37 results match your criteria disperse fire

How fire interacts with habitat loss and fragmentation.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne Burwood Campus, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC, 3125, Australia.

Biodiversity faces many threats and these can interact to produce outcomes that may not be predicted by considering their effects in isolation. Habitat loss and fragmentation (hereafter 'fragmentation') and altered fire regimes are important threats to biodiversity, but their interactions have not been systematically evaluated across the globe. In this comprehensive synthesis, including 162 papers which provided 274 cases, we offer a framework for understanding how fire interacts with fragmentation. Read More

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February 2021

Plant functional types determine how close postfire seedlings are from their parents in a species-rich shrubland.

Ann Bot 2021 02;127(3):381-395

School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background And Aims: Fine-scale spatial patterns of the seedlings of co-occurring species reveal the relative success of reproduction and dispersal and may help interpret coexistence patterns of adult plants. To understand whether postfire community dynamics are controlled by mathematical, biological or environmental factors, we documented seedling-adult (putative parent) distances for a range of co-occurring species. We hypothesized that nearest-seedling-to-adult distances should be a function of the distance between the closest conspecific seedlings, closest inter-adult distances and seedling-to-parent ratios, and also that these should scale up in a consistent way from all individuals, to within and between species and finally between functional types (FTs). Read More

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February 2021

Purinergic signaling in cochlear supporting cells reduces hair cell excitability by increasing the extracellular space.

Elife 2020 01 8;9. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

The Solomon Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

Neurons in developing sensory pathways exhibit spontaneous bursts of electrical activity that are critical for survival, maturation and circuit refinement. In the auditory system, intrinsically generated activity arises within the cochlea, but the molecular mechanisms that initiate this activity remain poorly understood. We show that burst firing of mouse inner hair cells prior to hearing onset requires P2RY1 autoreceptors expressed by inner supporting cells. Read More

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January 2020

Geochemical Evidence for the Control of Fire by Middle Palaeolithic Hominins.

Sci Rep 2019 10 25;9(1):15368. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

The use of fire played an important role in the social and technological development of the genus Homo. Most archaeologists agree that this was a multi-stage process, beginning with the exploitation of natural fires and ending with the ability to create fire from scratch. Some have argued that in the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) hominin fire use was limited by the availability of fire in the landscape. Read More

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October 2019

Comparative landscape genetics reveals the evolution of viviparity reduces genetic connectivity in fire salamanders.

Mol Ecol 2019 10 15;28(20):4573-4591. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos da Universidade do Porto, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias de Vairão, Vairão, Portugal.

Evolutionary changes in reproductive mode may affect co-evolving traits, such as dispersal, although this subject remains largely underexplored. The shift from aquatic oviparous or larviparous reproduction to terrestrial viviparous reproduction in some amphibians entails skipping the aquatic larval stage and, thus, greater independence from water. Accordingly, amphibians exhibiting terrestrial viviparous reproduction may potentially disperse across a wider variety of suboptimal habitats and increase population connectivity in fragmented landscapes compared to aquatic-breeding species. Read More

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October 2019

Construction of Hierarchical Natural Fabric Surface Structure Based on Two-Dimensional Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Its Application for Preparing Biobased Toughened Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Nov 6;10(46):40168-40179. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Fire Science , University of Science and Technology of China , 96 Jinzhai Road , Hefei , Anhui 230026 , PR China.

It has been a big challenge to prepare the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites with good fire safety, interfacial quality, and impact strength in an environmentally friendly way. In this study, to improve interfacial performance of fabric-reinforced UPR composites, nontoxic two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets were assembled on the surface of ramie fabrics, where sodium alginate acts as a green dispersant to disperse h-BN sheets during the process. Then, the biobased phosphorus-containing toughening agent (PCTA) was synthesized to simultaneously improve the impact strength and fire safety of the composite. Read More

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November 2018

Isospora sagittulae McQuistion & Capparella, 1992 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest of Brazil: with notes on its distribution and dispersion in the Neotropical region.

Parasitol Res 2018 Aug 9;117(8):2635-2641. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Departamento de Biologia Animal, ICBS, UFRRJ, BR-465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ, 23897-000, Brazil.

In the current study, Isospora sagittulae McQuistion and Capparella, 1992 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from white-shouldered fire-eyes Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818) in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. To date, this coccidian species was described from antbirds in Ecuador and Brazilian Amazon. In this sense, oocysts and measurements of the description of I. Read More

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Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.

Sci Rep 2018 02 28;8(1):3800. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Wildlife Health Ghent, Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Lack of disease spill-over between adjacent populations has been associated with habitat fragmentation and the absence of population connectivity. We here present a case which describes the absence of the spill-over of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) between two connected subpopulations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Based on neutrally evolving microsatellite loci, both subpopulations were shown to form a single genetic cluster, suggesting a shared origin and/or recent gene flow. Read More

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February 2018

Development of a Procedure for Evaluating the Impacts of the Accidental Emission of Hazardous Chemicals, Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Environ Manage 2019 04 4;63(4):486-494. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

The study aims at developing a process to evaluate the impacts of the accidental emission of hazardous chemicals. The proposed process consists of four basic steps: i) identifying risks/hazards; ii) development of the worst-case scenario; iii) simulating the emission and dispersion of the toxic chemicals; and iv) assessing the severity of the impact to the people and the surroundings. It makes use of different techniques including accidental release source term, atmospheric dispersion modeling and results in the concentration and extent of the toxic chemicals in the atmosphere for either the direct evaporation of toxic chemicals as a primary emission or the dispersion of toxic chemicals as a domino effect of a fire or explosion accident. Read More

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Pest categorisation of .

EFSA J 2017 Nov 3;15(11):e04999. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the six-toothed bark beetle, (Börner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Eurasia and recognised mainly as a pest of pine ( spp., in the pest's whole range) and spruce (mainly in Turkey and Georgia). Read More

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November 2017

Pest categorisation of .

EFSA J 2017 Oct 31;15(10):e05038. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the small spruce bark beetle, (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce ( spp.) and pine ( spp. Read More

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October 2017

Gondwanan conifer clones imperilled by bushfire.

Sci Rep 2016 Sep 26;6:33930. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.

Global increases in fire frequency driven by anthropogenic greenhouse emissions and land use change could threaten unique and ancient species by creeping into long-term fire refugia. The perhumid and mountainous western half of Tasmania is a globally important refugium for palaeo-endemic, fire intolerant lineages, especially conifers. Reproductive strategy will be crucial to the resilience of these organisms under warmer, dryer and more fire prone climates. Read More

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September 2016

Lidar measurements of solid rocket propellant fire particle plumes.

Appl Opt 2016 Jun;55(17):4657-69

This paper presents the first, to our knowledge, direct measurement of aerosol produced by an aluminized solid rocket propellant (SRP) fire on the ground. Such fires produce aluminum oxide particles small enough to loft high into the atmosphere and disperse over a wide area. These results can be applied to spacecraft launchpad accidents that expose spacecraft to such fires; during these fires, there is concern that some of the plutonium from the spacecraft power system will be carried with the aerosols. Read More

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Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

Ecology 2014 Aug;95(8):2033-9

Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. Read More

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[Effects of different surface conditioning agents on the bond strength of resin-opaque porcelain composite].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2014 Apr;31(2):361-4

The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. Read More

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Breed locally, disperse globally: fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist.

PLoS One 2013 25;8(6):e67248. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America.

An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic structuring or how this changes over time in ephemeral patches. Read More

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February 2014

An experimental test of insect-mediated colonisation of damaged Pinus radiata trees by sapstain fungi.

PLoS One 2013 6;8(2):e55692. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute), Christchurch, New Zealand.

Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause 'sapstain' discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Read More

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Landscape genetics of an early successional specialist in a disturbance-prone environment.

Mol Ecol 2013 Mar 4;22(5):1267-81. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Species that specialize in disturbed habitats may have considerably different dispersal strategies than those adapted to more stable environments. However, little is known of the dispersal patterns and population structure of such species. This information is important for conservation because many postfire specialists are at risk from anthropogenic changes to natural disturbance regimes. Read More

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[Sudden death caused by a less lethal weapon chest-wall injury (Commotio cordis)].

Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2012 May 8;31(5):469-71. Epub 2012 Apr 8.

Unité de réanimation polyvalente, hôpital d'instruction des armées Laveran, 13, boulevard Alphonse-Laveran, 13013 Marseille, France.

Less lethal weapons, like Flashball, are more and more used since 1995 in law enforcement, even by the local police to neutralize combative individuals and to disperse riot crowds. This gun fires large rubber bullets and has been incriminated many times in cases of face injuries with functional consequences. In this case report, we mention a case of sudden death from cardiac arrest due to low energy chest wall impact of a rubber bullet shot with the Flashball. Read More

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Effect of nano anhydrous magnesium carbonateon fire-retardant performance of polylactic acid/bamboo fibers composites.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 Dec;11(12):10620-3

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, 498 Shaoshan South Road, Changsha 410004, China.

Polylactic acid/bamboo fibers (PLA/BF) composites, which are extremely flammable, must be carried out fire-retardant processing. However, traditional organic flame retardants release certain amount of pollutant to the environment, and inorganic flame retardants require more addition, which influenced the mechanical properties of composites. Therefore, nano inorganic flame retardants, which have some characteristics of small size, uniform shape and high specific surface area, can bring good flame-retardant effect with relatively few addition. Read More

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December 2011

The transition from isolated patches to a metapopulation in the eastern collared lizard in response to prescribed fires.

Ecology 2011 Sep;92(9):1736-47

Department of Biology, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899, USA.

Habitat fragmentation often arises from human-induced alterations to the matrix that reduce or eliminate dispersal between habitat patches. Elimination of dispersal increases local extinction and decreases recolonization. These phenomena were observed in the eastern collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris collaris), which lives in the mid-continental highland region of the Ozarks (Missouri, USA) on glades: habitats of exposed bedrock that form desert-like habitats imbedded in a woodland matrix. Read More

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September 2011

Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

Gervase Phillips

J Interdiscip Hist 2011 ;41(4):565-90

The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Read More

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The organization of foraging in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

J Insect Sci 2011 ;11:26

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4370, USA.

Although natural selection in ants acts most strongly at the colony, or superorganismal level, foraging patterns have rarely been studied at that level, focusing instead on the behavior of individual foragers or groups of foragers. The experiments and observations in this paper reveal in broad strokes how colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), allocate their available labor to foraging, how they disperse that force within their territory, and how this force changes with colony size, season and worker age. Territory area is positively related to colony size and the number of foragers, more so during the spring than fall. Read More

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Fire increases variance in genetic characteristics of Florida Sand Skink (Plestiodon reynoldsi) local populations.

Mol Ecol 2011 Jan 19;20(1):56-66. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

Fire is a complex event that maintains many ecological systems. The Florida Sand Skink (Plestiodon reynoldsi) is precinctive to Florida Scrub, a habitat that is maintained by infrequent fire. We characterize the effect of fire on genetic diversity and genetic differentiation at eight microsatellite loci in the Florida Sand Skink (n=470) collected from 30 replicate sites over three 'time since last fire' categories at the Archbold Biological Station. Read More

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January 2011

Genetic connectivity and inter-population seed dispersal of Banksia hookeriana at the landscape scale.

Ann Bot 2010 Sep 19;106(3):457-66. Epub 2010 Jul 19.

Centre for Ecosystem Diversity and Dynamics, Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.

Background And Aims: Landscape genetics combines approaches from population genetics and landscape ecology, increasing the scope for conceptual advances in biology. Banksia hookeriana comprises clusters of individuals located on dune crests (geographical populations) physically separated by uninhabitable swales, with local extinctions common through frequent fire and/or severe drought.

Methods: A landscape genetics approach was used to explore landscape-scale genetic connectivity and structure among geographical populations of B. Read More

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September 2010

Mite-mediated hyperphoretic dispersal of Ophiostoma spp. from the infructescences of South African Protea spp.

Environ Entomol 2009 Feb;38(1):143-52

Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Ophiostomatoid fungi are well known as economically important pathogens and agents of timber degradation. A unique assemblage of these arthropod-associated organisms including species of Gondwanamyces G. J. Read More

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February 2009

Simulation of smoke plumes from agricultural burns: application to the San Luis/Rio Colorado airshed along the U.S./Mexico border.

Sci Total Environ 2007 Dec 21;388(1-3):270-89. Epub 2007 Sep 21.

Environmental Fluid Dynamics Program, Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9809, USA.

Vegetation fires emit a number of air pollutants, thus impacting air quality at local, regional and global scales. One such pollutant is the particulate matter (PM) that is known to trigger adverse health effects. In this study, the CALPUFF/CALMET/MM5 modeling system is employed to simulate PM(10) dispersion (PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) from agricultural fires in the Yuma/San Luis area along the U. Read More

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December 2007

Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

Mycorrhiza 2007 Sep 14;17(6):507-517. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. Read More

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September 2007

Injury pattern of the Flash-Ball, a less-lethal weapon used for law enforcement: report of two cases and review of the literature.

J Emerg Med 2006 Oct;31(3):325-30

Centre for Emergency Medicine, University of Lausanne Medical Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Less-lethal weapons are used in law enforcement to neutralize combative individuals and to disperse riot crowds. Local police recently used such an impact weapon, the Flash-Ball, in two different situations. This gun fires large rubber bullets with kinetic energies around 200 J. Read More

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October 2006

Consequence modeling using the fire dynamics simulator.

J Hazard Mater 2004 Nov;115(1-3):149-54

Packer Engineering Inc., 6700 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 100, Columbia, MD 21046, USA.

The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and in particular Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes to model fires provides an efficient tool for the prediction of large-scale effects that include plume characteristics, combustion product dispersion, and heat effects to adjacent objects. This paper illustrates the strengths of the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), an LES code developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through several small and large-scale validation runs and process safety applications. The paper presents two fire experiments--a small room fire and a large (15 m diameter) pool fire. Read More

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November 2004