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Intraspecies Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Key Regulators of Candida albicans Pathogenic Traits.

mBio 2021 Apr 20;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

The human commensal and opportunistic fungal pathogen displays extensive genetic and phenotypic variation across clinical isolates. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on 21 well-characterized isolates to examine how genetic variation contributes to gene expression differences and to link these differences to phenotypic traits. adapts primarily through clonal evolution, and yet hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles in this set of isolates did not reproduce their phylogenetic relationship. Read More

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A multi-faceted comparative perspective on elevational beta-diversity: the patterns and their causes.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 21;288(1949):20210343. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The observed patterns and underlying mechanisms of elevational beta-diversity have been explored intensively, but multi-dimensional comparative studies remain scarce. Herein, across distinct beta-diversity components, dimensions and species groups, we designed a multi-faceted comparative framework aiming to reveal the general rules in the observed patterns and underlying causes of elevational beta-diversity. We have found that: first, the turnover process dominated altitudinal patterns of species beta-diversity ( > ), whereas the nestedness process appeared relatively more important for elevational trait dissimilarity ( < ); second, the taxonomic turnover was relative higher than its phylogenetic and functional analogues ( > /), conversely, nestedness-resultant trait dissimilarity tended to be higher than the taxonomic and phylogenetic measures ( > /); and third, as elevational distance increased, the contradicting dynamics of environmental filtering and limiting similarity have jointly led the elevational patterns of beta-diversity, especially at taxonomic dimension. Read More

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Two new rapid PCR-based methods for identification of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from clinical samples.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Apr 17:101732. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Bacteriology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Microbiology research center (MRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The accurate identification of Acinetobacter spp. is challenging due to their high phenotypic and biochemical similarities. Because clinical relevance and antibiotic susceptibility are significantly different among different genomic species of Acinetobacter, the exact identification of A. Read More

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Identification of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tylospora fibrillosa Donk by RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA.

New Phytol 1994 Mar;126(3):525-532

Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Aberdeen AB9 2UE, UK.

Sitka spruce mycorrhizas, macroscopically identified as being formed by Tylospora fibritiosa Donk, were sampled from a young and on old plantation and the mycobionts were isolated into pure culture. DNA was extracted and fragments of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The primers were directed to conserved regions of fungal rDXA and hybridize to a wide range of fungi. Read More

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The Arum-Paris continuum of mycorrhizal symbioses.

Authors:
S Dickson

New Phytol 2004 Jul;163(1):187-200

Centre for Soil-Plant Interactions, Soil and Land Systems (Waite Campus), School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

•  A survey of 12 plants colonized by six species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was conducted to explore the diversity of Arum and Paris mycorrhizal structures. •  Surveyed root material was sectioned both longitudinally and transversely, double-stained and mycorrhizal structures were identified. A detailed time course experiment using four plant, and four fungal species, was used to investigate the sequential development of hyphae, arbuscules, hyphal coils, arbusculate coils and vesicles. Read More

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Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera.

New Phytol 2004 Jul;163(1):51-59

Laboratory of Plant Systematics, K.U.Leuven, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

•  The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. •  A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. •  Intervascular pit membranes connecting relatively wide vessel elements resembled those of most angiosperms, as they were of uniform thickness. Read More

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Acute eosinophilic appendicitis caused by : A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 26;64:102241. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: The role of parasites in the pathogenesis of appendicitis has been debated for a long time. To date, several gastrointestinal parasites have been reported as the causes of appendicitis in humans. infestation of the appendix is uncommon and few cases have been reported in the literature. Read More

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Cross-Species Metabolic Profiling of Floral Specialized Metabolism Facilitates Understanding of Evolutional Aspects of Metabolism Among Brassicaceae Species.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:640141. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Graduate School of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Ikoma, Japan.

Plants produce a variety of floral specialized (secondary) metabolites with roles in several physiological functions, including light-protection, attraction of pollinators, and protection against herbivores. Pigments and volatiles synthesized in the petal have been focused on and characterized as major chemical factors influencing pollination. Recent advances in plant metabolomics have revealed that the major floral specialized metabolites found in land plant species are hydroxycinnamates, phenolamides, and flavonoids albeit these are present in various quantities and encompass diverse chemical structures in different species. Read More

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CRISPR genotyping as complementary tool for epidemiological surveillance of Erwinia amylovora outbreaks.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250280. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Fire blight is a destructive plant disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting pome fruit trees, and responsible for large yield declines, long phytosanitary confinements, and high economic losses. In Portugal, the first major fire blight outbreaks occurred in 2010 and 2011, and although later considered eradicated, the emergence of other outbreaks in recent years stressed the need to characterize the E. amylovora populations associated with these outbreaks. Read More

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/ collected worldwide: Microsatellite markers data and genetic cluster assignment.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 18;36:106967. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

INRAE, GAFL, 84143 Montfavet, France.

is a cosmopolitan aphid species able to colonize hundreds of plant species from various families [1]. It causes serious damage to a wide range of crops and it is considered a major pest of cucurbits and cotton [2]. It reproduces clonally, by obligate parthenogenesis, on secondary hosts present throughout the year in the intertropical area. Read More

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Pharmacological modulation of brain activation to non-noxious stimulation in a cynomolgus macaque model of peripheral nerve injury.

Mol Pain 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17448069211008697

Hamamatsu Pharma Research Inc., Hamamatsu, Japan.

In vivo neuroimaging could be utilized as a noninvasive tool for elaborating the CNS mechanism of chronic pain and for elaborating mechanisms of potential analgesic therapeutics. A model of unilateral peripheral neuropathy was developed in the cynomolgus macaque, a species that is phylogenetically close to humans. Nerve entrapment was induced by placing a 4 mm length of polyvinyl cuff around the left common sciatic nerve. Read More

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Comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes of cultivars and wild species of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam).

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 13;22(1):262. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Jiangsu Xuzhou Sweetpotato Research Center/Sweetpotato Research Institute, China Agricultural Academy of Sciences, Xuzhou, 221131, China.

Background: Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) is an important food crop. Read More

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Harmonics, evolutionary generators, DANCE, and HEAR-functional dimensions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Control and Systems Engineering Department, University of Technology, Alsinaah Street, P.O. Box: 19006, Baghdad, 10066, Iraq.

Evolution of the major kingdoms of life has spanned over the last 4 billion years on Earth. Studies of the process comprise different fields of study with alternative perspectives. This paper focuses on mathematic unification of the subject area; enriching an engineering based structure to advance our understanding of pathways which lead to distinct constructs in life, furthering geographic bordering processes with biological context. Read More

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Integral Multielement Signals by DNA-Programmed UCNP-AuNP Nanosatellite Assemblies for Ultrasensitive ICP-MS Detection of Exosomal Proteins and Cancer Identification.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Research Center for Analytical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 332, Shenyang 110819, China.

Exosomes are expected to be used as cancer biomarkers because they carry a variety of cancer-related proteins inherited from parental cells. However, it is still challenging to develop a sensitive, robust, and high-throughput technique for simultaneous detection of exosomal proteins. Herein, three aptamers specific to cancer-associated proteins (CD63, EpCAM, and HER2) are selected to connect gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as core with three different elements (Y, Eu, and Tb) doped up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as satellites, thereby forming three nanosatellite assemblies. Read More

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Microstructural characteristics of the stony coral genus useful to coral reef paleoecology and modern conservation.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 9;11(7):3093-3109. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology South China Sea Institute of Oceanology Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China.

Identification of fossil corals is often limited due to poor preservation of external skeleton morphology, especially in the genus which is widespread across the Indo-Pacific. Based on skeleton characteristics from thin section, we here develop a link between the internal skeleton structure and external morphology. Ten characteristics were summarized to distinguish and five related genera, including the type and differentiation of corallites, the skeleton nature of corallites (septa, columellae, dissepiments, wall), and calcification centers within septa. Read More

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Definition of a High-Resolution Molecular Marker for Tracking the Genetic Diversity of the Harmful Algal Species Through Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:631144. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

The cosmopolitan phytoplankton species is a common harmful algal bloom (HAB) species that have been found to cause HABs in essentially all coastal regions except the Polar regions. However, molecular information for this HAB species is limited with only a few molecular markers. In this project, we constructed the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of , which was also the first mtDNA constructed for any species in the order Hemiaulales that includes 145 reported species (including two additional HAB species and ). Read More

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Embryonic exposure to low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 triggers global transcriptomic changes, defective yolk lipid mobilization, abnormal gastrointestinal tract development and inflammation in zebrafish.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 2;416:125788. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

Aflatoxin B1-contaminated feeds and foods induce various health problems in domesticated animals and humans, including tumor development and hepatotoxicity. Aflatoxin B1 also has embryotoxic effects in different livestock species and humans. However, it is difficult to distinguish between the indirect, maternally-mediated toxic effects and the direct embryotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in mammals. Read More

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Functional leaf traits indicate phylogenetic signals in forests across an elevational gradient in the central Himalaya.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Global Ecology Unit, CSIC, CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Bellaterra, Catalonia, 08913, Spain.

Traits are the primary attributes that distinguish a species niche. Species and higher taxa are part of a structured phylogeny, and variation in plant traits depends on lineage as well as on environmental conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate linkages between taxonomic identity, shared ancestry, and environment for understanding the variation in leaf traits. Read More

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"I would sooner die than give up": Huxley and Darwin's deep disagreement.

Authors:
Mary P Winsor

Hist Philos Life Sci 2021 Apr 9;43(2):53. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto, 550 Spadina Crescent, Toronto, ON, M5S 2J9, Canada.

Thomas Henry Huxley and Charles Darwin discovered in 1857 that they had a fundamental disagreement about biological classification. Darwin believed that the natural system should express genealogy while Huxley insisted that classification must stand on its own basis, independent of evolution. Darwin used human races as a model for his view. Read More

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Expression of cell markers and transcription factors in the avian retina compared with that in the marmoset retina.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Animal Navigation / Neurosensorics Group, Institute for Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

In the vertebrate retina, amacrine and ganglion cells represent the most diverse cell classes. They can be classified into different cell types by several features, such as morphology, light responses, and gene expression profile. Although birds possess high visual acuity (similar to primates which we used here for comparison) and tetrachromatic color vision, data on the expression of transcription factors in retinal ganglion cells of birds is largely missing. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic Study of Safrole and Methyl Eugenol after Oral Administration of the Essential Oil Extracts of in Rats by GC-MS.

Biomed Res Int 2021 19;2021:6699033. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Component-Based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China.

is a traditional medicine and has been widely used as remedies for inflammatory diseases, toothache, headache, local anesthesia, and aphthous stomatitis in China, Japan, and Korea. Our previous research found that safrole and methyl eugenol were vital compounds that contribute to distinguish the different species and raw and its processed products apart. The pharmacokinetics of safrole and methyl eugenol after oral administration of extract has not been reported yet. Read More

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Putative plasmid prophages of Bacillus cereus sensu lato may hold the key to undiscovered phage diversity.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7611. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Bacteriophage Biology, G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center, 142290, Pushchino, Russia.

Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses and the most abundant biological entities on Earth. Temperate bacteriophages can form prophages stably maintained in the host population: they either integrate into the host genome or replicate as plasmids in the host cytoplasm. As shown, tailed temperate bacteriophages may form circular plasmid prophages in many bacterial species of the taxa Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Spirochaetes. Read More

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Improvements in reports of species redistribution under climate change are required.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 7;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

Studies have documented climate change-induced shifts in species distributions but uncertainties associated with data and methods are typically unexplored. We reviewed 240 reports of climate-related species-range shifts and classified them based on three criteria. We ask whether observed distributional shifts are compared against random expectations, whether multicausal factors are examined on equal footing, and whether studies provide sufficient documentation to enable replication. Read More

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A Study of the Pupal Development of Five Forensically Important Flies (Diptera: Brachycera).

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratório de Microscopia e Microanálise, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF, Brazil, CEP: 70910-900, and.

Holometabolous insects undergo complete metamorphosis, and hence, they have different phases of development (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), which occupy distinct ecological niches. The pupae of several fly species are surrounded by the puparium, which is a rigid structure, usually formed by the integument of the last larval instar. The puparium presents unique characteristics distinct from those of the larval and adult phases. Read More

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Morphology of Pholeoixodes species associated with carnivores in the western Palearctic: Pictorial key based on molecularly identified Ixodes (Ph.) canisuga, I. (Ph.) hexagonus and I. (Ph.) kaiseri males, nymphs and larvae.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Mar 23;12(4):101715. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary; Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Three Palearctic members of the subgenus Pholeoixodes, i.e., Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes kaiseri are frequently collected from dogs, cats, red foxes, badgers and other carnivorous/insectivorous hosts in Europe. Read More

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New insights into the phylogeny and taxonomy of Chinese (Apiaceae).

PhytoKeys 2021 23;175:67-88. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, 610065, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Sichuan University Chengdu China.

(Apiaceae) comprises about 10 species, but its taxonomy and phylogeny are disputed. The genus is mostly distributed in the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains at high elevation. Earlier molecular studies involving six species of indicated that this genus is not monophyletic and is nested in the East Asia Clade. Read More

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Stem borers revisited: Host resistance, tolerance, and vulnerability determine levels of field damage from a complex of Asian rice stemborers.

Crop Prot 2021 Apr;142:105513

School of Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, 4030, Laguna, Philippines.

Yield losses from rice stem borers depend on the nature of the rice variety, the timing of attack, and the composition of the stem borer species assemblage. This study uses a range of phenotyping methods to distinguish different categories of herbivore-rice interaction that determine relative damage levels (dead heart and whitehead-panicles) and yield losses to varieties exposed to stem borers. Phenotyping studies were conducted in a greenhouse, screen house and field using two stem borer species ( [yellow stem borer - YSB] and [striped stem borer - SSB]) and 12 rice lines. Read More

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Can larval feeding influence chemotaxis and parasitism of and ?

Bull Entomol Res 2021 Apr 5:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Crop Protection, PPG-Fitotecnia, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major barrier to fruit production and exportation. In Brazil, the native parasitoid Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) stand out as biological control agents. Knowledge of the factors that affect interactions among parasitoids, A. Read More

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Integrative anatomical study of the branched annelid Ramisyllis multicaudata (Annelida, Syllidae).

J Morphol 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Animal Evolution & Biodiversity, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

The sponge-dwelling Syllidae Ramisyllis multicaudata and Syllis ramosa are the only annelid species for which a branched body with one head and multiple posterior ends is known. In these species, the head is located deep within the sponge, and the branches extend through the canal system of their host. The morphology of these creatures has captivated annelid biologists since they were first discovered in the late XIXth century, and their external characteristics have been well documented. Read More

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Associated with Prosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical Features and Genomic Characteristics.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

The anaerobic coagulase-negative staphylococcal species is a member of the normal skin microbiota. However, is rarely found in clinical specimens and its pathogenic potential is unclear. The clinical data of prosthetic hip (n = 5) and shoulder (n = 2) joint implant-associated infections where was detected in periprosthetic tissue specimens are described. Read More

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