7,025 results match your criteria dissemination virus

Aedes aegypti SNAP and a calcium transporter ATPase influence dengue virus dissemination.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009442. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus that causes marked human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Habitat expansion of Aedes, mainly due to climate change and increasing overlap between urban and wild habitats, places nearly half of the world's population at risk for DENV infection. After a bloodmeal from a DENV-infected host, the virus enters the mosquito midgut. Read More

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Sterilization and sanitizing of 3D-printed personal protective equipment using polypropylene and a Single Wall design.

3D Print Med 2021 Jun 11;7(1):16. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Basic Sciences, Kansas City University, College of Medicine, Farber-McIntire Campus, Joplin, MO, USA.

Background: The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic during the fall of 2019 and into the spring of 2020 has led to an increased demand of disposable N95 respirators and other types of personal protective equipment (PPE) as a way to prevent virus spread and help ensure the safety of healthcare workers. The sudden demand led to rapid modification, development, and dissemination of 3D printed PPE. The goal of this study was to determine the inherent sterility and re-sterilizing ability of 3D printed PPE in order to provide sterile equipment to the healthcare field and the general public. Read More

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The KSHV ORF20 Protein Interacts with the Viral Processivity Factor ORF59 and Promotes Viral Reactivation.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jun 9:e0014521. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Microbiology Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Upon Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic reactivation, rapid and widespread amplification of viral DNA (vDNA) triggers significant nuclear reorganization. As part of this striking shift in nuclear architecture, viral replication compartments are formed as sites of lytic vDNA production along with remarkable spatial remodeling and the relocalization of cellular and viral proteins. These viral replication compartments house several lytic gene products that coordinate viral gene expression, vDNA replication, and nucleocapsid assembly. Read More

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Epidemiological profile of viral hepatitis infection in the population treated at a reference hospital in Alagoas.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e238431. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas - UNCISAL, Maceió, AL, Brasil.

Viral hepatitis are widely spread infectious diseases caused by a variety of etiological agents that displays liver tropism as a common characteristic. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of viral hepatitis medical records treated and diagnosed from 2010 to 2015. The relationship between the variables were made through the chi-square test. Read More

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Role of systems science in preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2021 06 8;11(6):e046057. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Introduction: In recent history, many new infectious diseases have affected humans for the first time or have appeared in previously unaffected areas of the world; these diseases are known as emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Examples of EIDs include COVID-19, Middle East respiratory syndrome and Ebola virus disease. EIDs are known for their complexity. Read More

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Dissemination and Acceptance of COVID-19 Misinformation in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2021 Jun 7:272684X211022155. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Health Information Technology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Misinformation refers to unclear information from unreliable resources, and it is a common phenomenon of society; it can even constitute a part of family and social conversations due to the relative damages. Misinformation dissemination under the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic can be considered a cause of health-related anxieties and severe harm to the countries. The present study aims to explain factors related to the dissemination and acceptance of coronavirus misinformation in Iran. Read More

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Distinct Roles of Hemocytes at Different Stages of Infection by Dengue and Zika Viruses in Mosquitoes.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:660873. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

mosquitoes are vectors for arboviruses of medical importance such as dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. Different innate immune pathways contribute to the control of arboviruses in the mosquito vector including RNA interference, Toll and Jak-STAT pathways. However, the role of cellular responses mediated by circulating macrophage-like cells known as hemocytes remains unclear. Read More

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Transmission of cell-associated human cytomegalovirus isolates between various cell types using polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a vehicle.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Institute for Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are regarded as vehicles for the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In cell culture, this concept has been validated with cell-free laboratory strains but not yet with clinical HCMV isolates that grow strictly cell-associated. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate whether PMNs can also transmit such isolates from initially infected fibroblasts to other cell types, which might further clarify the role of PMNs in HCMV dissemination and provide a model to search for potential inhibitors. Read More

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The population structure of lychnis mottle virus based on the RNA2 coding sequences.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 3:198468. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas System, Fayetteville, AR 72701. Electronic address:

Lychnis mottle virus (LycMoV), family Secoviridae, is one of several viruses recently detected in peony. Given the high prevalence of the virus in the more than 300 samples tested, the population structure of the virus was studied using 48 isolates representing at least 20 cultivars and collected from major producing and propagating states in the United States. The homogeneity of the United States population, based on data from the RNA2 coding region, along with phylogenetic analyses of all publicly available sequences point to the dissemination of the virus through propagation material rather that active vector-mediated transmission. Read More

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The folate antagonist methotrexate diminishes replication of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and enhances the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir in cell culture models.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 3:198469. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Molecular Oncology, Göttingen Center of Molecular Biosciences (GZMB), University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The search for successful therapies of infections with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is ongoing. We tested inhibition of host cell nucleotide synthesis as a promising strategy to decrease the replication of SARS-CoV-2-RNA, thus diminishing the formation of virus progeny. Methotrexate (MTX) is an established drug for cancer therapy and to induce immunosuppression. Read More

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Structural dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a health monitoring strategy for anticipating Covid-19 outbreaks.

J Infect 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

INSERM UMR_S 1072, 13015 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, 13015 Marseille, France.

Objectives: The Covid-19 pandemic has been marked by sudden outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in both the N-terminal (NTD) and receptor binding (RBD) domains of the spike protein. The goal of this study was to predict the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants from genomic sequence data.

Methods: We used a target-based molecular modeling strategy combined with surface potential analysis of the NTD and RBD. Read More

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Implementation of the ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) protocol for colorectal cancer surgery in the Piemonte Region with an Audit and Feedback approach: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial: a study of the EASY-NET project.

BMJ Open 2021 06 3;11(6):e047491. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit and CPO Piemonte, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Introduction: The ERAS protocol (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) is a multimodal pathway aimed to reduce surgical stress and to allow a rapid postoperative recovery. Application of the ERAS protocol to colorectal cancer surgery has been limited to a minority of hospitals in Italy. To promote the systematic adoption of ERAS in the entire regional hospital network in Piemonte an Audit and Feedback approach (A&F) has been adopted together with a cluster randomised trial to estimate the true impact of the protocol on a large, unselected population. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric patients with cancer in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries: protocol for a multicentre, international, observational cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 06 2;11(6):e045679. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Childhood cancers are a leading cause of non-communicable disease deaths for children around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted on global children's cancer services, which can have consequences for childhood cancer outcomes. The Global Health Research Group on Children's Non-Communicable Diseases is currently undertaking the first international cohort study to determine the variation in paediatric cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the short-term to medium-term impacts on childhood cancer outcomes. Read More

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Complex Roles of Neutrophils during Arboviral Infections.

Cells 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5900, USA.

Arboviruses are known to cause large-scale epidemics in many parts of the world. These arthropod-borne viruses are a large group consisting of viruses from a wide range of families. The ability of their vector to enhance viral pathogenesis and transmission makes the development of treatments against these viruses challenging. Read More

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Online Videos as a Source of Physiotherapy Exercise Tutorials for Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation-A Quality Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

During the last few decades the prevalence of lumbar disc herniation has been increasing constantly, thereby imposing a significant socioeconomic burden. Physiotherapy plays a crucial role in both surgical and conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation, consequently the current COVID-19 pandemic with concomitant lockdowns has led to a shortage of physiotherapeutical care. In the light of these recent events publicly available physiotherapy tutorials may be a useful tool to address this problem. Read More

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Response of a Radiology Department to the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: The Experience of the Hospital "Policlinico Tor Vergata" in Rome.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 14;18(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via di Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

The dissemination of severe acute respiratory syndrome linked to the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, prompted all health services to provide adequate measures to limit new cases that could affect healthcare professionals. Due to the large number of suspected patients subjected to CT scans and the proximity of radiologists to the patient during exams, radiologists as well as the entire staff of the radiology department are particularly exposed to SARS-CoV-2. This article includes the emergency management procedures, the use of personal protective devices, and the rearrangement of exam rooms and of human resources in the department of radiology at "Policlinico Tor Vergata" in Rome performed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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Diagnostic Performance of Ag-RDTs and NAAT for SARS-CoV2 Identification in Symptomatic Patients in Catalonia.

Viruses 2021 05 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Sub-Directorate General of Surveillance and Response to Public Health Emergencies, Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Generalitat of Catalonia, 08005 Barcelona, Spain.

The use of rapid antigenic tests (Ag-RDTs) to diagnose a SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a common practice recently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of Abbott Panbio Ag-RDTs with regard to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) in the early stages of the disease. A cohort of 149,026 infected symptomatic patients, reported in Catalonia from November 2020 to January 2021, was selected. Read More

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The Emerging Role of Liquid Biopsy in Gastric Cancer.

J Clin Med 2021 May 13;10(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa 1560, Ethiopia.

(1) Background: Liquid biopsy (LB) is a novel diagnostic method with the potential of revolutionizing the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several solid tumors. The present paper aims to summarize the current knowledge and explore future possibilities of LB in the management of metastatic gastric cancer. (2) Methods: This narrative review examined the most recent literature on the use of LB-based techniques in metastatic gastric cancer and the current LB-related clinical trial landscape. Read More

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Diverse Immunological Factors Influencing Pathogenesis in Patients with COVID-19: A Review on Viral Dissemination, Immunotherapeutic Options to Counter Cytokine Storm and Inflammatory Responses.

Pathogens 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India.

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still not fully unraveled. Though preventive vaccines and treatment methods are out on the market, a specific cure for the disease has not been discovered. Recent investigations and research studies primarily focus on the immunopathology of the disease. Read More

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Regulation of the Macroautophagic Machinery, Cellular Differentiation, and Immune Responses by Human Oncogenic γ-Herpesviruses.

Christian Münz

Viruses 2021 05 8;13(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratory of Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

The human γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encode oncogenes for B cell transformation but are carried by most infected individuals without symptoms. For this purpose, they manipulate the anti-apoptotic pathway macroautophagy, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, as well as immune recognition. The mechanisms and functional relevance of these manipulations are discussed in this review. Read More

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Avian Influenza in Wild Birds and Poultry: Dissemination Pathways, Monitoring Methods, and Virus Ecology.

Pathogens 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Life Sciences Research Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudniy, Russia.

Avian influenza is one of the largest known threats to domestic poultry. Influenza outbreaks on poultry farms typically lead to the complete slaughter of the entire domestic bird population, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Moreover, there are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains that are able to infect the swine or human population in addition to their primary avian host and, as such, have the potential of being a global zoonotic and pandemic threat. Read More

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Co-Circulation of Bovine Leukemia Virus Haplotypes among Humans, Animals, and Food Products: New Insights of Its Zoonotic Potential.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 4;18(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Laboratorio de Virología, Departamento de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota 110231, Colombia.

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of leukemia/lymphoma in cattle. It has been found in humans and cattle-derived food products. In humans, it is described as a potential risk factor for breast cancer development. Read More

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Health Anxiety and Its Correlations with Self-Perceived Risk and Attitude on COVID-19 among Malaysian Healthcare Workers during the Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 3;18(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to health-related anxiety in times of pandemic as they are considered to have a high risk of being infected whilst being the vital workforce to manage the outbreak. This study determined the factors that influence health anxiety and its extent in correlations with perceived risk, knowledge, attitude, and practice of HCW. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted on a total of 709 HCW from both public and private healthcare facilities who completed a set of questionnaires on sociodemographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practice of HCW on COVID-19, and health anxiety traits assessed using the short version Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on happiness and stress: comparison of preclinical and clinical medical students.

Korean J Med Educ 2021 Jun 26;33(2):75-85. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Purpose: To compare differences in happiness and stress and related factors between pre-clinical and clinical year medical students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. All undergraduate medical students were requested to voluntarily respond to an electronic survey. Read More

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Molecular Features of the Measles Virus Viral Fusion Complex That Favor Infection and Spread in the Brain.

mBio 2021 Jun 1:e0079921. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center for Host-Pathogen Interaction, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Measles virus (MeV) bearing a single amino acid change in the fusion protein (F)-L454W-was isolated from two patients who died of MeV central nervous system (CNS) infection. This mutation in F confers an advantage over wild-type virus in the CNS, contributing to disease in these patients. Using murine organotypic brain cultures and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids, we show that CNS adaptive mutations in F enhance the spread of virus . Read More

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Poly-L-lysine Glycoconjugates Inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated Attachment of Pandemic Viruses.

ChemMedChem 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

University of Basel: Universitat Basel, Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4056, Basel, SWITZERLAND.

The C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN mediates interactions with envelope glycoproteins of many viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, ebola, and HIV and contributes to virus internalization and dissemination. In the context of the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, involvement of DC-SIGN has been linked to severe cases of COVID-19. Inhibition of the interaction between DC-SIGN and viral glycoproteins has the potential to generate broad spectrum antiviral agents. Read More

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Promising drug repurposing approach targeted for cytokine storm implicated in SARS-CoV-2 complications.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 May 31:1-15. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Drug Radiation Research, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

A global threat has emerged in 2019 due to the rapid spread of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). As of January 2021, the number of cases worldwide reached 103 million cases and 2.22 million deaths which were confirmed as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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A comparative analysis on risk communication between international and Chinese literature from the perspective of knowledge domain visualization.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 May 28;26(1):60. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Management, Weifang Medical University, No. 7166 Baotong West Street, Weifang, 261053, Shandong, China.

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives at the end of 2019. Risk communication plays an important role in the response to it successfully, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of risk communication research is necessary, which can understand current research hotspots and reveal new trends. Read More

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