188,800 results match your criteria district


BCG and the risk of leprosy in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, 2016-2017.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Sep 8:e2021060. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

UAMS Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health , Little Rock, United States.

Objectives: Paraguay has experienced a 35% reduction in the detected incidence of leprosy during the last ten years, as the vaccination coverage against tuberculosis (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin [BCG] vaccine) reached ≥95% among infants. The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the protective effect of BCG on the risk of leprosy.

Methods: We used a population-based case-control study of 20 leprosy confirmed cases reported among residents of Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, diagnosed in 2016-2017. Read More

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September 2021

Nanoscale mapping of electric polarizability in a heterogeneous dielectric material with surface irregularities.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Power System, Department of, Electrical Engineering, Beijing, 100084, CHINA.

Nanoscale mapping of electric polarizability in a heterogeneous dielectric material with surface irregularities is of scientific and technical significance, but remains challenging. Here, we present an approach based on intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) in conjunction with finite element computation for precise and high-resolution mapping of polarizability in dielectric materials. Instead of using electrostatic force in conventional quantitative EFM approaches, the force gradient is acquired to achieve an unprecedented spatial resolution. Read More

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September 2021

Endocrine Surgery Patients' and Providers' Perceptions of Telemedicine in the COVID Era.

J Surg Res 2021 Sep 12;269:76-82. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Division of Endocrine Surgery, MedStar-Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010. Electronic address:

Background: Telemedicine has become a key modality for health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, including for endocrine surgery. Little data exists on patients' and referring endocrinologists' perspectives of its use. The study aimed to assess and compare endocrine surgery patients' attitudes about telemedicine to that of referring endocrinologists. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and Efficacy of a Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Malawian Children.

N Engl J Med 2021 09;385(12):1104-1115

From the Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Program (P.D.P., P.P., J.E.M., T.M., F.M., C.M., H.M., D.B., M.M., M.H., M.G., M.A.G.), the Blantyre Malaria Project (N.N., O.M.N.), the Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (Q.D.), the District Health Office, Blantyre District Council (G.K.), and Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (M.A.G.) - all in Blantyre, Malawi; the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Y.L., J.K.T., F.A., K.S., E.R., M.B., K.K., M.B.L., K.M.N.); and Oxford Vaccine Group, the Department of Paediatrics, Oxford University, Oxford (J.E.M.), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (C.M., M.H., M.G.), and the Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (M.A.G.), and the Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London (R.S.H.) - all in the United Kingdom.

Background: Typhoid fever caused by multidrug-resistant H58 Typhi is an increasing public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind trial in Blantyre, Malawi, to assess the efficacy of Vi polysaccharide typhoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TCV). We randomly assigned children who were between 9 months and 12 years of age, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a single dose of Vi-TCV or meningococcal capsular group A conjugate (MenA) vaccine. Read More

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September 2021

Unidirectional water transport on a two-dimensional hydrophilic channel with anisotropic superhydrophobic barriers.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 15;17(35):8153-8159. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Cryo-Biomedical Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Many creatures have a unique anisotropic structure and special wettability on their skins, presenting intriguing water transporting properties. Inspired by the biosphere, a two-dimensional titanium dioxide-based hydrophilic channel possessing anisotropic superhydrophobic barriers was synthesized. This channel demonstrates unidirectional water transporting properties. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring barriers for trachomatous trichiasis surgery implementation in gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 15;15(9):e0009780. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Trachomatous trichiasis is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends eyelid surgery to reduce the risk of visual impairment from trichiasis. Unfortunately, the number of cases operated has grown less than expected. Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Onion ( L.) Bulb Rot Caused by Pantoea agglomerans in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 88 West Road, Anning District, lanzhou, China, 730070;

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most cultivated vegetables throughout the world. With an average annual production quantity of 18 million kg in recent 21 years, China is the world's biggest onion producer (Hanci F. Read More

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September 2021

Digital Pathology in Cameroon.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Aug;7:1380-1389

University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

Purpose: Cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent among the group of treatable diseases in African countries. There is a shortage of clinicians and pathologists available for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These limited resources must be efficiently used to maximize the number of patients treated. Read More

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Utilizing High-Throughput Screening Data, Integrative Toxicological Prioritization Index Score, and Exposure-Activity Ratios for Chemical Prioritization: A Case Study of Endocrine-Active Pesticides in Food Crops.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Food Safety and Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Xuzhou Road, Zhongzheng District, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Endocrine-active chemicals can directly act on nuclear receptors and trigger the disturbances of metabolism and a homeostatic system, which are important risk factors for complicating chronic diseases in humans. The endocrine-active potentials of pesticides acting on estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone receptors have been extensively evaluated for pesticides; however, the effects on other receptors are less understood. This study aims to comprehensively characterize and prioritize the endocrine-active pesticides using an exposure-activity ratio (EAR) method and toxicological prioritization index (ToxPi). Read More

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September 2021

Biogas and Volatile Fatty Acid Production During Anaerobic Digestion of Straw, Cellulose, and Hemicellulose with Analysis of Microbial Communities and Functions.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

China Urban Construction Design & Research Institute, No.36, Deshengmenwai Street, Beijing, China.

The anaerobic digestion efficiency and methane production of straw was limited by its complex composition and structure. In this study, rice straw (RS), cellulose, and hemicellulose were used as raw materials to study biogas production performance and changes in the volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Further, microbial communities and genetic functions were analyzed separately for each material. Read More

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September 2021

In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline in Combination with Amikacin or Colistin Against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The Clinical Pharmacy, Tianjin Fifth Central Hospital, No. 41 Zhejiang Road, Binhai New District, Tianjin, 300450, China.

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has been a common pathogen of nosocomial infections and severely threatened the public health for decades. Tigecycline is a new type of antibacterial glycylcycline and minocycline derivative and has been used to treat CRAB in clinical practice. However, the synergistic effects of tigecycline in combination with other antibiotics including colistin or amikacin remain unclear. Read More

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September 2021

LncRNA Neat1/miR-298-5p/Srpk1 Contributes to Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity.

Neurochem Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, No. 415, Fengyang Road, Huangpu District, 200003, Shanghai, China.

Sevoflurane is a widely used volatile anesthetic, that can cause long-term neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to function as key mediators in neurotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of lncRNA Neat1 on sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the menstrual cycle on commercial prognostic gene signatures in oestrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ralph Lauren Centre for Breast Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ, UK.

Purpose: Changes occur in the expression of oestrogen-regulated and proliferation-associated genes in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumours during the menstrual cycle. We investigated if Oncotype® DX recurrence score (RS), Prosigna® (ROR) and EndoPredict® (EP/EPclin) prognostic tests, which include some of these genes, vary according to the time in the menstrual cycle when they are measured.

Methods: Pairs of test scores were derived from 30 ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative tumours sampled at two different points of the menstrual cycle. Read More

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September 2021

ERRα contributes to HDAC6-induced chemoresistance of osteosarcoma cells.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No.107, Yanjiang West Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Chemotherapy resistance is an important problem for clinical therapy of osteosarcoma (OS). The potential effects of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on OS chemoresistance are studied. The expression of HDACs in OS cells resistance to doxorubicin (Dox) and cisplatin (CDDP) is checked. Read More

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September 2021

Escherichia coli infection activates the production of IFN-α and IFN-β via the JAK1/STAT1/2 signaling pathway in lung cells.

Amino Acids 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155 Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of China.

Escherichia coli infections can result in lung injury, which may be closely linked to the induction of interferon secretion. The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is one of most important pathways that regulate interferon production. Thus, the present study aimed to dissect whether E. Read More

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September 2021

Three-dimensional high-definition exoscope (Kestrel View II) in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a valid alternative to operative microscope-assisted surgery.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Orthopaedic Department, General Hospital of Central Theater Command of PLA, #627 Wuluo Road, Wuchang District, 43007, Wuhan, China.

Background: Operative microscope (OM) has greatly advanced modern spine surgery, but remains limited by several drawbacks. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) high-definition (HD) exoscope (EX) (Kestrel View II, Mataka Kohli, Japan) system has been developed and used as an alternative to the OM. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the perioperative data and clinical outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedure with either an EX or OM. Read More

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September 2021

Ocular Surface Microbiota in Diabetic Patients With Dry Eye Disease.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Sep;62(12):13

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the ocular surface (OS) commensal bacteria profiles of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In the present study, subjects were assigned to four groups: 37 to the diabetic mellitus with dry eye disease (DM with DED) group, 22 to the diabetes mellitus (DM)-only group, 34 to the dry eye disease (DED)-only group, and 22 to the control group. Tear fluid was collected using Schirmer's tear secretion test paper. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of economic loss caused by Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in agricultural land of district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;83:e249847. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Department of Zoology, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Read More

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September 2021

Psychiatric emergency service in Federal District: interdisciplinarity, pioneering spirit and innovation.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 10;74(4):e20190519. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde. Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Objective: This study aims to discuss the care for people in psychic crises conducted by the team of the Mental Health Center of the Mobile Emergency Care Service of the Federal District - Brazil (NUSAM/SAMU/DF/BRAZIL), describing the dynamics of care, since the regulation from cases to follow-up.

Methods: Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study, with data collected through data collection in the information system of the Health Department of the Federal District (SES/DF), participant observation activities and interviews, over a period of three months, with professionals from NUSAM/SAMU/DF. The qualitative analysis consisted of Bardin's content analysis. Read More

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September 2021

LEAD and COMPASS: Tools to map the way forward for people with lower limb absence.

Authors:
Friedbert Kohler

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Copenhagen, Denmark University of NSW, Sydney, Australia South Western Sydney Local Health District Liverpool, Australia Braeside Hospital, HammondCare Health, Sydney, Australia Corresponding author: Friedbert Kohler, Braeside Hospital, 340 Prairievale Road, Prairiewood, NSW, 2176, Australia. Email:

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September 2021

Muscle Involvement Caused by Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection on 18F-FDG PET/CT in a Pediatric Patient.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital of Capital Medical University, Xi Cheng District, Beijing, China.

Abstract: A 7-year-old girl with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis presented with fever. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed heterogeneous FDG uptake in multiple muscle groups without significant abnormal activity elsewhere. On repeat FDG PET/CT scan 1 year later after therapy, the abnormal activity in muscles disappeared. Read More

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September 2021

An Enhanced SMS-based Support and Reminder Program for Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes (TEXT2U): Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Diabetes Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, AU.

Background: Clinic attendance, metabolic control, engagement in self-management and psychological health are suboptimal in young-onset (<40 years) type 2 diabetes.

Objective: We examined the effectiveness of an enhanced SMS-based support and reminder program in improving clinic attendance, metabolic control, engagement in self-management and psychological health in young-onset type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A twelve-month, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial comparing an enhanced, semi-personalized SMS-based intervention (incorporating one to eight, supportive and/or informative text messages/month) against standard care was conducted in a specialist, young adult type 2 diabetes clinic. Read More

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Long-Term Exposures to Air Pollution and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in the Women's Health Initiative Cohort.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Sep 15;129(9):97007. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence.

Objectives: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U. Read More

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September 2021

Prediction of Early Treatment Response in Multiple Myeloma Using MY-RADS Total Burden Score, ADC, and Fat Fraction From Whole-Body MRI: Impact of Anemia on Predictive Performance.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of lymphoma, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, Tianjin, CN 300020.

The recently released Myeloma Response Assessment and Diagnosis System (MY-RADS) for multiple myeloma (MM) evaluation by whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) describes the total burden score. However, assessment is confounded by red bone marrow hyperplasia in anemia. To assess utility of the MY-RADS total burden score, ADC, and fat fraction (FF) from WB-MRI in predicting early treatment response in patients with newly diagnosed MM and to compare these measures' utility between patients with and without anemia. Read More

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September 2021

The Origin of Magic Angle in Twisted Bilayer Graphene is Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.

Authors:
Yuechen Gao Xi Zhu

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 15:9124-9131. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Science and Engineering (SSE), CUHK-Shenzhen Shenzhen Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics for Society (AIRS), Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, China.

The magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MATBG) recently attracted intensive research attention because of its fascinating and unconventional electronic properties. Herein, we claim the magic-angle phenomenon originates from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which can provide intensive explanations on finite size effect and twist-dependent low energy band variations. We showed that flat bands could exist only near the AA stacking structure rather than AB. Read More

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September 2021

Multiple-Function Surface Engineering of SnO Nanoparticles to Achieve Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 15:9142-9148. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China.

The mismatched energy-level alignment and interface defects of the SnO nanoparticles' electron transport layer (ETL) and perovskite layer worsen the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell. Herein, we devise a multiple-function surface engineering of SnO nanoparticles. TBA ions improve the dispersion and stability of colloidal T-SnO nanoparticles and act as a bridge between the ETL and perovskite layer through the electrostatic interaction with anions, thus suppressing the charge recombination and reducing the energy loss. Read More

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September 2021

Measurement of Single-Molecule Forces in Cholesterol and Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Complexes.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Advanced Materials and Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, United States.

Biological host molecules such as β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) have been used to remove cholesterol guests from membranes and artery plaques. In this work, we calibrated the host-guest intermolecular mechanical forces (IMMFs) between cholesterol and cyclodextrin complexes by combining single-molecule force spectroscopy in optical tweezers and computational molecular simulations for the first time. Compared to native β-CD, methylated beta cyclodextrins complexed with cholesterols demonstrated higher mechanical stabilities due to the loss of more high-energy water molecules inside the methylated β-CD cavities. Read More

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September 2021

Local Dynamics of Collaboration for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health: A Social Network Analysis of Healthcare Providers and Their Managers in Gert Sibande District, South Africa.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Accountability for maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) is a collaborative endeavour and documenting collaboration dynamics may be key to understanding variations in the performance of MNCH services. This study explored the dynamics of collaboration among frontline health professionals participating in two MNCH coordination structures in a rural South African district. It examined the role and position of actors, the nature of their relationships, and the overall structure of the collaborative network in two sub-districts. Read More

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September 2021

Remote videoconference supervision of emergency orbital decompression with restoration of vision.

Emerg Med Australas 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia.

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September 2021

Design of Persistent and Stable Porous Radical Polymers by Electronical Isolation Strategy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, No. 381 Wushan, Tianhe District, 510640, Guangzhou, CHINA.

Conjugated organic radical polymers with stable radical features are difficult to design because the π conjugation in the polymer backbones makes the radicals readily delocalize and tend to undergo covalent bonding processes. In this work, we report an electronical isolation strategy to design stable porous radical polymers by homocoupling reaction from a meta-position active monomer. The meta linkage ensures less conjugation in the polymer skeletons, localizes the resonant radicals, and prevent them from recombination. Read More

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September 2021