12,691 results match your criteria distributions studied

To Tube, or Not to Tube: Comparing Ventilation Techniques in Microlaryngeal Surgery.

Laryngoscope 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Head and Neck Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The objective of this study was to compare ventilation techniques utilized in microlaryngeal surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Two-hundred surgeries performed from May 1, 2018 to March 1, 2020 and stratified as intubated, intermittently intubated (AAIV) or apneic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pair-Correlated Imaging of Cl + CHD(, -I, -II = 1, |⟩) → CHD() + HCl().

J Phys Chem A 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (IAMS), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 10617.

The title reactions were studied at a collisional energy of 10.0 kcal mol in a crossed-beam, product-imaging experiment. In terms of integral cross sections, all three CH-stretching excited CHD( = 1) reagents promote the reactivity in forming the predominant product pair of (, ) = (0, 0/1) with a prominent mode-propensity of > -I > -II, where denotes the degenerate mode of CH asymmetric stretch and -I and -II are a pair of Fermi-coupled, symmetric-stretch states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transformation of Multicolour Flow Cytometry data with OTflow prevents misleading multivariate analysis (MVA) results and incorrect immunological conclusions.

Cytometry A 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

TI-COAST, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The rapid evolution of the flow cytometry field, currently allowing the measurement of 30-50 parameters per cell, has led to a marked increase in deep multivariate information. Manual gating is insufficient to extract all this information. Therefore, multivariate analysis (MVA) methods have been developed to extract information and efficiently analyse the high-density multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Linear Energy Transfer Incorporated Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy Optimization: A Feasibility Study.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:698537. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI, United States.

Purpose: To integrate dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) into spot-scanning proton arc therapy (SPArc) optimization and to explore its feasibility and potential clinical benefits.

Methods: An open-source proton planning platform (OpenREGGUI) has been modified to incorporate LET into optimization for both SPArc and multi-beam intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. SPArc and multi-beam IMPT plans with different beam configurations for a prostate patient were generated to investigate the feasibility of LET-based optimization using SPArc in terms of spatial LET distribution and plan delivery efficiency. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of MT1A Polymorphism and Environmental Mercury Exposure on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 22;17:2429-2439. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose: Many age-related structural and functional changes in the brain have important consequences. Long-term exposure to mercury and the impact of functional polymorphisms of metal-regulating proteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can result in neurological-neurobehavioral effects in elderly individuals. Therefore, the aims of this study are to examine the associations between biomarkers of mercury exposure and cognitive impairment and to investigate the effect of the rs8052394 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the potential modifier gene MT1A on different domains of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anisotropy in mechanical unfolding of protein upon partner-assisted pulling and handle-assisted pulling.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 29;4(1):925. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Mohali, Punjab, India.

Proteins as force-sensors respond to mechanical cues and regulate signaling in physiology. Proteins commonly connect the source and response points of mechanical cues in two conformations, independent proteins in end-to-end geometry and protein complexes in handshake geometry. The force-responsive property of independent proteins in end-to-end geometry is studied extensively using single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessing the feasibility and value of employing an ecosystem services approach in chemical environmental risk assessment under the Water Framework Directive.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;789:147857. Epub 2021 May 24.

Dept. Animal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK.

The feasibility and added value of an ecosystem services approach in retrospective environmental risk assessment were evaluated using a site-specific case study in a lowland UK river. The studied water body failed to achieve good ecological status temporarily in 2018, due in part to the exceedance of the environmental quality standard (annual average EQS) for zinc. Potential ecosystem service delivery was quantified for locally prioritised ecosystem services: regulation of chemical condition; maintaining nursery populations and habitats; recreational fishing; nature watching. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Environmental profile, distributions and potential sources of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 21;419:126164. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Marine Ecology and Environment, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are high lipophilic and degradation-resistant, which have been detected in the air, water, sediment and biota. HPAHs tend to have strong adverse effects on animals and humans. Although we have realized HPAHs are emerging contaminants which needs to be paid attention, there is still a lack of their individual commercial standards. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between comorbid asthma and prognosis of critically ill patients with severe sepsis: a cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15395. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital, No. 8 Fuyu East Road, Qiaonan Street, Panyu District, Guangzhou, 511400, China.

Basic research suggests some contributing mechanisms underlying asthma might at the same time benefit patients with asthma against sepsis, while the potential protective effect of comorbid asthma on prognosis of sepsis has not been well studied in clinical research. The study aimed to assess the association between comorbid asthma and prognosis in a cohort of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis. Patients with severe sepsis admitted to ICUs were included from the MIMIC-III Critical Care Database, and categorized as patients without asthma, patients with stable asthma, and patients with acute exacerbation asthma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Trace element geochemistry of coarse-grained angrites from Northwest Africa: Implications for their petrogenesis on the angrite parent body.

Meteorit Planet Sci 2021 Mar 3;56(3):482-499. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Box 871404, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1404, USA.

The angrites are a class of achondrites that encompass a wide range of igneous textures from quenched, volcanic, and subvolcanic stones to slowly cooled, plutonic rocks. The compositions of the various geochemical reservoirs generating this variety of rocks have not been investigated fully because historically the numbers and masses of angrites available for study have been quite small. However, the rapid increase in meteorites from Northwest Africa (NWA) has enabled a renewed opportunity for such an investigation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Three-dimensional label-free visualization and quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates in individual bacterial cell in its native state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Metabolic and Biomolecular Engineering National Research Laboratory, Systems Metabolic Engineering and Systems Healthcare Cross-Generation Collaborative Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 four), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea;

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters that are intracellularly accumulated as distinct insoluble granules by various microorganisms. PHAs have attracted much attention as sustainable substitutes for petroleum-based plastics. However, the formation of PHA granules and their characteristics, such as localization, volume, weight, and density of granules, in an individual live bacterial cell are not well understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fate of anthropogenic radionuclides (Sr, Cs, Pu, Pu, Pu, Am) in seawater in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 9;286(Pt 1):131514. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Monaco.

A baseline study on anthropogenic radioactivity in the Namibian marine ecosystem, which is part of the northern Benguela upwelling system, known as one of the most productive ocean areas in the world, has been performed. A scientific cruise carried out in 2014 covering inshore and offshore areas, exhibiting different oceanographic features, has provided a basis for better understanding the distributions, ratios and inventories of six anthropogenic radionuclides (Sr, Cs, Pu, Pu, Pu and Am) in seawater. Although H was also measured, due to extremely low levels, its behaviour was not studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical validation of a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose engine of a commercial treatment planning system for pencil beam scanning proton therapy.

Phys Med 2021 Jul 23;88:226-234. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Protontherapy Department, Trento Hospital, Trento, Italy; TIFPA - Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, 14, Via Sommarive, 38123 Povo TN, Italy.

Purpose: To perform the validation of the GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit based) proton Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine implemented in a commercial TPS (RayStation 10B) and to report final dose calculation times for clinical cases.

Materials And Methods: 440 patients treated at the Proton Therapy Center of Trento, Italy, between 2018 and 2019 were selected for this study. 636 approved plans with 3361 beams computed with the clinically implemented CPU-MC dose engine (version 4. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of climate change on western salamanders' distribution.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 29;11(14):9370-9384. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Biology Radford University Radford VA USA.

Aim: Given that salamanders have experienced large shifts in their distributions over time, we determined how each species of in the Pacific Northwest would respond to climate change. We incorporated several greenhouse scenarios both on a species-by-species basis, and also using phylogenetic groups, with the aim to determine the best course of action in managing land area to conserve diversity in this group.

Location: Pacific Northwest of the United States (northern CA, OR, WA, ID, and MT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The asymptotic distribution of modularity in weighted signed networks.

Rong Ma Ian Barnett

Biometrika 2021 Mar 8;108(1):1-16. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, U.S.A.

Modularity is a popular metric for quantifying the degree of community structure within a network. The distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a network's edge weight or adjacency matrix is well studied and is frequently used as a substitute for modularity when performing statistical inference. However, we show that the largest eigenvalue and modularity are asymptotically uncorrelated, which suggests the need for inference directly on modularity itself when the network size is large. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A role of asynchrony of seasons in explaining genetic differentiation in a Neotropical toad.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Departamento de Biodiversidade e Centro de Aquicultura, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

The process of diversification can be studied at the phylogeographic level by attempting to identify the environmental features that promote and maintain population divergence. Here we investigate diversification in Rhinella granulosa, a Neotropical toad from northeastern Brazil, by testing a range of hypotheses that encompass different putative mechanisms reducing gene flow among populations. We sequenced single nucleotide polymorphisms and examined individual predictions related to the role of geographic barriers (rivers), ecological gradients, historical habitat stability, and spatial variation in climate seasonality, also known as the asynchrony of seasons hypothesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

On the Relation between the Gas-Permeability and the Pore Characteristics of Furan Sand.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 7;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University School of Engineering, Gjuterigatan 5, Box 1026, SE-55111 Jönköping, Sweden.

Furan sand is one of the most commonly used chemically bonded molding materials in foundries across the world. It consists of a furfuryl alcohol-based resin and an acid-based liquid catalyst. When the molding material comes in contact with the molten metal, it undergoes a thermal shock accompanied by a certain release of volatile gases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Coleofasciculaceae, a monophyletic home for the Microcoleus steenstrupii complex and other desiccation-tolerant filamentous cyanobacteria.

J Phycol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, USA.

Cyanobacteria classified as Microcoleus steenstrupii play a significant role as pioneers of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), but this taxon is recognized to constitute a diverse complex of strains and field populations. With the aim of clarifying its systematics, we conducted a polyphasic characterization of this and allied taxa. A 16S ribosomal gene meta-analysis of published environmental sequences, showed that the complex encompasses a variety of well supported genus-level clades with clade-specific environmental preferences, indicating significant niche differentiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Fluorescein Esters as Potential Organic Semiconductor Materials.

J Fluoresc 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Fluorescein (1), a known fluorescent tracer in microscopy with high photophysical properties, was esterified to have fluorescein ethyl ester (2) and O-ethyl-fluorescein ethyl ester (3) in excellent yields. All of them were investigated for the photophysical and electrochemical properties as potential organic semiconductor materials. Absorptions and emission spectra were taken in various solvents, compound 2 showed emission maxima at λ = 545 and compound 3 showed λ = 550 nm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding Reaction Networks through Controlled Approach to Equilibrium Experiments Using Transient Methods.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 19;143(29):10998-11006. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Biological and Chemical Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415, United States.

We report a combined experimental/theoretical approach to studying heterogeneous gas/solid catalytic processes using low-pressure pulse response experiments achieving a controlled approach to equilibrium that combined with quantum mechanics (QM)-based computational analysis provides information needed to reconstruct the role of the different surface reaction steps. We demonstrate this approach using model catalysts for ammonia synthesis/decomposition. Polycrystalline iron and cobalt are studied via low-pressure TAP (temporal analysis of products) pulse response, with the results interpreted through reaction free energies calculated using QM on Fe-BCC(110), Fe-BCC(111), and Co-FCC(111) facets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Bayesian analysis of mortality outcomes in multicentre clinical trials in critical care.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Multicentre RCTs are widely used by critical care researchers to answer important clinical questions. However, few trials evaluating mortality outcomes report statistically significant results. We hypothesised that the low proportion of trials reporting statistically significant differences for mortality outcomes is plausibly explained by lower-than-expected effect sizes combined with a low proportion of participants who could realistically benefit from studied interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for superoxide dismutase enzyme and several minerals in a healthy adult cohort.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jul 17:e23897. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish RIs for clinically important markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate in a cohort of healthy Iranian adults.

Materials: A subsample from MASHAD cohort study was used to assess serum SOD, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and phosphate. Serum SOD was measured according to its inhibitory potential of pyrogallol oxidation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Displacement current distribution on a high dielectric constant helmet and its effect on RF field at 10.5 T (447 MHz).

Magn Reson Med 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Center for NMR Research, Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: Investigating the designs and effects of high dielectric constant (HDC) materials in the shape of a conformal helmet on the enhancement of RF field and reduction of specific absorption rate at 10.5 T for human brain studies.

Methods: A continuous and a segmented four-piece HDC helmet fit to a human head inside an eight-channel fractionated-dipole array were constructed and studied with a phantom and a human head model using computer electromagnetic simulations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of the length and aromaticity of N3-substituent on adsorption performance of imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquids) towards Pd (II).

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 9;420:126623. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

Imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) have been deemed as attractive candidates in the field of precious metal adsorption. However, their further performance optimization is hampered by a lack of an inner understanding of the structure-adsorption performance relationship. In this research, electron and charge distributions of the imidazolium cations are tailored by changing the N3-substitute, and their adsorption performances for PdCl were optimized accordingly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of the Interface of Heat-pressed Glass-Ceramic Masses on Metal Support Cr-Co in Metal-Ceramic Prosthetic Restorations.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Apr 1;22(4):335-341. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Prosthodontics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Aim And Objective: The aim and objective of this study is to evaluate the interface between heat-pressed glass-ceramic masses on a Cr-Co metal substrate using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometer.

Materials And Methods: A pressed porcelain-leucite-based ceramic (IPS InLine press-on-metal (PoM); Ivoclar Vivadent AG) was used. Three cylindrical metal specimens cast (diameter 5 mm, height 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Accumulation of continuously time-varying sensory evidence constrains neural and behavioral responses in human collision threat detection.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 15;17(7):e1009096. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Evidence accumulation models provide a dominant account of human decision-making, and have been particularly successful at explaining behavioral and neural data in laboratory paradigms using abstract, stationary stimuli. It has been proposed, but with limited in-depth investigation so far, that similar decision-making mechanisms are involved in tasks of a more embodied nature, such as movement and locomotion, by directly accumulating externally measurable sensory quantities of which the precise, typically continuously time-varying, magnitudes are important for successful behavior. Here, we leverage collision threat detection as a task which is ecologically relevant in this sense, but which can also be rigorously observed and modelled in a laboratory setting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Confidence intervals for Markov chain transition probabilities based on next generation sequencing reads data.

Quant Biol 2020 Jul 25;8(2):143-154. Epub 2020 May 25.

Quantitative and Computational Biology Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Background: Markov chains (MC) have been widely used to model molecular sequences. The estimations of MC transition matrix and confidence intervals of the transition probabilities from long sequence data have been intensively studied in the past decades. In next generation sequencing (NGS), a large amount of short reads are generated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics revealed the distinct toxicological effects of multi-metal contamination on oysters.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 2;284:117533. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Energy and Environment and State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Research Centre for the Oceans and Human Health, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, 518057, China. Electronic address:

The Pearl River Estuary (PRE) is the largest estuary in southern China and under high metal stress. In the present study, we employed an integrated method of transcriptomics and proteomics to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of trace metals on the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Three oyster populations with distinct spatial distributions of metals were sampled, including the Control (Station QA, the lowest metal levels), the High Cd (Station JZ, the highest Cd), and the High Zn-Cu-Cr-Ni (Station LFS, with the highest levels of zinc, copper, chromium, and nickel). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Rapid radiation and rampant reticulation: Phylogenomics of South American Liolaemus lizards.

Syst Biol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biology & Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Understanding the factors that cause heterogeneity among gene trees can increase the accuracy of species trees. Discordant signals across the genome are commonly produced by incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression, which in turn can result in reticulate evolution. Species tree inference using the multispecies coalescent is designed to deal with ILS and is robust to low levels of introgression, but extensive introgression violates the fundamental assumption that relationships are strictly bifurcating. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seasonal dynamics of mesozooplankton biomass over a sub-Arctic continental shelf.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 25;11(13):8713-8729. Epub 2021 May 25.

Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture Nord University Bodø Norway.

Mesozooplankton research in high latitude ecosystems tends to focus on different life stages of spp. due to its biomass dominance and trophic roles. However, a complex seasonal succession of abundant smaller mesozooplankton taxa suggests that the ecological functioning of the mesozooplankton communities is more complicated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF