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Distinct approaches to language pathway tractography: comparison of anatomy-based, repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)-based, and rTMS-enhanced diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jul 30:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Visualization of subcortical language pathways by means of diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking (DTI-FT) is evolving as an important tool for surgical planning and decision making in patients with language-suspect brain tumors. Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) cortical language mapping noninvasively provides additional functional information. Efforts to incorporate rTMS data into DTI-FT are promising, but the lack of established protocols makes it hard to assess clinical utility. Read More

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Ipsilateral and Simultaneous Comparison of Responses from Acceleromyography- and Electromyography-based Neuromuscular Monitors.

Anesthesiology 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Background: The paucity of easy-to-use, reliable objective neuromuscular monitors is an obstacle to universal adoption of routine neuromuscular monitoring. Electromyography (EMG) has been proposed as the optimal neuromuscular monitoring technology since it addresses several acceleromyography limitations. This clinical study compared simultaneous neuromuscular responses recorded from induction of neuromuscular block until recovery using the acceleromyography-based TOF-Watch SX and EMG-based TetraGraph. Read More

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Error-free PAM-4 transmission by a high-speed plastic optical fiber without forward error correction.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3709-3712

This Letter reports, to the best of our knowledge, the first study in which error-free four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission has been achieved using a graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) without the use of forward error correction (FEC) techniques, at a high data rate (>50/), for short-reach applications (10 m). The GI POF that is developed has the characteristic microscopic heterogeneities in the fiber core material, which provide distinct mode coupling and significantly stabilize PAM-4 data transmission. The results of the study in this Letter indicate that the GI POF achieves highly stable PAM-4 transmission without the need for the current FEC techniques, which seriously increase the communication delay and power consumption of the transmission systems. Read More

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma-released brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to oral cancer pain by peripheral tropomyosin receptor kinase B activation.

Pain 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Departments of Endodontics, Pharmacology and Physiology, and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX, United States.

Abstract: Oral cancer pain is debilitating and understanding mechanisms for it is critical to develop novel treatment strategies treatment strategies. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is elevated in oral tumor biopsies and is involved with tumor progression. Whether BDNF signaling in oral tumors contributes to cancer-induced pain is not known. Read More

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COVID-19: more than a respiratory virus, an optical coherence tomography study.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate anatomic and morphologic features of inner and outer retinal layers in patients recovered from COVID-19 with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), whether correlate with any symptoms during disease process.

Methods: 32 patients recovered from COVID-19 and age- and gender-matched 36 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer, macular and peripapiller retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the outer retinal hyperreflective bands including external limiting membrane (ELM), ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) were examined with SD-OCT. Read More

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Personalized bioconversion of Panax notoginseng saponins mediated by gut microbiota between two different diet-pattern healthy subjects.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 23;16(1):60. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China.

Background: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) as the main effective substances from P. notoginseng with low bioavailability could be bio-converted by human gut microbiota. In our previous study, PNS metabolic variations mediated by gut microbiota have been observed between high fat, high protein (HF-HP) and low fat, plant fiber-rich (LF-PF) dietary subjects. Read More

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Neurocircuitry of Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Revealed by Tractography: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 1;12:680484. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was proposed in 1999 to treat refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the accumulated experience over more than two decades, 30-40% of patients fail to respond to this procedure. One potential reason to explain why some patients do not improve in the postoperative period is that DBS might not have engaged structural therapeutic networks that are crucial to a favorable outcome in non-responders. Read More

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3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14584. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute of Quantum Optics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover, Welfengarten 1, 30167, Hannover, Germany.

3D printing of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices enables rapid prototyping of robust and complex structures. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 3D printed lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation. The final 3D printed chip offers three key features, such as (1) an optimized fiber channel design for precise alignment of optical fibers, (2) an optically clear window to visualize the trapping region, and (3) a sample channel which facilitates hydrodynamic focusing of samples. Read More

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Molecular Characteristics of Human Adenovirus Type 3 Circulating in Parts of China During 2014-2018.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:688661. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Research Unit of Critical Infection in Children, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2019RU016, Laboratory of Infection and Virology, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important pathogens causing respiratory infections; 3.5-11% of childhood community-acquired pneumonia is associated with HAdV infection. Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3), leading to severe morbidity and mortality, is one of the most prevalent genotype among adenoviruses responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children in China. Read More

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Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status.

Cell 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Microbiology & Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Center for Human Microbiome Studies, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Diet modulates the gut microbiome, which in turn can impact the immune system. Here, we determined how two microbiota-targeted dietary interventions, plant-based fiber and fermented foods, influence the human microbiome and immune system in healthy adults. Using a 17-week randomized, prospective study (n = 18/arm) combined with -omics measurements of microbiome and host, including extensive immune profiling, we found diet-specific effects. Read More

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Quantifying myelin in crossing fibers using diffusion-prepared phase imaging: Theory and simulations.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging-Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Myelin has long been the target of neuroimaging research. However, most available techniques can only provide a voxel-averaged estimate of myelin content. In the human brain, white matter fiber pathways connecting different brain areas and carrying different functions often cross each other in the same voxel. Read More

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Influence of structural and material property uncertainties on biomechanics of intervertebral discs - Implications for disc tissue engineering.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 29;122:104661. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, 159 Wells Avenue, Newton, MA 02459, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated how variations of structural and material properties of human intervertebral discs (IVDs) affect the biomechanical responses of the IVDs under simulated physiological loading conditions using a stochastic finite element (SFE) model. An SFE method, which combined an anatomic FE model of human lumbar L3-4 segment and probabilistic analysis of its structural and material properties, was used to generate a dataset of 500 random disc samples with varying structural and material properties. The sensitivity of the biomechanical responses, including intervertebral displacements/rotations, intradiscal pressures (IDP), fiber stresses and matrix strains of annulus fibrosus (AF), were systematically quantified under various physiological loading conditions, including a 500N compression and 7. Read More

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α2δ-1 Upregulation in Primary Sensory Neurons Promotes NMDA Receptor-Mediated Glutamatergic Input in Resiniferatoxin-Induced Neuropathy.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 17;41(27):5963-5978. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Center for Neuroscience and Pain Research, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030

Systemic treatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX) induces small-fiber sensory neuropathy by damaging TRPV1-expressing primary sensory neurons and causes distinct thermal sensory impairment and tactile allodynia, which resemble the unique clinical features of postherpetic neuralgia. However, the synaptic plasticity associated with RTX-induced tactile allodynia remains unknown. In this study, we found that RTX-induced neuropathy is associated with α2δ-1 upregulation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and increased physical interaction between α2δ-1 and GluN1 in the spinal cord synaptosomes. Read More

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Regulation and dysregulation of neuronal circuits by KARs.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 8;197:108699. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

INMED, INSERM UMR1249, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Kainate receptors (KARs) constitute a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) with distinct physiological roles in synapses and neuronal circuits. Despite structural and biophysical commonalities with the other iGluRs, AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors, their role as post-synaptic receptors involved in shaping EPSCs to transmit signals across synapses is limited to a small number of synapses. On the other hand KARs regulate presynaptic release mechanisms and control ion channels and signaling pathways through non-canonical metabotropic actions. Read More

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GhMYB7 promotes secondary wall cellulose deposition in cotton fibers by regulating GhCesA gene expression through three distinct cis-elements.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Cotton fiber is the most important source for natural textiles. The secondary cell walls (SCWs) of mature cotton fibers contain the highest proportion of cellulose content (> 90%) in any plant. The onset and progression of SCW cellulose synthesis need to be tightly controlled to balance fiber elongation and cell wall deposition. Read More

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Uniformly-aligned gelatin/polycaprolactone fibers promote proliferation in adipose-derived stem cells and have distinct effects on cardiac cell differentiation.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 15;14(6):680-692. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Jiangsu, China.

Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising technique to regenerate cardiac tissue and treat cardiovascular disease. Here we applied a modified method to generate ultrafine uniformly-aligned composite gelatin/polycaprolactone fibers that mimic functional heart tissue. We tested the physical properties of these fibers and analyzed how these composite fibrous scaffolds affected growth and cardiac lineage differentiation in rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs). Read More

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Host Phylogeny and Diet Shape Gut Microbial Communities Within Bamboo-Feeding Insects.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:633075. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

The gut microbiome plays an important role in a host's development and adaption to its dietary niche. In this study, a group of bamboo-feeding insects are used to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to extreme diet specialization. Specifically, using a 16S rRNA marker and an Illumina sequencing platform, we profiled the microbial communities of 76 gut samples collected from nine bamboo-feeding insects, including both hemimetabolous (Orthoptera and Hemiptera) and holometabolous (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) species, which are specialized in three distinct dietary niches: bamboo leaf, shoot, and sap. Read More

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Mechanical performance of collagen gels is dependent on purity, α1/α2 ratio, and telopeptides.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

This article describes the compositional, mechanical, and structural differences between collagen gels fabricated from different sources and processing methods. Despite extensive use of collagen in the manufacturing of biomaterials and implants, there is little information as to the variation in properties based on collagen source or processing methods. As such, differences in purity and composition may affect gel structure and mechanical performance. Read More

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White matter degeneration in remote brain areas of stroke patients with motor impairment due to basal ganglia lesions.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, Southeast University Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed distinct white matter (WM) characteristics of the brain following diseases. Beyond the lesion-symptom maps, stroke is characterized by extensive structural and functional alterations of brain areas remote to local lesions. Here, we further investigated the structural changes over a global level by using DTI data of 10 ischemic stroke patients showing motor impairment due to basal ganglia lesions and 11 healthy controls. Read More

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Full article title: Symptom-based profiling and multimodal neuroimaging of a large pre-teenage population identifies distinct OCD-like subtypes with neurocognitive differences.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China; Department of Psychology and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: OCD is characterized by both internalizing (anxiety) and externalizing (compulsivity) symptoms. Currently little is known about their inter-relationships and their relative contributions to disease heterogeneity. Our goal is to resolve affective and cognitive symptom heterogeneity related to internalized and externalized symptom dimensions by determining subtypes of children with OCD symptoms, and to identify any corresponding neural differences. Read More

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Contractile Properties of MHC I and II Fibers From Highly Trained Arm and Leg Muscles of Cross-Country Skiers.

Front Physiol 2021 16;12:682943. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Introduction: Little is known about potential differences in contractile properties of muscle fibers of the same type in arms and legs. Accordingly, the present study was designed to compare the force-generating capacity and Ca sensitivity of fibers from arm and leg muscles of highly trained cross-country skiers.

Method: Single muscle fibers of and of eight highly trained cross-country skiers were analyzed with respect to maximal Ca-activated force, specific force and Ca sensitivity. Read More

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Mechanisms of organelle elimination for lens development and differentiation.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 30;209:108682. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA. Electronic address:

A hallmark feature of lens development and differentiation is the complete elimination of organelles from the center of the eye lens. A long unanswered question in lens biology is what are the mechanisms that control the elimination of organelles during the terminal remodeling program to form mature lens fiber cells? Recent advances have expanded our understanding of these mechanisms including newly discovered signaling pathways, proteasomal regulators, autophagy proteins, transcription factors and the hypoxic environment of the lens itself. These recent discoveries suggest that distinct mechanisms coordinate the elimination of the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus during lens fiber cell differentiation. Read More

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The Effect of Functional Fiber on Microbiota Composition in Different Intestinal Segments of Obese Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 18;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with distinct, stratified environments, which leads to different microbial composition in different intestinal segments. The regional heterogeneity of intestinal microbiota complicates the relationship between diet and microbiota. Few studies have focused on the effects of different diets on microbiota in different intestinal segments. Read More

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Concentrated Raw Fibers Enhance the Fiber-Degrading Capacity of a Synthetic Human Gut Microbiome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 25;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, 4354 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

The consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by availability of tractable in vitro and in vivo models to validate certain fibers. Read More

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Early Aberrant Angiogenesis Due to Elastic Fiber Fragmentation in Aortic Valve Disease.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Jun 25;8(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Pathology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Elastic fiber fragmentation (EFF) is a hallmark of aortic valve disease (AVD), and neovascularization has been identified as a late finding related to inflammation. We sought to characterize the relationship between early EFF and aberrant angiogenesis. To examine disease progression, regional anatomy and pathology of aortic valve tissue were assessed using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy from early-onset (<40 yo) and late-onset (≥40 yo) non-syndromic AVD specimens. Read More

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Givinostat as metabolic enhancer reverting mitochondrial biogenesis deficit in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 29;170:105751. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine (BioMeTra), Università degli Studi di Milano, via L. Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting, weakness, and premature death. Remarkable progress has been made in genetic approaches, restoring dystrophin, or its function. However, the targeting of secondary pathological mechanisms, such as increasing muscle blood flow or stopping fibrosis, remains important to improve the therapeutic benefits, that depend on tackling both the genetic disease and the downstream consequences. Read More

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Structural and functional characterization of the receptor binding proteins of O157 phages EP75 and EP335.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 4;19:3416-3426. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Food Nutrition and Health, ETH Zürich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Bacteriophages (phages) are widely used as biocontrol agents in food and as antibacterial agents for treatment of food production plant surfaces. An important feature of such phages is broad infectivity towards a given pathogenic species. Phages attach to the surfaces of bacterial cells using receptor binding proteins (RBPs), namely tail fibers or tailspikes (TSPs). Read More

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Role of differentially expressed LBX1 in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) paraspinal muscle phenotypes and muscle-bone crosstalk through modulating myoblasts.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 Jun;280:14-17

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, SH Ho Scoliosis Research Laboratory, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, China.

AIS is three-dimensional spinal deformity with unclear etiopathogenesis. LBX1 is so far the only multi-centers validated AIS predisposing gene. The imbalance of posterior paraspinal muscles is an important factor in AIS etiopathogenesis. Read More

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An Intrinsically Micro-/Nanostructured Pollen Substrate with Tunable Optical Properties for Optoelectronic Applications.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 30:e2100566. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

There is broad interest in developing photonically active substrates from naturally abundant, minimally processed materials that can help to overcome the environmental challenges of synthetic plastic substrates while also gaining inspiration from biological design principles. To date, most efforts have focused on rationally engineering the micro- and nanoscale structural properties of cellulose-based materials by tuning fibril and fiber dimensions and packing along with chemical modifications, while there is largely untapped potential to design photonically active substrates from other classes of natural materials with distinct morphological features. Herein, the fabrication of a flexible pollen-derived substrate is reported, which exhibits high transparency (>92%) and high haze (>84%) on account of the micro- and nanostructure properties of constituent pollen particles that are readily obtained from nature and require minimal extraction or processing to form the paper-like substrate based on colloidal self-assembly. Read More

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Dietary Fiber Hierarchical Specificity: the Missing Link for Predictable and Strong Shifts in Gut Bacterial Communities.

mBio 2021 06 29;12(3):e0102821. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research and Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Most dietary fibers used to shape the gut microbiota present different and unpredictable responses, presumably due to the diverse microbial communities of people. Recently, we proposed that fibers can be classified in a hierarchical way where fibers of high specificity (i.e. Read More

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