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Pineal region tumors: pathophysiological mechanisms of presenting symptoms.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):5758-5766. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

"C.N.S. Alliance" Research Group Athens, Greece.

Pineal region tumors (PRTs) affect all ages, with a remarkable proportion of cases occurring in children. They are mainly classified into three categories, namely germ cell tumors (GCTs), pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and other tumors such as gliomas and tumors of the surrounding structures. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding pathophysiological mechanisms of the presenting clinical features of patients with PRT. Read More

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Maternal Effect Mutations: A Novel Cause for Human Reproductive Failure.

Authors:
Thomas Eggermann

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Jul 13;81(7):780-788. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Human Genetics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Genetic alterations significantly contribute to the aetiology of reproductive failure and comprise monogenic, chromosomal and epigenetic disturbances. The implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) based approaches in research and diagnostics allows the comprehensive analysis of these genetic causes, and the increasing detection rates of genetic mutations causing reproductive complications confirm the potential of the new techniques. Whereas mutations affecting the fetal genome are well known to affect pregnancies and their outcome, the contribution of alterations of the maternal genome was widely unclear. Read More

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Do anatomical variations of the mandibular canal pose an increased risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury after third molar removal?

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

OMFS-IMPATH Research Group, , Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7 blok a, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: The present study aimed to assess whether anatomical variations of the mandibular canal are associated with neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) following mandibular third molar removal.

Methods: Two observers compared the detection of third molar root-nerve relations and bifurcations of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiographs and CBCT images of 201 patients undergoing removal of 357 mandibular third molars. Potential neurosensory disturbances of the IAN were surveyed ten days after surgery. Read More

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Heart failure following transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Jul 6:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

: Over the past decade, the number of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures has increased exponentially. Despite major improvements in both device and successes, the rate of hospital readmission after TAVR remains high, with heart failure (HF) decompensation being one of the most important causes.: This review provides an overview of the current status of HF following TAVR, including details about its incidence, clinical impact, contributing factors, and current and future treatment perspectives. Read More

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Complete heart block associated with Remdesivir in COVID-19: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Jul 1;5(7):ytab200. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Hospital Medicine, The Miriam Hospital, 164 Summit Ave, Providence, RI 02906, USA.

Background: Since the pandemic began in 2020, Remdesivir has been widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Here, we describe a case of a patient with COVID-19 who developed transient complete atrioventricular (AV) block and bradycardia after initiating treatment with Remdesivir.

Case Summary: A 72-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation and lung cancer was hospitalized for COVID-19. Read More

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Characterization of alexithymia in clinically isolated syndrome.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

CHU de Lille, France; Université de Lille, U1172, Lille, France.

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevalence of alexithymia, defined as an inability to identify and describe emotions, is close to 50% but the prevalence of this symptom in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is unknown. Characterizing alexithymia at an early stage of the disease can help to clarify psychobehavioural disturbances in CIS patients.

Methods: Forty CIS patients, who fulfilled the MRI criteria for dissemination in space, were matched with 40 healthy subjects. Read More

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Contribution of sleep disturbances to fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a prospective study using clinical and polysomnographic parameters.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Multiple Sclerosis Center, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Regional Hospital (EOC) of Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland.

Background And Purpose: Fatigue is amongst the most frequent and disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis and a close relation between fatigue and sleep quality has been hypothesized. In this study the contribution of sleep disturbances measured by clinical and polysomnographic parameters to fatigue in multiple sclerosis was investigated.

Methods: This was a prospective instrumental study performed at the Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland. Read More

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Disturbance compensation of a multiaperture imaging system based on a coupling rotating prism using an improved model compensation control.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(16):4798-4806

In this paper, a cascade double-loop control (DLC) combined with modeling compensation methods is proposed to improve the tracking precision of the multiaperture imaging system (MAIS). The application of the flexible thin-wall ring mechanism in the coupling rotating prism (CRP) system causes a series of tracking and pointing challenges. Disturbances such as friction, shaft deformation, and model perturbation significantly deteriorate the tracking and pointing accuracy of the CRP. Read More

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Influence of maternal and paternal pre-conception overweight/obesity on offspring outcomes and strategies for prevention.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Child Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Overweight, obesity, and their comorbidities remain global health challenges. When established early in life, overweight is often sustained into adulthood and contributes to the early onset of non-communicable diseases. Parental pre-conception overweight and obesity is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in childhood and beyond. Read More

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Hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic adult patients at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0253286. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes is a global public health problem and associated with metabolic, cellular, and blood disturbances. Hematological changes have been reported in diabetes and play a major role in diabetes-associated complications. However, reports are contradicting and data on hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic patients in the study area are scarce. Read More

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Proteomic Analysis Identifies Prolonged Disturbances in Pathways Related to Cholesterol Metabolism and Myocardium Function in the COVID-19 Recovery Stage.

J Proteome Res 2021 07 3;20(7):3463-3474. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a worldwide health crisis. So far, most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infectious disease. Little attention has been given to the disease sequelae in patients recovering from COVID-19, and nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. Read More

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Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery in Rats Reversed by Collateral Pathways Activation: Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy Counteracts Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome; Intracranial, Portal, and Caval Hypertension; and Aortal Hypotension.

Biomedicines 2021 May 26;9(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 therapy counteracts multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in rats, which have permanent occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery close to the abdominal aorta. Previously, when confronted with major vessel occlusion, its effect would rapidly activate collateral vessel pathways and resolve major venous occlusion syndromes (Pringle maneuver ischemia, reperfusion, Budd-Chiari syndrome) in rats. This would overwhelm superior mesenteric artery permanent occlusion, and result in local, peripheral, and central disturbances. Read More

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Observer-Based Time-Variant Spacing Policy for a Platoon of Non-Holonomic Mobile Robots.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 31;21(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

CINVESTAV-IPN Electrical Engineering Department, Mechatronics Section, Av. I.P.N. No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico City 07360, Mexico.

This paper presents a navigation strategy for a platoon of non-holonomic mobile robots with a time-varying spacing policy between each pair of successive robots at the platoon, such that a safe trailing distance is maintained at any speed, avoiding the robots getting too close to each other. It is intended that all the vehicles in the formation follow the trajectory described by the leader robot, which is generated by bounded input velocities. To establish a chain formation among the vehicles, it is required that, for each pair of successive vehicles, the (i+1)-th one follows the trajectory executed by the former -th one, with a delay of τ(t) units of time. Read More

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Human Body Rhythms in the Development of Non-Invasive Methods of Closed-Loop Adaptive Neurostimulation.

J Pers Med 2021 May 20;11(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Branch of the Serbsky' National Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Narcology, Russian Ministry of Health, 3 Poteshnaya St., 107076 Moscow, Russia.

The creation and improvement of non-invasive closed-loop brain stimulation technologies represent an exciting and rapidly expanding field of neuroscience. To identify the appropriate way to close the feedback loop in adaptive neurostimulation procedures, it was previously proposed to use on-line automatic sensory stimulation with the parameters modulated by the patient's own rhythmical processes, such as respiratory rate, heart rate, and electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms. The current paper aims to analyze several recent studies demonstrating further development in this line of research. Read More

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11-oxygenated androgens and their relation to hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis disturbances in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 28;212:105921. Epub 2021 May 28.

Medizinische Klinik and Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Context: Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis disturbances are a common phenomenon in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). 11-oxygenated androgens have been suggested to play a role in this context.

Design: Cross-sectional single center study including 89 patients (N = 42 men, N = 55 women) with classic CAH. Read More

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Hydrodynamic Modeling of Turbulence Modulation by Particles in a Swirling Gas-Particle Two-Phase Flow.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 5;6(15):10106-10118. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Aerospace Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000, China.

Turbulence modulations by particles of a swirling gas-particle two-phase flow in an axisymmetric chamber are numerically simulated. To fully consider the preferential concentrations and the anisotropic dispersions of particles, a second-order moment model coupling particle-particle collision model was improved. Experimental validation for the proposed model, algorithm, and in-house codes by acceptable match was carried out. Read More

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[Update on the etiology and pathogenesis of muscle dystonia].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(4):127-133

Privolzhsky Research Medical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

Muscle dystonia is one of the most common extrapyramidal diseases and is the third most common after essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. The introduction of diagnostic methods expanded the understanding of the genetic basis of muscle dystonia and neurophysiological mechanisms of dystonic phenomena. However, the questions of the etiology and pathogenesis of dystonia still remain the subject of close interest of researchers. Read More

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Obesity and sleep disturbances: The "chicken or the egg" question.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy; Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Obesity and sleep disturbances are common conditions in modern societies and accumulating evidence support a close bidirectional causal relationship between these two conditions. Indeed, from one side sleep loss seems to affect energy intake and expenditure through its direct effects on hormone-mediated sensations of satiety and hunger and through the influence on hedonic and psychological aspects of food consumption. Sleep deprived patients have been shown to experiment excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and tiredness that, in a vicious circle, enhances physical inactivity and weight gain. Read More

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HIV-Dementia Scale as a screening tool for the detection of subcortical cognitive deficits: validation of the Italian version.

J Neurol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Center for Memory Disturbances, Lab of Clinical Neurochemistry, Section of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Piazzale Gambuli 1, 06132, Perugia, Italy.

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) lacks of sensitivity in detecting cognitive deficits associated with subcortical damage. The HIV-Dementia Scale (HDS), a screening tool originally created for detecting cognitive impairment due to subcortical damage in HIV + patients, has proved to be useful in other neurological diseases. Until now, an Italian version of the HDS is not available. Read More

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The anti-cancer properties of neem () through its antioxidant activity in the liver; its pharmaceutics and toxic dosage forms; a literature review.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The neem () have been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of multiple diseases, particularly cancer. The mechanism of anti-cancer properties of neem are far from clear. However, it is well accepted that anti-cancer effects of neem is mediated via its hepatic anti-oxidant activity. Read More

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Northward range extension for Durvillaea poha bull kelp: Response to tectonic disturbance?

J Phycol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Understanding the forces that shape species distributions is increasingly important in a fast-changing world. Although major disturbance events can adversely affect natural populations, they can also present new opportunities, for example by opening up habitat for colonization by other lineages. Following extensive geographic sampling, we use genomic data to infer a range extension following disturbance for an ecologically important intertidal macroalgal species. Read More

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Acute life-threatening hyperkalaemia in a patient with giant hydronephrosis: a case report.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 28;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

A 52-year-old man with a history of urolithiasis presents to the emergency department with a sudden, sharp, continuous right flank colicky pain. Laboratory workup demonstrates acute kidney injury with a mild hyperkalaemia. During the observation period, the patient develops an atypical broad complex sinus bradycardia and eventually short asystolic periods. Read More

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Normative scores for the Timed Up & Go in a Spanish sample of community-dweller adults with preserved functionality.

Aten Primaria 2021 Aug-Sep;53(7):102065. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Our aim was to calculate the 'Timed Up & Go' (TUG) normative scores in a Spanish sample composed of functional older adults. The TUG test provides a measure of global ambulation skills and its total score has been successfully related with functionality and other important health variables in older adults. Reliable norms are needed for adults 50 years and older that allow the early identification and intervention in motor disturbances. Read More

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Formal Thought Disorder and Self-Disorder: An Empirical Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 8;12:640921. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Formal thought disorder was constitutively linked to the original concept of schizophrenia and has since been one of central features supporting its diagnosis. Bleuler considered formal thought disorder as a fundamental symptom of schizophrenia among other fundamental symptoms, including ego disorders. The contemporary concept of self-disorder represents a more developed, nuanced, and systematic approach to disturbances of self-experience than the Bleulerian concept of ego disorders. Read More

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Triple threat: New presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis, COVID-19, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, United States; George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, United States. Electronic address:

Patients with diabetes have increased susceptibility to infection with Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 and increased morbidity and mortality from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mortality from COVID-19 is sometimes caused by cardiac arrhythmias. Electrolyte disturbances in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Read More

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Metabolic complications of hepatitis C virus infection.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(13):1267-1282

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Preston PR2 9HT, United Kingdom.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disease that is implicated in multiple extrahepatic organ dysfunction contributing to its protean manifestations. HCV is associated with diverse extrahepatic disorders including atherosclerosis, glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances, alterations in the iron metabolic pathways, and lymphoproliferative diseases over and above the traditional liver manifestations of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The orchestration between HCV major proteins and the liver-muscle-adipose axis, poses a major burden on the global health of human body organs, if not adequately addressed. Read More

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Heart failure and central sleep apnea in the era of implantable recorders.

Anatol J Cardiol 2021 04;25(4):216-224

Department of Cardiology, State University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Nicolae Testemitanu", Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a complex syndrome with a high prevalence and a significant impact on the general well-being of the overall population. Heart failure (HF) is a major health issue with an increasing incidence, a high rate of hospitalizations, and high mortality in developing countries. Focusing on early recognition and management of HF comorbidities may have an important role in reducing the economic burden and public health impact of HF. Read More

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Clinical and laboratory features associated with mortality in children with severe malnutrition in Papua New Guinea.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2021 Apr 2:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Discipline of Child Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby.

The World Health Organization has a clinical and syndromic approach to the management of severe acute malnutrition which recognises that laboratory investigations are often not possible where children with severe malnutrition present. In low- and middle-income countries including Papua New Guinea, rates of death from severe malnutrition in many hospitals remain 10% or more. To evaluate the clinical predictors of death and the association between disturbances of electrolytes and haematological investigations in children with severe malnutrition and the risk of mortality. Read More

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