103 results match your criteria disparities synthetic

Virtual view synthesis for 3D light-field display based on scene tower blending.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(5):7866-7884

Three-dimensional (3D) light-field display has achieved a great improvement. However, the collection of dense viewpoints in the real 3D scene is still a bottleneck. Virtual views can be generated by unsupervised networks, but the quality of different views is inconsistent because networks are separately trained on each posed view. Read More

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Development and Regulatory Challenges for Peptide Therapeutics.

Int J Toxicol 2021 Mar-Apr;40(2):108-124. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

4137Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Silver Spring, MD, USA.

There has been an increased interest in and activity for the use of peptide therapeutics to treat a variety of human diseases. The number of peptide drugs entering clinical development and the market has increased significantly over the past decade despite inherent challenges of peptide therapeutic discovery, development, and patient-friendly delivery. Disparities in interpretation and application of existing regulatory guidances to innovative synthetic and conjugated peptide assets have resulted in challenges for both regulators and sponsors. Read More

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December 2020

High-throughput wastewater analysis for substance use assessment in central New York during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 Nov 26;22(11):2147-2161. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.

Wastewater entering sewer networks represents a unique source of pooled epidemiological information. In this study, we coupled online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to achieve high-throughput analysis of health and lifestyle-related substances in untreated municipal wastewater during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-six substances were identified and quantified in influent samples collected from six wastewater treatment plants during the COVID-19 pandemic in central New York. Read More

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November 2020

The Astounding Breadth of Health Disparity: Phenome-Wide Effects of Race on Disease Risk.

J Natl Med Assoc 2021 Apr 18;113(2):187-194. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Office of Health Equity, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: We conducted a phenotype-wide association study (PheWAS) to compare diagnoses among Blacks with those of Whites in one health center in Tennessee using data from 1,883,369 patients.

Methods: We used our deidentified EHR, the Synthetic Derivative, to assess risk of diagnoses associated with Black as compared with White race using Firth logistic regression with covariates including age, sex, and density of clinical encounters.

Results: There were anchoring associations in both directions, including the highest increased risk for Blacks of having sickle cell anemia, and strongest decreased risk of basal cell carcinoma. Read More

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Motivations for opioid and stimulant use among drug using black sexual minority men: A life course perspective.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 10 6;215:108224. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, United States.

Introduction: HIV-related disparities persist among U.S. Black sexual minority men (BSMM). Read More

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October 2020

Increased Reporting of Sexual Minority Orientation from 2009 to 2017 in England and Implications for Measuring Sexual Minority Health Disparities.

LGBT Health 2020 10 30;7(7):393-400. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA.

Sexual minority adults experience considerable mental and physical health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, but changes in these disparities over time may, in part, reflect changes in how the same people self-identify their sexual orientation. Therefore, we estimated between-cohort and within-person changes in self-identified sexual orientation to better understand changes in sexual orientation-based health disparities over the life course. We examined 2009 to 2015 changes among 5712 adults 19-25 years of age from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) to validate a synthetic cohort approach applied to cross-sectional data on 1,168,346 adults 18-74 years of age ( = 29,677 sexual minority adults) from the General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS), estimating 2009 to 2017 changes in sexual orientation identification. Read More

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October 2020

Cosyntropin Attenuates Neuroinflammation in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 26;13:109. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, United States.

: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality/morbidity and is associated with chronic neuroinflammation. Melanocortin receptor agonists including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ameliorate inflammation and provide a novel therapeutic approach. We examined the effect of long-acting cosyntropin (CoSyn), a synthetic ACTH analog, on the early inflammatory response and functional outcome following experimental TBI. Read More

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Functional Analysis of the XerC and XerD Site-Specific Recombinases: Potential Role in Dissemination of Resistance Genes.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jul 13;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Center for Applied Biotechnology Studies, Department of Biological Science, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA.

Modules composed of a resistance gene flanked by Xer site-specific recombination sites, the vast majority of which were found in , are thought to behave as elements that facilitate horizontal dissemination. The and genes were cloned, and the recombinant clones used to complement the cognate mutants. The complemented strains supported the resolution of plasmid dimers, and, as is the case with and plasmids, the activity was enhanced when the cells were grown in a low osmolarity growth medium. Read More

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Crystal structures and the ferroelectric properties of homochiral metal-organic frameworks constructed from a single chiral ligand.

Dalton Trans 2020 Aug 14;49(30):10402-10406. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Physics of Rare Earth Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, P.R. China.

MOFs have proven to be promising candidates for designing ferroelectric materials. Herein, two new homochiral MOFs, Co-MOF-1 and Co-MOF-2, have been synthesized using the chiral ligand, HL (HL = phenyl-((pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-amino)-acetic acid), and Co(NO)·6HO. Co-MOF-1 was obtained via a two-step synthetic route involving a hydrogel to Zn-MOF conversion and a dissolution-recrystallization process. Read More

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Racial disparities in calculated risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a dataset.

Data Brief 2020 Jun 11;30:105674. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Newborn Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a severe pulmonary complication of prematurity and is associated with significant morbidity or death. Early use of systemic corticosteroids may alter the trajectory of the disease and improve outcomes. A BPD Outcomes estimator, developed by the NICHD using a large population dataset, can be used to calculate individual risk. Read More

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Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates at 6 Weeks Postpartum as a Function of Preconception Body Mass Index Are Not Impacted by Postpartum Obstetrical Practices or Routines.

Breastfeed Med 2020 07 15;15(7):458-464. Epub 2020 May 15.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Women with overweight/obesity have significantly lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 6 weeks postpartum compared with women of normal weight. We sought to determine whether differences in Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) adherence, obstetric practices, or social support explain these weight-related EBF disparities. One hundred forty-two healthy women who intended EBF (61 normal weight, 50 overweight, and 31 obese by preconception body mass index [BMI]) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Read More

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gammaBOriS: Identification and Taxonomic Classification of Origins of Replication in Gammaproteobacteria using Motif-based Machine Learning.

Sci Rep 2020 04 21;10(1):6727. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 6, D-35032, Marburg, Lahn, Germany.

The biology of bacterial cells is, in general, based on information encoded on circular chromosomes. Regulation of chromosome replication is an essential process that mostly takes place at the origin of replication (oriC), a locus unique per chromosome. Identification of high numbers of oriC is a prerequisite for systematic studies that could lead to insights into oriC functioning as well as the identification of novel drug targets for antibiotic development. Read More

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Re-prioritizing traffic stops to reduce motor vehicle crash outcomes and racial disparities.

Inj Epidemiol 2020 Jan 20;7(1). Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 123 W Franklin St, Chapel Hill, NC, 27516, USA.

Background: Law enforcement traffic stops are one of the most common entryways to the US justice system. Conventional frameworks suggest traffic stops promote public safety by reducing dangerous driving practices and non-vehicular crime. Law enforcement agencies have wide latitude in enforcement, including prioritization of stop types: (1) safety (e. Read More

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January 2020

Synthetic Chemicals and Cardiometabolic Health Across the Life Course Among Vulnerable Populations: a Review of the Literature from 2018 to 2019.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2020 03;7(1):30-47

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 111 TW Alexander Drive, MD A3-05, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Although vulnerable populations are disproportionately exposed to synthetic chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, few recent reviews have summarized the impact of synthetic chemicals on cardiometabolic health among these groups.

Recent Findings: Of 37 eligible epidemiological studies among vulnerable populations published between January 2018 and April 2019 in which over half were prospective, the most investigated populations were pregnant women and children. Racial/ethnic minorities, individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES), and those occupationally exposed were studied the least. Read More

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Synthetic Chemical Trade as a Potential Driver of Global Health Disparities and Data Gaps on Synthetic Chemicals in Vulnerable Populations.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2020 03;7(1):1-12

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Building 1, Room 1211, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Most research on toxic exposures in vulnerable populations focuses on air pollution. Synthetic chemical production, however, is a multi-billion-dollar industry that lacks appropriate international regulation to protect those exposed to toxic chemicals. This paper aims to describe the country-level import and export of key groups of synthetic chemicals using data from the United Nations Comtrade Database and provide a narrative review of the evidence from January 2018 to August 2019 on exposure to, health effects of, and interventions to reduce synthetic chemicals in vulnerable populations around the world. Read More

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Complex Generic Products: Insight of Current Regulatory Frameworks in US, EU and Canada and the Need of Harmonisation.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2020 09 20;54(5):991-1000. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Madhavnagar, Manipal, Udupi, Karnataka, 576104, India.

The regulatory agencies all over the world have defined the pathway and regulations for the approval of simple small-molecule generics. In addition, the agencies are striving to form perspicuous regulatory frameworks for the approval of biosimilars. In this view, there are no defined regulations for the approval of complex generics, also known as non-biological complex drugs (NBCDs). Read More

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September 2020

Increasing adolescent firearm homicides and racial disparities following Florida's 'Stand Your Ground' self-defence law.

Inj Prev 2020 04 20;26(2):187-190. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Social Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Establishing whether specific laws impact rates of firearm homicide in adolescents is critical for identifying opportunities to reduce preventable adolescent death. We evaluated Florida's Stand Your Ground law, enacted October 2005, using an interrupted time series design from 1999 to 2017. We used segmented quasi-Poisson regression to model underlying trends in quarterly rates of adolescent (15-19 years) firearm homicide in Florida and disaggregated by race (Black/White). Read More

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A Framework for Discovering Health Disparities among Cohorts in an Influenza Epidemic.

World Wide Web 2019 Nov 14;22(6):2997-3020. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech, Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Laboratory, Biocomplexity Institute of Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA.

Infectious diseases such as Influenza and Ebola pose a serious threat to everyone but certain demographics and cohorts face a higher risk of infection than others. This research provides a computational framework for studying health disparities among cohorts based on individual level features, such as age, gender, income, etc. We apply this framework to find health disparities among subpopulations in an influenza epidemic and evaluate vaccination prioritization strategies to achieve specific objectives. Read More

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November 2019

Sociodemographic factors as determinants of disease, disability and quality of life trajectories in early rheumatoid arthritis: A multi-ethnic inception cohort study.

Int J Rheum Dis 2020 Jan 19;23(1):55-64. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore City, Singapore.

Objective: This study aims to describe the association between sociodemographic factors and trajectories of disease, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA).

Methods: Data were collected prospectively over 3 years in the Singapore Early Arthritis Cohort study. Trajectories were modeled using multi-trajectory group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) and determinants of trajectory membership were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Read More

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January 2020

Environmental neglect: endocrine disruptors as underappreciated but potentially modifiable diabetes risk factors.

Diabetologia 2019 10 27;62(10):1811-1822. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Type 2 diabetes prevalence is increasing dramatically across the globe, imposing a tremendous toll on individuals and healthcare systems. Reversing these trends requires comprehensive approaches to address both classical and emerging diabetes risk factors. Recently, environmental toxicants acting as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have emerged as novel metabolic disease risk factors. Read More

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October 2019

Developing and Testing Electronic Health Record-Derived Caries Indices.

Caries Res 2019 5;53(6):650-658. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Caries indices, the basis of epidemiologic caries measures, are not easily obtained in clinical settings. This study's objective was to design, test, and validate an automated program (Valid Electronic Health Record Dental Caries Indices Calculator Tool [VERDICT]) to calculate caries indices from an electronic health record (EHR). Synthetic use case scenarios and actual patient cases of primary, mixed, and permanent dentition, including decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT/dmft) and tooth surfaces (DMFS/dmfs) were entered into the EHR. Read More

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Challenges in Creating a Mobile Digital Tutor for Clinical Communications Training.

Appl Hum Factors Ergon Conf 2019 28;785:237-248. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

CHI Systems, Inc., 2250 Hickory Rd, #150, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462, USA.

Doctor-patient communication is a crucial element in effective medical care, and the striking health disparities evident in patients with Type II Diabetes may in part be caused by physicians' difficulties in establishing effective communication with patients who differ from them racially, culturally, and economically. REPEAT (Realizing Enhanced Patient Encounters through Aiding and Training) is a digital tutor developed to help solve this problem. REPEAT teaches and coaches learners to improve their general and disparities-focused clinical communication skills using simulated encounters with computer-generated Synthetic Standardized Patients (SSPs) and augments experiential learning in virtual encounters by applying customized, context-sensitive, learner-focused scaffolding. Read More

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Early-life inequalities and biological ageing: a multisystem Biological Health Score approach in .

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 08 3;73(8):693-702. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK

Social position is known to play a role in the quality of ageing, notably through the stimulation/dysregulation of key physiological systems in response to external stresses. Using data from one wave of including 9088 participants, we defined, as an extension of the allostatic load, a synthetic Biological Health Score (BHS) capturing the wear-and-tear of four physiological systems (endocrine, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic systems) and two organs (liver and kidney). We used 16 established blood-derived biomarkers of these systems to calculate the BHS and explored the relative contribution of socioeconomic position to the BHS and its main components across age groups. Read More

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"Flakka" use among high school seniors in the United States.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 03 29;196:86-90. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Center for Research on Society and Health,Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Use of synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as "bath salts", has been associated with tens of thousands of emergency department visits in the US; however, few national studies have estimated prevalence of use and we know very little about use among adolescents. In this study we estimate prevalence and correlates of use of "Flakka" (alpha-PVP), a highly-potent "bath salt" associated with at least 80 deaths in the US.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 2016/2017 Monitoring the Future study, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the US (n = 3786). Read More

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Capping N-Donor Ligands Modulate the Magnetic Dynamics of Dy β-Diketonate Single-Ion Magnets with D Symmetry.

Chemistry 2019 Mar 29;25(15):3884-3892. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMOL), Universidad de Valencia, Paterna, 46980, Valencia, Spain.

A family of four mononuclear Dy β-diketonate complexes with formulas [Dy(tmhd) (Br -bpy) (1), [Dy(tmhd) (Br-bpy)] (2), [Dy(tmhd) (dppz)] (3), and [Dy(tmhd) (mcdpq)] (4) (tmhd=2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione, Br -bpy=5,5'-dibromo-2,2'-bipyridine, Br-bpy=5-bromo-2,2'-bipyridine, dppz=dipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, mcdpq=2-methoxyl-3-cyanodipyrido[3,2-f:2,3'-h]quinoxaline) were prepared by modifying the capping N-donor coligands. Dy centers in these complexes feature an N O octacoordinate environment with distorted square-antiprismatic D symmetry. Magnetic investigations evidenced single-ion magnet behavior in all complexes with energy barriers U of 42. Read More

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A Polydrug and Psychosocial Profile of Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in a New York City Community Sample, 2016-2017.

Subst Use Misuse 2019 7;54(2):282-287. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

a Social Solutions and Services Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research , Orangeburg , New York , USA.

Background: Epidemiologic reports available on synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have focused on sociodemographics, indicating high prevalence of SC use predominantly among white, relatively affluent, males. However, there is emerging evidence suggesting high SC prevalence among socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority males.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk correlates of SC use among psychosocial vulnerable communities. Read More

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December 2019

Using spatiotemporal models to generate synthetic data for public use.

Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2018 11 31;27:37-45. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States.

When agencies release public-use data, they must be cognizant of the potential risk of disclosure associated with making their data publicly available. This issue is particularly pertinent in disease mapping, where small counts pose both inferential challenges and potential disclosure risks. While the small area estimation, disease mapping, and statistical disclosure limitation literatures are individually robust, there have been few intersections between them. Read More

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November 2018

Rational modification of vanillin derivatives to stereospecifically destabilize sickle hemoglobin polymer formation.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2018 Oct 2;74(Pt 10):956-964. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 East Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23219, USA.

Increasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen represents a feasible and promising therapeutic approach for sickle cell disease by mitigating the primary pathophysiological event, i.e. the hypoxia-induced polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) and the concomitant erythrocyte sickling. Read More

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October 2018

Examining gender health inequalities in Europe using a Synthetic Health Indicator: the role of family policies.

Eur J Public Health 2019 04;29(2):254-259

Department of Applied Economics, University of Valladolid, Segovia, Spain.

Background: Family policies have been shown to affect men's and women's health throughout the European Union, though particularly in the case of women. This paper seeks to analyze this effect by creating two Synthetic Health Indicators (SHIs) differentiated by gender applying the P2 distance method. We also aim to compare the results obtained by means of our SHI and the Self-rated health (SRH) indicator, as it is the most common indicator used to approach individuals' health. Read More

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