808 results match your criteria distinct depths


Mars Perihelion Cloud Trails as revealed by MARCI: Mesoscale Topographically Focussed Updrafts and Gravity Wave Forcing of High Altitude Clouds.

Icarus 2021 Jul 13;362. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (LMD/IPSL), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Research University, France.

Daily, global wide angle imaging of Mars clouds in MARCI (MARs Color Imager, (Malin et al., 2008)) ultraviolet and visible bands reveals the spatial/seasonal distributions and physical characteristics of perihelion cloud trails (PCT); a class of high altitude (40-50 km), horizontally extended (200-1000 km, trending W to WSW) water ice clouds formed over specific southern low-to-mid latitude (5S-40S), mesoscale (~50 km) locations during the Mars perihelion, southern summer season. PCT were first reported in association with rim regions of Valles Marineris (Clancy et al. Read More

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Oxygen isotopes trace the origins of Earth's earliest continental crust.

Nature 2021 Apr 31;592(7852):70-75. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Geological Survey of Western Australia, Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, East Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Much of the current volume of Earth's continental crust had formed by the end of the Archaean eon (2.5 billion years ago), through melting of hydrated basaltic rocks at depths of approximately 25-50 kilometres, forming sodic granites of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite. However, the geodynamic setting and processes involved are debated, with fundamental questions arising, such as how and from where the required water was added to deep-crustal TTG source regions. Read More

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Genomic Signatures for Species-Specific Adaptation in Lake Victoria Cichlids Derived from Large-Scale Standing Genetic Variation.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550, Japan.

The cichlids of Lake Victoria are a textbook example of adaptive radiation, as > 500 endemic species arose in just 14,600 years. The degree of genetic differentiation among species is very low due to the short period of time after the radiation, which allows us to ascertain highly differentiated genes that are strong candidates for driving speciation and adaptation. Previous studies have revealed the critical contribution of vision to speciation by showing the existence of highly differentiated alleles in the visual opsin gene among species with different habitat depths. Read More

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Understanding the environmental impact of phosphorus in acidic soils receiving repeated poultry litter applications.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;779:146267. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Lab., 411 S. Donahue Dr., Auburn, AL 36832, USA.

With rising global demand of poultry products, a surge in poultry production would warrant safe disposal of waste byproducts such as poultry litter (PL). A dilemma exists over environmental phosphorus (P) loss risk and agronomic utilization of PL in highly weathered soils with high P fixation capacity. The objective of this study was to determine P forms and their distribution in highly weathered Piedmont soils located in high density poultry operation (HDPO) areas and evaluate environmental P loss risk using soil P storage capacity (SPSC) approach. Read More

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Importance of environmental factors over habitat connectivity in shaping bacterial communities in microbial mats and bacterioplankton in an Antarctic freshwater system.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 04;97(4)

Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK.

Freshwater ecosystems are considered hotspots of biodiversity in Antarctic polar deserts. Anticipated warming is expected to change the hydrology of these systems due to increased meltwater and reduction of ice cover, with implications for environmental conditions and physical connectivity between habitats. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we evaluated microbial mat and planktonic communities within a connected freshwater system in the McMurdo Wright Valley, Antarctica, to determine the roles of connectivity and habitat conditions in controlling microbial assemblage composition. Read More

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Application driven assessment of probe designs for Raman spectroscopy.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Feb 14;12(2):852-871. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Vanderbilt University, Dept of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the non-invasive, non-destructive assessment of tissue pathophysiology for a variety of applications largely through the use of fiber optic probes to interface with samples of interest. Fiber optic probes can be designed to optimize the collection of Raman-scattered photons from application-dependent depths, and this critical consideration should be addressed when planning a study. Herein we investigate four distinct probe geometries for sensitivity to superficial and deep signals through a Monte Carlo model that incorporates Raman scattering and fluorescence. Read More

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February 2021

Optical coherence tomography angiography measures blood pulsatile waveforms at variable tissue depths.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Mar;11(3):907-917

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is routinely used to detect the blood pulse signal from skin tissue beds in clinics. However, the origin of the PPG signal remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to explore optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to indicate pulsatile waveforms in the papillary plexus and dermal plexus separately under different hand elevations. Read More

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Genomic evidence for sulfur intermediates as new biogeochemical hubs in a model aquatic microbial ecosystem.

Microbiome 2021 02 16;9(1):46. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

Background: The sulfur cycle encompasses a series of complex aerobic and anaerobic transformations of S-containing molecules and plays a fundamental role in cellular and ecosystem-level processes, influencing biological carbon transfers and other biogeochemical cycles. Despite their importance, the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved in these transformations remain poorly understood, especially for inorganic sulfur compounds of intermediate oxidation states (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfite, polysulfides). Isolated and highly stratified, the extreme geochemical and environmental features of meromictic ice-capped Lake A, in the Canadian High Arctic, provided an ideal model ecosystem to resolve the distribution and metabolism of aquatic sulfur cycling microorganisms along redox and salinity gradients. Read More

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February 2021

Male Deep-Sea Shrimps at Fishing Grounds: Growth and First Evaluation of Recruitment by Multilocus Genotyping.

Life (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratori d'Ictiologia Genètica, Campus Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain.

The population biology of the deep-sea shrimp , as with other exploited demersal species, is usually studied using data from fishery statistics. Such statistical analyses have shown female-biased sex ratios during the spawning season in this species. Because the abundance of males increases at greater depths that are not exploited by fisheries (virgin grounds), knowledge on their recruitment is limited. Read More

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February 2021

Diel transcriptional oscillations of light-sensitive regulatory elements in open-ocean eukaryotic plankton communities.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(6)

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.

The 24-h cycle of light and darkness governs daily rhythms of complex behaviors across all domains of life. Intracellular photoreceptors sense specific wavelengths of light that can reset the internal circadian clock and/or elicit distinct phenotypic responses. In the surface ocean, microbial communities additionally modulate nonrhythmic changes in light quality and quantity as they are mixed to different depths. Read More

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February 2021

Dense seismic arrays deny a massive magma chamber beneath the Taipei metropolis, Taiwan.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1083. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Minxiong, Taiwan, ROC.

Several recent studies suggest that the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) in the Taipei metropolis of Taiwan is still active with a mappable magma chamber beneath it. Here we report new seismic evidence from dense seismic arrays in northern Taiwan to refute the presence of a massive magma chamber. We investigated two near Taipei earthquakes with focal depths of ~ 140 km. Read More

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January 2021

Highly explosive basaltic eruptions driven by CO exsolution.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 11;12(1):217. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, PO Box 876004, Tempe, AZ, 85287-6004, USA.

The most explosive basaltic scoria cone eruption yet documented (>20 km high plumes) occurred at Sunset Crater (Arizona) ca. 1085 AD by undetermined eruptive mechanisms. We present melt inclusion analysis, including bubble contents by Raman spectroscopy, yielding high total CO (approaching 6000 ppm) and S (~2000 ppm) with moderate HO (~1. Read More

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January 2021

Energy Sources of the Depth-Generalist Mixotrophic Coral .

Front Mar Sci 2020 Nov;7:988

Department of Marine Biology, The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Energy sources of corals, ultimately sunlight and plankton availability, change dramatically from shallow to mesophotic (30-150 m) reefs. Depth-generalist corals, those that occupy both of these two distinct ecosystems, are adapted to cope with such extremely diverse conditions. In this study, we investigated the trophic strategy of the depth-generalist hermatypic coral and the ability of mesophotic colonies to adapt to shallow reefs. Read More

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November 2020

Extensive Microbial Processing of Polysaccharides in the South Pacific Gyre via Selfish Uptake and Extracellular Hydrolysis.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:583158. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

Primary productivity occurs throughout the deep euphotic zone of the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (SPG), fueled largely by the regeneration of nutrients and thus recycling of organic matter. We investigated the heterotrophic capabilities of the SPG's bacterial communities by examining their ability to process polysaccharides, an important component of marine organic matter. We focused on the initial step of organic matter degradation by measuring the activities of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze six different polysaccharides to smaller sizes. Read More

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December 2020

Spatial patterns and co-occurrence networks of microbial communities related to environmental heterogeneity in deep-sea surface sediments around Yap Trench, Western Pacific Ocean.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 9;759:143799. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

College of Marine Life Sciences & Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Microbial communities are a large component of abyssal and hadal benthic environments, especially in deep-sea areas like Yap Trench, they provide a continuous source of nutrients and energy in their unique ecosystems. However, due to sampling difficulties, these microbial communities are relatively understudied. In the summer of 2017, sediment samples were collected from 21 stations around Yap Trench in the Western Pacific Ocean (mostly in the West Caroline Basin), at depths ranging from 3156 to 7837 m. Read More

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Alterations and Correlations in Microbial Community and Metabolome Characteristics in Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:573196. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to characterize the microbial community and metabolic profiles in generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 146 subgingival plaque samples and 50 gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from 24 patients with AgP and 10 periodontally healthy subjects (PH). Striking differences were observed in subgingival microbiome and GCF metabolomics between patients with AgP and PH, but not between samples with different probing depths (PDs). Read More

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November 2020

Three new deep-sea species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the abyssal plain of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and hadal depths of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench.

PeerJ 2020 25;8:e10405. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

The Thyasiridae is the most species-rich family of bivalves in the abyssal and hadal zones of the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In recent years, with at least 14 thyasirid species found in that region at depths exceeding 3,000 m. Some of them are the numerically dominant species in bottom communities. Read More

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November 2020

Base of fresh water, groundwater salinity, and well distribution across California.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 9;117(51):32302-32307. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, CA 94105.

The depth at which groundwaters transition from fresh to more saline-the "base of fresh water"-is frequently used to determine the stringency and types of measures put in place to manage groundwater and protect it from contamination. Therefore, it is important to understand salinity distributions and compare defined bases of fresh water with salinity distributions and groundwater well depths. Here we analyze two distinct datasets: 1) a large set of total dissolved solids concentration (TDS) measurements ( = 216,754) and 2) groundwater well locations and depths ( = 399,454) across California. Read More

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December 2020

Subnanometer-Precision Measurements of Transmembrane Motions of Biomolecules in Plasma Membranes Using Quenchers in Extracellular Environment.

Nano Lett 2021 01 5;21(1):485-491. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Characterization of biomolecular dynamics at cellular membranes lags far behind that in solutions because of challenges to measure transmembrane trafficking with subnanometer precision. Herein, by introducing nonfluorescent quenchers into extracellular environment of live cells, we adopted Förster resonance energy transfer from one donor to multiple quenchers to measure positional changes of biomolecules in plasma membranes. We demonstrated the method by monitoring flip-flops of individual lipids and by capturing transient states of the host defense peptide LL-37 in plasma membranes. Read More

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January 2021

, a new species of pipefish in facultative associations with finger sponges and red algae from New South Wales, Australia (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

Zookeys 2020 17;994:105-123. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, 1 William Street, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia Australian Museum Sydney Australia.

A new species of pipefish, , is described based on the male holotype and two female paratypes, 136.3-145.5 mm SL, collected from red algae (sp. Read More

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November 2020

Bladder Exstrophy Polyp: An Uncommon Entity in Surgical Pathology.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Nov 30:1-3. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto , Ontario , Canada.

Background: Bladder exstrophy is a congenital malformation occurring more commonly in males. The occurrence of polyps in these bladders represents a well-known phenomenon to the treating urologist. However, they might not be as familiar to pathologists since they are generally not biopsied. Read More

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November 2020

Nanopore Amplicon Sequencing Reveals Molecular Convergence and Local Adaptation of Rhodopsin in Great Lakes Salmonids.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Feb;13(2)

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York, USA.

Local adaptation can drive diversification of closely related species across environmental gradients and promote convergence of distantly related taxa that experience similar conditions. We examined a potential case of adaptation to novel visual environments in a species flock (Great Lakes salmonids, genus Coregonus) using a new amplicon genotyping protocol on the Oxford Nanopore Flongle and MinION. We sequenced five visual opsin genes for individuals of Coregonus artedi, Coregonus hoyi, Coregonus kiyi, and Coregonus zenithicus. Read More

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February 2021

Next-Generation Lineage Tracing and Fate Mapping to Interrogate Development.

Dev Cell 2021 01 19;56(1):7-21. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Developmental Biology Washington, University School of Medicine in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8103, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Genetics Washington, University School of Medicine in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8103, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Center of Regenerative Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8103, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Lineage tracing and fate mapping, overlapping yet distinct disciplines to follow cells and their progeny, have evolved rapidly over the last century. Lineage tracing aims to identify all progeny arising from an individual cell, placing them within a lineage hierarchy. The recent emergence of genomic technologies, such as single-cell and spatial transcriptomics, has fostered sophisticated new methods to reconstruct lineage relationships at high resolution. Read More

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January 2021

Microbial Niche Diversification in the Galápagos Archipelago and Its Response to El Niño.

Front Microbiol 2020 23;11:575194. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

The Galápagos Archipelago is located at the intersection of several major oceanographic features that produce diverse environmental conditions around the islands, and thus has the potential to serve as a natural laboratory for discerning the underlying environmental factors that structure marine microbial communities. Here we used quantitative metagenomics to characterize microbial communities in relation to archipelago marine habitats, and how those populations shift due to substantial environmental changes brought on by El Niño. Environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, inorganic dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations varied throughout the archipelago, revealing a diversity of potential microbial niches arising from upwelling, oligotrophic to eutrophic gradients, physical isolation, and potential island mass effects. Read More

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October 2020

Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity and Abundance in Shallow Subsurface Clay Sediments at Jianghan Plain, China.

Front Microbiol 2020 22;11:572560. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.

Clay layers are common in subsurface where microbial activities play an important role in impacting the biogeochemical properties of adjacent aquifers. In this study, we analyzed the community structure and abundance of bacteria and archaea in response to geochemical properties of six clay sediments at different depths in a borehole (112°34'0″E, 30°36'21″N) of Jianghan Plain (JHP), China. Our results suggested that the top two clay layers were oxic, while the remaining bottom four clay layers were anoxic. Read More

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October 2020

Geothermal Gases Shape the Microbial Community of the Volcanic Soil of Pantelleria, Italy.

mSystems 2020 Nov 3;5(6). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Microbiology, IWWR, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Volcanic and geothermal environments are characterized by low pH, high temperatures, and gas emissions consisting of mainly CO and varied CH, HS, and H contents which allow the formation of chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities. To determine the link between the emitted gases and the microbial community composition, geochemical and metagenomic analysis were performed. Soil samples of the geothermic region Favara Grande (Pantelleria, Italy) were taken at various depths (1 to 50 cm). Read More

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November 2020

A drivable optrode for use in chronic electrophysiology and optogenetic experiments.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jan 21;348:108979. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Combining optogenetic tools with behaving electrophysiology is a powerful approach for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying behavior. A traditional approach to ensure viable recordings during chronic long-term electrophysiological experiments is the use of drivable electrodes. However, few options exist for drivable optrodes. Read More

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January 2021

A polyphasic approach to the study of the genus Nitzschia (Bacillariophyta): three new planktonic species from the Adriatic Sea.

J Phycol 2021 02 15;57(1):143-159. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia.

The paraphyletic diatom genus Nitzschia comprises over 1000 morphologically distinct pennate taxa, known from the benthos and plankton of freshwater, brackish, and marine environments. The principal diagnostic characters for delimitation of Nitzschia species include valve shape, the position and structure of the raphe, presence/absence and shape of the proximal raphe endings and terminal raphe fissures, areola structure, and specific morphometric features such as cell size, and stria and fibula density. In this study, we isolated 12 diatom strains into culture from samples collected at the surface or greater depths of the southeastern Adriatic Sea. Read More

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February 2021

Analysis of the Rock Failure Cone Size Relative to the Group Effect from a Triangular Anchorage System.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 19;13(20). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Gluska 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland.

This study employs the numerical analysis and experimental testing to analyze the fracturing mechanics and the size of rock cones formed in the pull-out of a system of three undercut anchors. The research sets out to broaden the knowledge regarding: (a) the potential of the undercut anchor pull-out process in mining of the rock mass, and (b) estimating the load-carrying capacity of anchors embedded in the rock mass (which is distinctly different from the anchorage to concrete). Undercut anchors are most commonly applied as fasteners of steel components in concrete structures. Read More

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October 2020

Bathymetric gradient shapes the community composition rather than the species richness of deep-sea benthic ciliates.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 30;755(Pt 2):142623. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Laboratory of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The bathymetric gradient is one of the most important factors that regulate the distribution of life. However, community variations of benthic ciliates along bathymetric gradients in the deep sea remain rather unexplored. In this study, we hypothesize that in the deep sea, the bathymetric gradient shapes the benthic ciliate community composition rather than the species richness. Read More

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February 2021