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Antibacterial Activity in Iodine-coated Implants Under Conditions of Iodine Loss: Study in a Rat Model Plus In Vitro Analysis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

K. Ueoka, T. Kabata, Y. Kajino, D. Inoue, T. Takagi, T. Ohmori, J. Yoshitani, T. Ueno, Y. Yamamuro, A. Taninaka, H. Tsuchiya, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Background: We developed iodine-coated titanium implants to suppress microbial activity and prevent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI); their efficacy was demonstrated in animal and in vitro models. The iodine content in iodine-coated implants naturally decreases in vivo. However, to our knowledge, the effect of reduced iodine content on the implant's antimicrobial activity has not been evaluated to date. Read More

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Social and ethnic disparities in stillbirth and infant death in Denmark, 2005-2016.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):8001. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, Postbox 2099, 1014, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Ethnic disparity in stillbirth and infant death has been demonstrated in Europe. As the relation between migration and health change over time, this population based register study investigated the recent figures and explored if potential differences could be explained by the well-known educational and income inequalities in stillbirth and infant death using a novel approach. Stillbirth and infant mortality varied considerably according to country of origin, with only immigrants from China, Norway, and Poland having an overall lower risk than Danish women. Read More

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Multisubstituted pyrimidines effectively inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7931. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, (Viikinkaari 5 E), FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms that generally attach to surfaces in a self-produced matrix. Unlike planktonic cells, biofilms can withstand conventional antibiotics, causing significant challenges in the healthcare system. Currently, new chemical entities are urgently needed to develop novel anti-biofilm agents. Read More

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Empagliflozin Inhibits Proximal Tubule NHE3 Activity, Preserves GFR, and Restores Euvolemia in Nondiabetic Rats with Induced Heart Failure.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute (InCor), University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Background: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure (HF) mortality and morbidity, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying this benefit remain unclear. Experiments with nondiabetic HF rats tested the hypothesis that the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (EMPA) inhibits proximal tubule (PT) NHE3 activity and improves renal salt and water handling.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction or sham operation. Read More

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Compound FC-10696 Inhibits Egress of Marburg Virus.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Marburg virus (MARV) VP40 protein (mVP40) directs egress and spread of MARV, in part, by recruiting specific host WW-domain containing proteins via its conserved PPxY Late (L) domain motif to facilitate efficient virus-cell separation. We reported previously that small molecule compounds targeting the viral PPxY/host WW-domain interaction inhibited VP40-mediated egress and spread. Here, we report on the antiviral potency of novel compound FC-10696, which emerged from extensive structure activity relationship (SAR) of a previously described series of PPxY inhibitors. Read More

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High-salt diet downregulates TREM2 expression and blunts efferocytosis of macrophages after acute ischemic stroke.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 12;18(1):90. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, Mental and Neurological Disease Research Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, People's Republic of China.

Background: A high-salt diet (HSD) is one of the major risk factors for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). As a potential mechanism, surplus salt intake primes macrophages towards a proinflammatory phenotype. In this study, whether HSD could blunt the efferocytic capability of macrophages after ischemic stroke, thus exacerbating post-stroke neural inflammation, was investigated. Read More

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Psychosocial, Functional, and Emotional Correlates of Long-Term Opioid Use in Patients with Chronic Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

Pain Ther 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: The opiate epidemic has severe medical and social consequences. Opioids are commonly prescribed in patients with chronic pain, and are a main contributor to the opiate epidemic. The adverse effects of long-term opioid usage have been studied primarily in dependence/addiction disorders, but not in chronic pain. Read More

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Higher mortality of the less suitable brown trout host compared to the principal Atlantic salmon host when infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Postboks 5685 Torgarden, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.

The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is a highly host-specific parasite, with an obligate parasitic stage on salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. trutta and Salmo trutta f. Read More

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Aging-associated skeletal muscle defects in HER2/Neu transgenic mammary tumor model.

JCSM Rapid Commun 2021 Jan-Jun;4(1):24-39. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Background: Loss of skeletal muscle volume and resulting in functional limitations are poor prognostic markers in breast cancer patients. Several molecular defects in skeletal muscle including reduced MyoD levels and increased protein turn over due to enhanced proteosomal activity have been suggested as causes of skeletal muscle loss in cancer patients. However, it is unknown whether molecular defects in skeletal muscle are dependent on tumor etiology. Read More

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Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion and Diabetes: Lessons Learned From Bedside to Bench.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:660698. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Laboratoire CarMeN-équipe IRIS, INSERM, INRA, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, INSA-Lyon, Univ-Lyon, Bron, France.

In front of the failure to translate from bench to bedside cardioprotective drugs against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, research scientists are currently revising their animal models. Owing to its growing incidence nowadays, type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents one of the main risk factors of co-morbidities in myocardial infarction. However, discrepancies exist between reported animal and human studies. Read More

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High-Frequency Alternating Current Block Using Macro-Sieve Electrodes: A Pilot Study.

Cureus 2021 Mar 6;13(3):e13728. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.

Background and objective High-frequency alternating current (HFAC) can yield a rapid-acting and reversible nerve conduction block. The present study aimed to demonstrate the successful implementation of HFAC block delivery via regenerative macro-sieve electrodes (MSEs). Methods Dual-electrode assemblies in two configurations [dual macro-sieve electrode-1 (DMSE-I), DMSE-II] were fabricated from pairs of MSEs and implanted in the transected and subsequently repaired sciatic nerves of two male Lewis rats. Read More

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Glomerular Immune Deposition in MPO-ANCA Associated Glomerulonephritis Is Associated With Poor Renal Survival.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:625672. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is typically characterized as pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. However, immune complex (IC) deposition in the glomerulus has been reported in a growing number of studies. Here, we assess the presence of glomerular immune deposits alongside renal outcome in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA associated glomerulonephritis (MPO-ANCA GN). Read More

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The Effects of a 10-Week Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control in Elite Youth Competitive Ballroom Dancers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:636209. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Arts School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.

The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a 10-week neuromuscular training (NMT) program on the postural control of elite youth competitive ballroom dancers. Forty-two dancers (21 couples) were randomly assigned to either the NMT group ( = 22) or the control group (CG; = 20). Participants in NMT underwent a three-sessions-per-week NMT program for 10 weeks. Read More

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Loss of Function of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis and Increases Fracture Risk in Humans.

Bone 2021 Apr 7:115946. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, Maine, USA, 04074; Center for Bone Biology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232; USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232; USA. Electronic address:

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in lysosomes. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LAL-D), either Wolman Disease or Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic neutral lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Read More

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Comprehensive assessment of humoral response after Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccination: a three-case series.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objectives: Since universal vaccination is a pillar against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), monitoring anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies is essential for deciphering post-vaccination immune response.

Methods: Three healthcare workers received 30 μg BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Pfizer Vaccine, followed by a second identical dose, 21 days afterwards. Venous blood was drawn at baseline and at serial intervals, up to 63 days afterwards, for assessing total immunoglobulins (Ig) anti-RBD (receptor binding domain), anti-S1/S2 and anti-RBD IgG, anti-RBD and anti-N/S1 IgM, and anti-S1 IgA. Read More

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The pleiotropic beneficial intervention of olive oil intake on the Alzheimer's disease onset via fibrinolytic system.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 6:111344. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Emeritus Professor of Hematology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Health Sciences, Greece.

The daily consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Mediterranean nutrition is tightly associated with lower frequency of many diseases' appearance, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fibrinolytic system is already assumed to be involved in AD pathophysiology through various factors, especially plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a2-antiplasmin (α2ΑP) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We, here, present a biochemical study, as a continuation of a clinical trial of a cohort of 84 participants, focusing on the pleiotropic effect of the annual EVOO consumption on the fibrinolytic factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. Read More

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The association of infant temperament and maternal sensitivity in preterm and full-term infants.

Infant Ment Health J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Infants who experience sensitive caregiving are at lower risk for numerous adverse outcomes. This is especially true for infants born preterm, leading them to be more susceptible to risks associated with poorer quality caregiving. Some research suggests that preterm and full-term infants differ on temperament, which may contribute to these findings. Read More

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Ankle fractures involving the posterior malleolus: patient characteristics and 7-year results in 100 cases.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University Center of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Introduction: The presence of a posterior malleolar (PM) fragment has a negative prognostic impact in ankle fractures. The best treatment is still subject to debate. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-to-long-term clinical and functional outcome of ankle fractures with a PM fragment in a larger patient population. Read More

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How Children with Congenital Limb Deficiencies Visually Attend to Their Limbs and Prostheses: Eye Tracking of Displayed Still Images and Visuospatial Body Knowledge.

Dev Neurorehabil 2021 Apr 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

: This study aimed to clarify how children with congenital limb deficiencies visually attend to their bodies, particularly their limbs and prostheses.: Participants included children with and without congenital limb deficiencies. They were shown photographs of themselves and their visual attention was measured using an eye tracker. Read More

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Couples' co-regulation dynamics as a function of perceived partner dyadic coping.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Apr 9:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ, USA.

Background And Objectives: Perceptions of partners' dyadic coping (DC) behaviors are associated with lower stress and higher relationship well-being. Albeit well-documented, these associations have predominately relied on cross-sectional data, overlooking temporal associations during conversations of mutual stress. Based on the systemic transactional model of DC [Bodenmann, G. Read More

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Influence of Age and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus on Serological Test for Celiac Disease in Children.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2021 Mar 4;24(2):218-229. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA.

Purpose: Serological tests of tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and deamidated gliadin (DGP) antibodies for celiac disease diagnosis show conflicting correlation with histology in young children and in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Tests' ability to predict histology and cutoff values based on age and T1DM was evaluated.

Methods: A retrospective study of children who had celiac serological tests between 6/1/2002 and 12/31/2014 at a pediatric hospital. Read More

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Neurophysiologic Profiling of At-Risk Low and Very Low Birth-Weight Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Authors:
Ying Qi Jingni He

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:638868. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Low birth-weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) newborns have increased risks of brain injuries, growth failure, motor difficulties, developmental coordination disorders or delay, and adult-onset vascular diseases. However, relatively little is known of the neurobiologic underpinnings. To clarify the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of such neonates, we applied several advanced techniques for assessing brain physiology, namely T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Read More

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The association of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) with hippocampal volume in schizophrenia: a preliminary MRI study.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) are enzymes involved in regulating neuroplasticity in the hippocampus. This, combined with evidence for disrupted hippocampal structure and function in schizophrenia, has prompted our current investigation into the relationship between MMP9 and hippocampal volumes in schizophrenia. 34 healthy individuals (mean age = 32. Read More

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Gene expression profiles of YAP1, TAZ, CRB3, and VDR in familial and sporadic multiple sclerosis among an Iranian population.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7713. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Isfahan Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Alterations in the regulatory mechanisms that control the process of myelination in the nervous system, may lead to the impaired myelination in the Multiple sclerosis. The Hippo pathway is an important mediator of myelination in the nervous system and might contribute to the pathophysiology of MS. This study examined via qPCR the RNA expression of YAP1, TAZ, and CRB3 as the key effectors of the Hippo pathway and also, VDR in the peripheral blood of 35 sporadic, 37 familial MS patients; and also 34 healthy first-degree relatives of the familial MS patients (HFR) and 40 healthy individuals without a family history of the disease (control). Read More

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Accuracy of the highly sensitive C-reactive protein/albumin ratio to determine disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25200

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Abstract: Persistent disease activity is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to explore the accuracy of the highly sensitive C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) in determining IBD activity.The clinical data of 231 IBD patients treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2012 to 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

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Higher heating value, exergy, pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic analysis of ultrasound-assisted deep eutectic solvent pretreated watermelon rind biomass.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 27;332:125040. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

The higher heating value (HHV) and exergy of ultrasound-assisted deep eutectic solvent pretreated watermelon rind (WMR) biomass were investigated. Thereafter, the co-pyrolysis of the WMR biomass and coal blends was studied. The pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the WMR-coal blends were determined using four isoconversional models (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman and Starink). Read More

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Assessment of aversive effects of methylone in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats: Conditioned taste avoidance, body temperature and activity/stereotypies.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 5:106977. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Center for Neuroscience and Behavior, Department of Neuroscience, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, D.C 20016, USA. Electronic address:

Methylone's rewarding effects have been well characterized; however, little is known about its aversive effects and how such effects may be impacted by sex. In this context, the present study investigated the aversive effects of methylone (vehicle, 5.6, 10 or 18 mg/kg, IP) in 35 male and 31 female Sprague-Dawley rats assessed by conditioned taste avoidance and changes in body temperature and activity/stereotypies. Read More

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Comparison of a one-step real-time RT-PCR and a nested real-time RT-PCR for a genogroup II norovirus reveals differences in sensitivity depending upon assay design and visualization.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248581. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Bioprocessing Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and a major source of foodborne illness. Detection of NoV in food and environmental samples is typically performed using molecular techniques, including real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and less frequently, nested real-time PCR. In this study, we conducted a controlled comparison of two published NoV detection assays: a broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR and a two-step nested real-time PCR assay. Read More

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Genomic characterization of small cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.

Mol Oncol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix is a rare and aggressive form of neuroendocrine carcinoma, which resembles small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in its histology and poor survival rate. Here we sought to define the genetic underpinning of SCCs of the uterine cervix and compare their mutational profiles with those of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, HPV-positive cervical carcinomas and SCLCs using publicly available data. Using a combination of whole-exome and targeted massively parallel sequencing, we found that the nine uterine cervix SCCs, which were HPV18-positive (n=8) or HPV16-positive (n=1), harbored a low mutation burden, few copy number alterations and other than TP53 in two cases no recurrently mutated genes. Read More

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