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Prediction of Microcystis Occurrences and Analysis Using Machine Learning in High-Dimension, Low-Sample-Size and Imbalanced Water Quality Data.

Harmful Algae 2022 Aug 25;117:102273. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka-shi, 940-2188, Niigata, Japan.

Machine learning, Deep learning, and water quality data have been used in recent years to predict the outbreak of harmful algae, especially Microcystis, and analyze outbreak causes. However, for various reasons, water quality data are often High-Dimension, Low-Sample- Size (HDLSS), meaning the sample size is lower than the number of dimensions. Moreover, imbalance problems may arise due to bias in the occurrence frequency of Microcystis. Read More

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Playing hide and seek: Distribution with depth of potentially harmful epibenthic dinoflagellates of Southern El Hierro Island, Canary Islands (NE Atlantic).

Harmful Algae 2022 Aug 22;117:102271. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Observatorio Canario de HABs, FCPCT-ULPGC, Parque Científico Tecnológico Marino de Taliarte, 35214 Taliarte, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain; Grupo de Ecofisiología Marina (EOMAR), IU-ECOAQUA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus Universitario de Tafira, 35017, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.

The study of epibenthic assemblages of harmful dinoflagellates (BHABs) is commonly conducted in shallow infralittoral zones (0 - 5 m) and are seldom investigated at deeper waters. In this study, the distribution with depth of five BHAB genera (Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, Prorocentrum, Coolia and Amphidinium) was investigated in the south of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Sampling involved the use of a standardized artificial substrate deployed at three depth levels (5, 10 and 20 m) that were visited at three different times throughout one year. Read More

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Morphological Patterns of Metastases from Combined Merkel cell Carcinomas: study of an Eastern Canadian cohort of cases.

Hum Pathol 2022 Aug 6. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority (Central Zone), Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 1V8; Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 1V8; Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 1V8.

Combined Merkel cell carcinomas are hybrid tumors composed of neuroendocrine and other phenotypic (usually squamous) elements. They form a minority of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) as a whole, are usually Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative and have rarely been segregated for specific study. Sporadic reports have indicated that metastases from these tumors can show a combined phenotype. Read More

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The Contribution of Health Behaviors to Depression Risk across Birth Cohorts.

Epidemiology 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

Background: More recent birth cohorts are at a higher depression risk than cohorts born in the early 20th century. We aimed to investigate to what extent changes in alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and obesity contribute to these birth cohort variations.

Methods: We analyzed panel data from US adults born 1916-1966 enrolled in the Health and Retirement Study (N=163,760 person-years). Read More

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Perceptions and prevalence of marijuana use among cancer patients managed at an outpatient department in Zimbabwe: A brief report.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2022 Aug 9:10781552221118026. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 37595University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Globally, marijuana is becoming an acceptable complementary medicine for symptom management in cancer. At the time that the study was conducted, Zimbabwean laws only allowed for the cultivation of marijuana for medical and scientific use. As of 18 July 2022, the national medicines regulator released a circular allowing the licensing, distribution, and use of cannabidiol-based products. Read More

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Impact evaluation of a brief online training module on physician use of the Maryland, USA, Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.

PLoS One 2022 9;17(8):e0272217. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are electronic databases that track controlled substance prescriptions in a state. They are underused tools in preventing opioid abuse. Most PDMP education research measures changes in knowledge or confidence rather than behavior. Read More

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Use of mixed-type data clustering algorithm for characterizing temporal and spatial distribution of biosecurity border detections of terrestrial non-indigenous species.

PLoS One 2022 9;17(8):e0272413. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia.

Appropriate inspection protocols and mitigation strategies are a critical component of effective biosecurity measures, enabling implementation of sound management decisions. Statistical models to analyze biosecurity surveillance data are integral to this decision-making process. Our research focuses on analyzing border interception biosecurity data collected from a Class A Nature Reserve, Barrow Island, in Western Australia and the associated covariates describing both spatial and temporal interception patterns. Read More

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Association Between Neighborhood Factors and Adult Obesity in Shelby County, Tennessee: Geospatial Machine Learning Approach.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 Aug 9;8(8):e37039. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Center for Biomedical Informatics, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Background: Obesity is a global epidemic causing at least 2.8 million deaths per year. This complex disease is associated with significant socioeconomic burden, reduced work productivity, unemployment, and other social determinants of health (SDOH) disparities. Read More

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Changes in the water environment and its major driving factors in Poyang Lake from 2016 to 2019, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Yangtze Valley Water Environment Monitoring Center, Wuhan, 430010, China.

The hydrological exchange process between Poyang Lake (PYL), the largest freshwater lake in China, and the Yangtze River leads to drastic changes in water area (WA) and water level (WL), as well as apparent fluctuations in lake nutrients, algal organisms, and trophic level index. This study investigated the current status of the PYL water environment and the influence of hydrological changes on the nutrient status of the floodplain of the lake. Based on monthly measured data from six hydrological stations from 2016 to 2019, it was hypothesized that WA and WL were the key regulators of the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of lake water quality and algal growth, including water temperature, water clarity (Secchi depth [SD]), and nutrient levels. Read More

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Electronic fractal patterns in building Sierpinski-triangle molecular systems.

Authors:
L L Lage A Latgé

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Av. Litorânea sn, 24210-340, RJ, Brazil.

The Sierpinski triangle (ST) is a fractal mathematical structure that has been used to explore the emergence of flat bands in lattices of different geometries and dimensions in condensed matter. Here we look into fractal features in the electronic properties of ST flakes and molecular chains simulating experimental synthesized fractal nanostructures. We use a single-orbital tight binding model to study the fractal properties of the electronic states and the Landauer formalism to explore transport responses of the quasi 1D molecular chains. Read More

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Optimizing thermal efficiencies of power-law fluids in double-pass concentric circular heat exchangers with sinusoidal wall fluxes.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 Jun;19(9):8648-8670

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.

Effect of external-recycle operations on the heat-transfer efficiency, specifically for the power-law fluid flowing in double-pass concentric circular heat exchanger under sinusoidal wall fluxes, is investigated theoretically in the developed countries. Given that the fluid is heated twice on both sides of the impermeable sheet, four flow patterns proposed in recycling double-pass operations are expected to make substantial improvements in the performance of heat exchanger device in this study. Theoretical predictions point out that the heat-transfer efficiency increases with the ratio of channel thickness of double-pass concentric circular heat exchanger for all new designs under the same working dimension and the operational condition. Read More

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Metabolically-incorporated deuterium in myelin localized by neutron diffraction and identified by mass spectrometry.

Curr Res Struct Biol 2022 28;4:231-245. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

Myelin is a natural and dynamic multilamellar membrane structure that continues to be of significant biological and neurological interest, especially with respect to its biosynthesis and assembly during its normal formation, maintenance, and pathological breakdown. To explore the usefulness of neutron diffraction in the structural analysis of myelin, we investigated the use of labeling by metabolically incorporating non-toxic levels of deuterium (H; D) via drinking water into a pregnant dam (D-dam) and her developing embryos. All of the mice were sacrificed when the pups (D-pups) were 55 days old. Read More

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Effects of modified trans-tibial versus trans-portal technique on stress patterns around the femoral tunnel in anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction with different knee flexion angles using finite element analysis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Aug 8;23(1):759. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, 7, Keunjaebong-gil, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: It is unclear whether different anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft trajectories in the distal femur would have different effects on stress generated within the distal femur around the femoral tunnel during knee motion. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine differences in stress patterns around the femoral tunnel created by trans-portal (TP) vs. modified trans-tibial (TT) technique in anatomical ACL reconstruction at different knee flexion angles. Read More

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Competing effects of vegetation density on sedimentation in deltaic marshes.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 8;13(1):4641. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Marsh vegetation, a definitive component of delta ecosystems, has a strong effect on sediment retention and land-building, controlling both how much sediment can be delivered to and how much is retained by the marsh. An understanding of how vegetation influences these processes would improve the restoration and management of marshes. We use a random displacement model to simulate sediment transport, deposition, and resuspension within a marsh. Read More

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Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of dissolved heavy metals off the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 Aug 5;182:113975. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, 511458, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved heavy metal pollution in the ocean is becoming an environmental concern. Their distribution patterns are complex and influenced by multiple factors in the coastal ocean. Therefore, more investigations are needed to understand their behavior in the seawater. Read More

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Targeted RNA editing in brainstem alleviates respiratory dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Aug 8;119(33):e2206053119. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239.

Rett syndrome is a neurological disease due to loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor, Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). Because overexpression of endogenous MECP2 also causes disease, we have exploited a targeted RNA-editing approach to repair patient mutations where levels of MECP2 protein will never exceed endogenous levels. Here, we have constructed adeno-associated viruses coexpressing a bioengineered wild-type ADAR2 catalytic domain (Editase) and either -targeting or nontargeting RNA guides. Read More

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Sex differences in the functional topography of association networks in youth.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Aug 8;119(33):e2110416119. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Penn Lifespan Informatics and Neuroimaging Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Prior work has shown that there is substantial interindividual variation in the spatial distribution of functional networks across the cerebral cortex, or functional topography. However, it remains unknown whether there are sex differences in the topography of individualized networks in youth. Here, we leveraged an advanced machine learning method (sparsity-regularized non-negative matrix factorization) to define individualized functional networks in 693 youth (ages 8 to 23 y) who underwent functional MRI as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Read More

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Statistical Properties of Bit Strings Sampled from Sycamore Random Quantum Circuits.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Aug 8:7469-7475. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Purdue Quantum Science and Engineering Institute, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

Quantum supremacy has been recently reported for random circuit sampling on the Sycamore processor with 53 qubits. Here, we analyze the statistical properties of bit strings sampled from random quantum circuits. In contrast to classical random bit strings, bit strings sampled from Sycamore random circuits give rise to heat maps with stripe patterns at specific qubits, have more bit 1 than 0, and do not pass the NIST random number tests. Read More

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Stereodynamics effects in grazing-incidence fast-molecule diffraction.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Grazing-incidence fast-projectile diffraction has been proposed both as a complement and an alternative to thermal-energy projectile scattering, which explains the interest that this technique has received in recent years, especially in the case of atomic projectiles. On the other hand, despite the richer physics involved, molecular projectiles have received much less attention. In this work, we present a theoretical study of grazing-incidence fast-molecule diffraction of H from KCl(001) using a six-dimensional density functional theory based potential energy surface and a time-dependent wavepacket propagation method. Read More

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Proximal humerus fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and management.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2022 Jul 6;83(7):1-10. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Proximal humeral fractures are common with a bimodal distribution and sex discrepancy, affecting younger men and older women. The presentation of a proximal humeral fracture can vary greatly because of this bimodal distribution and the associated differences in mechanism of injury. Initial management should involve assessment of life- and limb-threatening injuries as outlined by the British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma, with particular attention paid to axillary nerve function and vascular status. Read More

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Spectrum and tissue distribution of RB1 pathogenic alleles in mosaic retinoblastoma patients.

Ophthalmic Genet 2022 Aug 8:1-11. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Nanjing Geneseeq Technology Inc, Nanjing, China.

To characterize the spectrum of mosaic RB1 pathogenic alleles and map the distribution of mutant cells in available tissues from mosaic patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed on blood samples from 263 retinoblastoma families to identify mosaic RB1 variant alleles. A variety of available tissues were sampled to determine tissue distribution and fraction of mutant cells in five mosaic patients who consented to participate in mosaic pathogenic allele research. Read More

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Patterns of injury and treatment for distal radius fractures at a major trauma centre.

Bone Jt Open 2022 Aug;3(8):623-627

The Hand and Wrist Service, Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Aims: Fractures of the distal radius are common, and form a considerable proportion of the trauma workload. We conducted a study to examine the patterns of injury and treatment for adult patients presenting with distal radius fractures to a major trauma centre serving an urban population.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study to identify all patients treated at our major trauma centre for a distal radius fracture between 1 June 2018 and 1 May 2021. Read More

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Towards Evaluating Pitch-Related Phonation Function in Speech Communication Using High-Density Surface Electromyography.

Front Neurosci 2022 22;16:941594. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

CAS Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Pitch, as a sensation of the sound frequency, is a crucial attribute toward constructing a natural voice for communication. Producing intelligible sounds with normal pitches depend on substantive interdependencies among facial and neck muscles. Clarifying the interrelations between the pitches and the corresponding muscular activities would be helpful for evaluating the pitch-related phonating functions, which would play a significant role both in training pronunciation and in assessing dysphonia. Read More

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Vaginal microecological characteristics of women in different physiological and pathological period.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 22;12:959793. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The vaginal microbiota, the host endocrine system, the vaginal anatomy, and the local mucosal immunity comprise the vaginal microbiota, which interacts with each other to maintain the balance of the vaginal microbiota, which maintains female reproductive health. Puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause are four phases women go through during their reproductive and post-reproductive years. Vaginal microbiota composition and abundance are heavily influenced by estrogen and progesterone, which start at puberty and continue during the reproductive years in a dynamic balance with some fluctuations. Read More

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Epidemiology and Fracture Patterns of Traumatic Phalangeal Fractures.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Aug 4;10(8):e4455. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.

Background: Despite the relatively high incidence of phalangeal fractures, there is an imperfect understanding of the epidemiology and anatomical distribution of these fractures. This study describes the patient characteristics, anatomic distribution, and detailed fracture patterns of phalangeal fractures among a large adult cohort in the United States.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed among patients with phalangeal fractures in the United States between January 2010 and January 2015. Read More

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Differential Expression and Prognostic Correlation of Immune Related Factors Between Right and Left Side Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:845765. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Background: Growing evidence suggests that colorectal cancer (CRC) should be considered a heterogeneous disease. The right side (RCC) and left side (LCC) colorectal cancer have different clinical characteristics and immune landscapes. The aim of this study was to analyze differential expression and prognostic correlation of immune-related factors between RCC and LCC. Read More

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A Signature Based on Costimulatory Molecules for the Assessment of Prognosis and Immune Characteristics in Patients With Stomach Adenocarcinoma.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:928742. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Although costimulatory molecules have been shown to boost antitumor immune responses, their significance in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression patterns of costimulatory molecule genes in patients with STAD and develop a predictive signature to aid in therapy selection and outcome prediction. We used 60 costimulatory family genes from prior research to conduct the first complete costimulatory molecular analysis in patients with STAD. Read More

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Path to normality: Assessing the level of social-distancing measures relaxation against antibody-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants in a partially-vaccinated population.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2022 30;20:4052-4059. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special administrative regions, China.

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse.

Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Read More

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Deciphering the focuses and trends in skin regeneration research through bibliometric analyses.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 22;9:947649. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xi'an Daxing Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Increasing attention to skin regeneration has rapidly broadened research on the topic. However, no bibliometric analysis of the field's research trends has yet been conducted. In response to this research gap, this study analyzed the publication patterns and progress of skin regeneration research worldwide using a bibliometric analysis of 1,471 papers comprising 1,227 (83. Read More

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Root attributes dominate the community assembly of soil fungal functional guilds across arid inland river basin.

Front Microbiol 2022 22;13:938574. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Plant attributes are increasingly acknowledged as key drivers shaping soil fungal communities, but considerable uncertainty exists over fungal community assembly mechanisms and their plant drivers based only on inferences from plant aboveground attributes. To date, empirical evidences of how root attributes are integrated into microbiome-plant linkages remain limited. Using 162 soil samples from a typical arid inland river basin in China, we assessed the drivers that regulate the distribution patterns and assembly processes of total, mycorrhizal, saprotrophic and pathotrophic fungi in surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm). Read More

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