11,618 results match your criteria distribution determinants


Multilevel analysis of geographic variation among correlates of child undernutrition in India.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 May 7:e13197. Epub 2021 May 7.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Prior research has identified a number of risk factors ranging from inadequate household sanitation to maternal characteristics as important determinants of child malnutrition and health in India. What is less known is the extent to which these individual-level risk factors are geographically distributed. Assessing the geographic distribution, especially at multiple levels, matters as it can inform where, and at what level, interventions should be targeted. Read More

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Cross-sectional assessment of determinants of STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kigali, Rwanda.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) continue to increase. In Rwanda, STI management relies on syndromic management with limited empirical data characterising the burden of specific STIs among MSM/TGW. This study evaluated the prevalence of syphilis, (NG) and (CT) and associated factors among MSM/TGW in Kigali. Read More

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The association of compound hot extreme with mortality risk and vulnerability assessment at fine-spatial scale.

Environ Res 2021 May 3:111213. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, China; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, 511430, China. Electronic address:

The frequency and intensity of compound hot extremes will be likely to increase in the context of global warming. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effect of simple hot extreme events on mortality, but little is known about the effects of compound hot extremes on mortality. Daily meteorological, demographic, and mortality data during 2011-2017 were collected from 160 streets in Guangzhou City, China. Read More

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Niche divergence contributes to geographical parthenogenesis in two dandelion taxa.

J Evol Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090GE, Amsterdam.

Many sexual-asexual complexes show a distinct pattern where the asexuals have larger and more northerly ranges than closely related sexuals. A prime candidate to explain this so-called "geographical parthenogenesis" is ecological niche divergence between the sexuals and asexuals. Modern niche modelling techniques allow testing niche divergence by directly comparing the niches of sexuals and asexuals. Read More

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Life-History Evolution and the Genetics of Fitness Components in Drosophila melanogaster.

Authors:
Thomas Flatt

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):3-48

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700, Switzerland.

Life-history traits or "fitness components"-such as age and size at maturity, fecundity and fertility, age-specific rates of survival, and life span-are the major phenotypic determinants of Darwinian fitness. Analyzing the evolution and genetics of these phenotypic targets of selection is central to our understanding of adaptation. Due to its simple and rapid life cycle, cosmopolitan distribution, ease of maintenance in the laboratory, well-understood evolutionary genetics, and its versatile genetic toolbox, the "vinegar fly" Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most powerful, experimentally tractable model systems for studying "life-history evolution. Read More

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January 2020

Life-History Evolution and the Genetics of Fitness Components in Drosophila melanogaster.

Authors:
Thomas Flatt

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):3-48

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700, Switzerland.

Life-history traits or "fitness components"-such as age and size at maturity, fecundity and fertility, age-specific rates of survival, and life span-are the major phenotypic determinants of Darwinian fitness. Analyzing the evolution and genetics of these phenotypic targets of selection is central to our understanding of adaptation. Due to its simple and rapid life cycle, cosmopolitan distribution, ease of maintenance in the laboratory, well-understood evolutionary genetics, and its versatile genetic toolbox, the "vinegar fly" Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most powerful, experimentally tractable model systems for studying "life-history evolution. Read More

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January 2020

Determinants of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer's grayscale value in normal eyes by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9577. Epub 2021 May 5.

Joint Shantou International Eye Center of Shantou University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515000, Guangdong, China.

To determine and evaluate the distribution, variation, and determinants of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) grayscale value with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in normal eyes. In this cross-sectional study, three hundred ninety-seven normal eyes from 397 healthy Chinese adults aged 18-80 were consecutively recruited from a tertiary eye care center. An SD-OCT instrument took pRNFL imaging. Read More

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Phylogroup stability contrasts with high within sequence type complex dynamics of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection isolates over a 12-year period.

Genome Med 2021 May 5;13(1):77. Epub 2021 May 5.

Université de Paris, IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, F-75018, Paris, France.

Background: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of bloodstream infections, associated with a significant mortality. Recent genomic analyses revealed that few clonal lineages are involved in bloodstream infections and captured the emergence of some of them. However, data on within sequence type (ST) population genetic structure evolution are rare. Read More

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Molecular characterization and epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8 in Denmark.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 5;21(1):421. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300, Copenhagen S, Denmark.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8 incidence has increased in Denmark after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV). The mechanism behind the serotype 8 replacement is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to present epidemiological data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and molecular characterization of 96 serotype 8 clinical isolates. Read More

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Association between knee symptoms, change in knee symptoms over 6-9 years, and SF-6D health state utility among middle-aged Australians.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objectives: Health state utilities (HSUs) are an input metric for estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) in cost-utility analyses. Currently, there is a paucity of data on association of knee symptoms with HSUs for middle-aged populations. We aimed to describe the association of knee symptoms and change in knee symptoms with SF-6D HSUs and described the distribution of HSUs against knee symptoms' severity. Read More

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Distribution and determinants of submandibular gland involvement in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Oncol 2021 Apr 30;118:105316. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: Though the submandibular gland (SMG) is routinely sacrificed for several reasons during neck dissection in patients undergoing curative surgery for oral cavity cancers, it might be an innocent bystander and should be considered for preservation. This study aimed to identify the incidence, different patterns of invasion, and risk factors of SMG involvement in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Methods: This was a retrospective study of the patients who underwent upfront curative surgery for a biopsy-proven oral cavity SCC. Read More

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Knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A nationwide distribution.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0251151. Epub 2021 May 3.

CHINTA Research Bangladesh (Centre for Health Innovation, Networking, Training, Action and Research-Bangladesh), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Assessing individuals' knowledge and preventive behaviors towards the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for the related public health surveillance strategies. Although some of the studies were conducted in Bangladesh, none of these studies considered the geographical distribution of knowledge and preventive behaviors towards COVID-19. Therefore, the present nationwide cross-sectional study with 10,067 samples for the first-time aims to assess the knowledge gap by presenting the geographical distribution of the COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors across all administrative districts of Bangladesh. Read More

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[Interaction among environmental and socioeconomic determinants of risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Latin AmericaInteração entre os determinantes ambientais e socioeconômicos para o risco de leishmaniose cutânea na América Latina].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2021 28;45:e49. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centro Panamericano de Fiebre Aftosa Organización Panamericana de la Salud Río de Janeiro Brasil Centro Panamericano de Fiebre Aftosa, Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Río de Janeiro, Brasil.

Objective: Determine and characterize areas at potential risk for the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America.

Method: Ecological observational study with observation units defined by municipalities with CL transmission during 2014-2018. Environmental and socioeconomic variables available for at least 85% of municipalities were combined in a single database, using R software. Read More

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Assessment of basic reproduction number (R), spatial and temporal epidemiological determinants, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 27:104884. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Zakir Hossain Road, Khulshi, Chattogram 4225, Bangladesh.

Epidemiological and molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for identifying the source of the virus and for effective control of the spread of local strains. We estimated case fatality rate, cumulative recovery number, basic reproduction number (R) and future incidence of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We illustrated the spatial distribution of cases throughout the country. Read More

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First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from domestic animals in Tunisia.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9328. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie Médicale et Moléculaire (Code LR12ES08), Département de Biologie Clinique B, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia.

The isolation and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains provide an essential basis for a better understanding of the parasite's genetic diversity, determinants of its geographical distribution and associated risks to human health. In this study, we isolated and genetically characterized T. gondii strains from domestic animals in Southern and coastal area of Tunisia. Read More

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Age-based targeting of biannual azithromycin distribution for child survival in Niger: an adaptive cluster-randomized trial protocol (AVENIR).

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 29;21(1):822. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background: Biannual distribution of azithromycin to children 1-59 months old reduced mortality by 14% in a cluster-randomized trial. The World Health Organization has proposed targeting this intervention to the subgroup of children 1-11 months old to reduce selection for antimicrobial resistance. Here, we describe a trial designed to determine the impact of age-based targeting of biannual azithromycin on mortality and antimicrobial resistance. Read More

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Medical Treatment Behaviour of the Elderly Population in Shanghai: Group Features and Influencing Factor Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Geography, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Background: While Chinese cities are pursuing economic development, meeting citizen demand for medical treatment has only gradually been put on the agenda. Theoretically, in the second half of a person's life, demand for medical treatment will rise sharply. Given limited medical resources, the match between demand and supply becomes more difficult. Read More

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Social Inequalities in Health Determinants in Spanish Children during the COVID-19 Lockdown.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Sociology and Social Work, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

The COVID-19 lockdown was imposed in a context of notable inequalities in the distribution of the social determinants of health. It is possible that the housing conditions in which children and their families experienced the confinement, and the adoption of healthy behaviors, may have followed unequal patterns. The aim was to describe social inequalities in housing conditions and in health-related behaviors among children during the lockdown in Spain. Read More

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Growth Forms and Functional Guilds Distribution of Soil Fungi in Coastal Versus Inland Sites of Victoria Land, Antarctica.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.

In Victoria Land, Antarctica, ice-free areas are restricted to coastal regions and dominate the landscape of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. These two environments are subjected to different pressures that determine the establishment of highly adapted fungal communities. Within the kingdom of fungi, filamentous, yeasts and meristematic/microcolonial growth forms on one side and different lifestyles on the other side may be considered adaptive strategies of particular interest in the frame of Antarctic constraints. Read More

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Relationships between hormonal parameters, body fat distribution and bone mineral density in women with functional menstrual disorders.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolic and Internal Diseases, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Objectives: Available evidence implies that unfavorable changes in the distribution of adipose tissue resulting from hormonal imbalance associated with ovarian insufficiency might influence bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of our study was to verify if volumes of visceral (VAT), female (FAT) and android (AAT) body fat as determined by densitometry determined influence BMD in women with functional menstrual disorders, and if these correlates some endocrine factors.

Material And Methods: We examined 293 women (mean age 26. Read More

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The Association of American Medical Colleges' Local Area Physician Workforce Modeling Project.

Acad Med 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

M.J. Dill is director, Workforce Studies, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC. G.B. Hirsch is an independent consultant and creator of learning environments, Wayland, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5187-8794.

Physician workforce planning must address multiple concerns such as having sufficient numbers and adequate geographic distribution of physicians and pressures for physicians to adapt to new models of care and payment. Though there are national workforce planning tools, planning tools for local areas have been scarce. This article describes a dynamic simulation model developed as a pilot project to support physician workforce planning in 2 metropolitan areas, Cleveland and Albuquerque (February 2014-June 2016). Read More

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The effect of climate variables on the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Central Iran.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

In recent years, there have been considerable changes in the distribution of diseases that are potentially tied to ongoing climate variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and climatic factors in an Iranian city (Isfahan), which had the highest incidence of CL in the country. CL incidence and meteorological data were acquired from April 2010 to March 2017 (108 months) for Isfahan City. Read More

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Ecological and Socio-Economic Determinants of Livestock Animal Leptospirosis in the Russian Arctic.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:658675. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod Research Veterinary Institute-Branch of Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus . Regional differences in the disease manifestation and the role of ecological factors, specifically in regions with a subarctic and arctic climate, remain poorly understood. We here explored environmental and socio-economic features associated with leptospirosis cases in livestock animals in the Russian Arctic during 2000-2019. Read More

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Influences of Anatomorphological Features of the Portal Venous System on Postsplenectomy Hemodynamic Characteristics in Patients With Portal Hypertension: A Computational Model-Based Study.

Front Physiol 2021 12;12:661030. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Splenectomy, as an effective surgery for relieving complications caused by portal hypertension, is often accompanied by a significantly increased incidence of postoperative thrombosis in the portal venous system (PVS). While the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood, the marked changes in hemodynamic conditions in the PVS following splenectomy have been suggested to be a potential contributing factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of the anatomorphological features of the PVS on hemodynamic characteristics before and after splenectomy, with emphasis on identifying the specific anatomorphological features that make postoperative hemodynamic conditions more clot-promoting. Read More

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Severe Acute Malnutrition among Unoperated Ethiopian Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Wake-up Call to Reverse the Situation, A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 Sep;30(5):707-714

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University.

Background: Children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) are at increased risk for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of SAM among children with CHD in a tertiary hospital.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among children with CHD between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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September 2020

[Self-perceived health in Spanish and Portuguese young seniors after the great recession according to the European Health Survey: A cross-sectional study].

Aten Primaria 2021 Apr 24;53(7):102064. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Departamento de Especialidades Médicas y Salud Pública, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, Madrid, España; Centro de Salud General Ricardos, Centro de Atención Primaria, Madrid, España; Unidad de Investigación, Gerencia Asistencial de Atención Primaria Madrid, Madrid, España; Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC).

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe self-perceived health (SPH) in Spanish and Portuguese population aged between 65 and 74years old and to analyze other associated factors measured in the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) in 2014.

Design: Retrospective secondary data analysis from EHIS 2014.

Setting: Community based. Read More

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Addressing the maldistribution of health resources in Sichuan Province, China: A county-level analysis.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(4):e0250526. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Introduction: The equity of health resource allocation geographically is a contested topic. Sichuan Province, located in Southwest China, has varied topography, providing us with natural materials to explore the determinants of health resource distribution.

Materials And Methods: Spatial panel econometric models were constructed to explore the relationship between health resources and factors such as health care service demand and socioeconomic and demographic perspectives using data from Sichuan Province for eight consecutive years (2010-2017). Read More

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Recent progress in research on PM in subways.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Nowadays, PM2.5 concentrations greatly influence indoor air quality in subways and threaten passenger and staff health because PM2.5 not only contains heavy metal elements, but can also carry toxic and harmful substances due to its small size and large specific surface area. Read More

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Incidence of catastrophic healthcare expenditure and its main determinants in Mexican households caring for a person with a mental disorder.

Glob Ment Health (Camb) 2021 11;8:e2. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

National Institute for Psychiatry Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Direction of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Research, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: There are few studies on the impact of out-of-pocket mental health care expenditures and sociodemographic factors on the probability of Mexican households to incur catastrophic healthcare expenditures (CHE).

Objective: The goal of the present study was to estimate the incidence of CHE and its main determinants among the households of persons with mental disorders (MD) in Mexico.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 387 households of persons with MD. Read More

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January 2021

Race/ethnicity and challenges for optimal insulin therapy.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 20;175:108823. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil; International Diabetes Federation, IDF, Brussels, Belgium; Centre for Global Health Research, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Norway. Electronic address:

Aims: We aimed to review insulin dosing recommendations, insulin regulation and its determinants, glycaemic response to carbohydrates, and the efficacy and safety of insulin therapy in different races/ethnicities.

Methods: We searched for articles in PubMed and Google Scholar databases up to 31 March 2021, with the following keywords: "ethnicity", "diabetes", "insulin", "history of insulin", "insulin therapy", "food/rice", "carbohydrate intake", "insulin resistance", "BMI", "insulin dosing", "insulin sensitivity", "insulin response", "glycaemic index", "glycaemic response", "efficacy and safety", with interposition of the Boolean operator "AND".In addition, we reviewed the reference lists of the articles found. Read More

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