understood, in part due to a lack of harmonized analytical approaches of genomic surveillance and strain tracking. Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Causing Marginal Leaf Necrosis of Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) in Serbia.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Phytomedicine, Plant Pathology, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade, Serbia, 11080;

Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., syn. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity of non-equilibrium patterns and emergence of activity in confined electrohydrodynamically driven liquids.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 15;7(38):eabh1642. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, Espoo FI-02150, Finland.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of two-pool multiplex long-amplicon nanopore sequencing of SARS-CoV-2.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, China.

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in COVID-19 pandemic control and elimination efforts, especially by elucidating its global transmission network and illustrating its viral evolution. The deployment of multiplex PCR assays that target SARS-CoV-2 followed by either massively parallel or nanopore sequencing is a widely-used strategy to obtain genome sequences from primary samples. However, multiplex PCR-based sequencing carries an inherent bias of sequencing depth among different amplicons, which may cause uneven coverage. Read More

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September 2021

Investigation of structural evolution in the Cu-Zr metallic glass at cryogenic temperatures by using molecular dynamics simulations.

J Mol Model 2021 Sep 15;27(10):286. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769008, Odisha, India.

In the present work, investigation of structural evolution of CuZr specimen during the cooling process from 2500 down to the 300 K, 200 K, 150 K, 100 K, 50 K, and 10 K has been performed at cooling rate of 5 K/ps using molecular dynamics simulation. The pair distribution function (PDF) reveals that Zr‒Zr pair causes the splitting of the first peak of the CuZr glass at a lower temperature with an increase in height. Splitting of the first and second peaks supports the presence of the inhomogeneous structure with a statistical average of crystal-like and disordered structural regions in the CuZr glass. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of Species by Combining Molecular and Morphological Data Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

Syst Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, People's Republic of China.

Integrative taxonomy is central to modern taxonomy and systematic biology, including behaviour, niche preference, distribution, morphological analysis and DNA barcoding. However, decades of use demonstrate that these methods can face challenges when used in isolation, for instance, potential misidentifications due to phenotypic plasticity for morphological methods, and incorrect identifications because of introgression, incomplete lineage sorting and horizontal gene transfer for DNA barcoding. Although researchers have advocated the use of integrative taxonomy, few detailed algorithms have been proposed. Read More

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September 2021

A cross-study analysis of drug response prediction in cancer cell lines.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Argonne National Laboratory.

To enable personalized cancer treatment, machine learning models have been developed to predict drug response as a function of tumor and drug features. However, most algorithm development efforts have relied on cross-validation within a single study to assess model accuracy. While an essential first step, cross-validation within a biological data set typically provides an overly optimistic estimate of the prediction performance on independent test sets. Read More

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September 2021

Perturbations in Gut Microbiota Composition in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Evidence of gut microbiota perturbations has accumulated for multiple psychiatric disorders, with microbiota signatures proposed as potential biomarkers. However, no attempts have been made to evaluate the specificity of these across the range of psychiatric conditions.

Objective: To conduct an umbrella and updated meta-analysis of gut microbiota alterations in general adult psychiatric populations and perform a within- and between-diagnostic comparison. Read More

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September 2021

Ocular Surface Microbiota in Diabetic Patients With Dry Eye Disease.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Sep;62(12):13

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the ocular surface (OS) commensal bacteria profiles of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In the present study, subjects were assigned to four groups: 37 to the diabetic mellitus with dry eye disease (DM with DED) group, 22 to the diabetes mellitus (DM)-only group, 34 to the dry eye disease (DED)-only group, and 22 to the control group. Tear fluid was collected using Schirmer's tear secretion test paper. Read More

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September 2021

Dental Therapists in the United States: Health Equity, Advancing.

Med Care 2021 Oct;59(Suppl 5):S441-S448

Center for Health Workforce Studies, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY.

Background: Dental therapists (DTs) are primary care dental providers, used globally, and were introduced in the United States (US) in 2005. DTs have now been adopted in 13 states and several Tribal nations.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to qualitatively examine the drivers and outcomes of the US dental therapy movement through a health equity lens, including community engagement, implementation and dissemination, and access to oral health care. Read More

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October 2021

Gender and racial disparities in the transplant surgery workforce.

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2021 Oct;26(5):560-566

Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Purpose Of Review: This review explores trends in the United States (US) transplant surgery workforce with a focus on historical demographics, post-fellowship job market, and quality of life reported by transplant surgeons. Ongoing efforts to improve women and racial/ethnic minority representation in transplant surgery are highlighted. Future directions to create a transplant workforce that reflects the diversity of the US population are discussed. Read More

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October 2021

Latina Women in the U.S. Physician Workforce: Opportunities in the Pursuit of Health Equity.

Acad Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Y.B. Anaya is assistant clinical professor, Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3454-7667. P. Hsu is research associate, Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, David Geffen School of Medicine, and adjunct assistant professor of epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6153-364X. L.E. Martínez is a postdoctoral fellow, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, and researcher, Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. S. Hernandez is a medical student, Charles R. Drew/UCLA Medical Education Program, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. D.E. Hayes-Bautista is distinguished professor of medicine and director, Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8363-9034.

Purpose: Some progress has been made in gender diversity in undergraduate medical education and the physician workforce, but much remains to be done to improve workforce disparities for women, particularly women from underrepresented populations, such as Latinas. This study examines the current level of representation and demographic characteristics of Latina physicians, including age, language use, nativity, and citizenship status.

Method: The authors used data from the 2014-2018 U. Read More

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September 2021

Medical Ethics, Moral Courage, and the Embrace of Fallibility.

Authors:
Karola Kreitmair

Acad Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

K. Kreitmair is assistant professor of bioethics, Department of Medical History and Bioethics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Experts have an obligation to make difficult decisions rather than offloading these decisions onto others who may be less well-equipped to make them. This commentary considers this obligation through the lens of drafting critical care rationing protocols to address COVID-19-induced scarcity. The author recalls her own experience as a member of multiple groups charged with the generation of protocols for how hospitals and states should ration critical care resources like ventilators and intensive care unit beds, in the event that there would not be enough to go around as the COVID-19 pandemic intensified. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of feline coronavirus in southwest China from 2017 to 2020.

J Gen Virol 2021 Sep;102(9)

College of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610041, PR China.

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the causative agent of feline infectious peritonitis and diarrhoea in kittens worldwide. In this study, a total of 173 feline diarrhoeal faecal and ascetic samples were collected from 15 catteries and six veterinary hospitals in southwest China from 2017 to 2020. FCoV was detected in 80. Read More

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September 2021

Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Recovered from Diseased Salmonids in China.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0033021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State Universitygrid.17088.36, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, causes great economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Recent molecular studies have uncovered important epidemiological and ecological aspects of this pathogen; however, such data are lacking for F. psychrophilum populations affecting aquaculture in China. Read More

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September 2021

Cigarette Smoking and Opium Use in Relation to the Oral Microbiota in Iran.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0013821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institutegrid.48336.3a, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Cigarettes and opium contain chemicals and particulate matter that may modify the oral microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the association between cigarette and opium use with the oral microbiota. A total of 558 participants were recruited from Iran between 2011 and 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring the Genomic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in a Vietnamese Population.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0052621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum is a member of the human gut microbiota, and specific variants of have been associated with health benefits such as improving gut integrity and reducing inflammatory responses. Here, we aimed to assess the genomic diversity and predicted metabolic profiles of B. pseudocatenulatum cells found colonizing the gut of healthy Vietnamese adults and children. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of Fecal Collection Methods on Variation in Gut Metagenomics and Untargeted Metabolomics.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0063621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering School of Life Sciences, Human Phenome Institute, Fudan Universitygrid.8547.e, Shanghai, China.

Integrative analysis of high-quality metagenomics and metabolomics data from fecal samples provides novel clues for the mechanism underpinning gut microbe-human interactions. However, data regarding the influence of fecal collection methods on both metagenomics and metabolomics are sparse. Six fecal collection methods (the gold standard [GS] [i. Read More

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September 2021

Viability-Resolved Metagenomics Reveals Antagonistic Colonization Dynamics of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains on Preterm Infant Skin.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0053821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Centergrid.410721.1, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

Preterm infants are at increased risk of infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) that colonize skin. Technical barriers in sequencing low-microbial-biomass skin swabs from preterm infants hinder attempts to gain a strain-level understanding of CoNS colonization dynamics within their developing skin microbiome. Here, the microbiome of five skin sites and available stool was studied from four preterm infants hospitalized over their first 2 months of life. Read More

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September 2021

Olfactory entry promotes herpesvirus recombination.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0155521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Herpesvirus genomes show abundant evidence of past recombination. Its functional importance is unknown. A key question is whether recombinant viruses can outpace the immunity induced by their parents to reach higher loads. Read More

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September 2021