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Methodological challenges for living systematic reviews conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic: a concept paper.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Evidence-based Oncology, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

Background: A living systematic review (LSR) is an emerging review type that makes use of continual updating. In the COVID-19 pandemic, we were confronted with a shifting epidemiological landscape, clinical uncertainties and evolving evidence. These unexpected challenges compelled us to amend standard LSR methodology. Read More

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September 2021

Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from extraintestinal infections in humans and from food-producing animals, in Italy: a "One Health" study.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Sep 12:106433. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; Department of Medicine-University of Udine and Clinical Risk Management and Performance Assessment Unit, Udine Healthcare and University Integrated Trust, Udine, Italy.

In recent years, Escherichia coli producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) have become a serious public health problem and food-producing animals (FPA) have been suggested as a potential reservoir/source. In this study, we aimed to compare ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from different sources. Read More

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September 2021

Real-Time SARS-CoV-2 Genotyping by High-Throughput Multiplex PCR Reveals the Epidemiology of the Variants of Concern in Qatar.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Complementing whole genome sequencing strategies with high-throughput multiplex RT-qPCR genotyping allows for more comprehensive and real-time tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. During the second and third waves of COVID-19 in Qatar, PCR genotyping, combined with Sanger sequencing of un-typeable samples, was employed to describe the epidemiology of the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. A total of 9792 nasopharyngeal PCR-positive samples collected between April-June 2021 were successfully genotyped, revealing the importation and transmission dynamics of these three variants in Qatar. Read More

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September 2021

Protection of BNT162b2 Vaccine Booster against Covid-19 in Israel.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

From the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Y.M.B.-O., R.M.), Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Y.G.), Hebrew University of Jerusalem (M.M.) and Israel Ministry of Health (O.B., S.A.-P., N.A.), Jerusalem, the Biostatistical and Biomathematical Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (L.F., A.H.), KI Research Institute, Kfar Malal (N.K., B.M.), and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (A.H.) - all in Israel.

Background: On July 30, 2021, the administration of a third (booster) dose of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) was approved in Israel for persons who were 60 years of age or older and who had received a second dose of vaccine at least 5 months earlier. Data are needed regarding the effect of the booster dose on the rate of confirmed coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) and the rate of severe illness.

Methods: We extracted data for the period from July 30 through August 31, 2021, from the Israeli Ministry of Health database regarding 1,137,804 persons who were 60 years of age or older and had been fully vaccinated (i. Read More

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September 2021

Adiponectin, leptin and resistin and the risk of dementia.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Adipokines are hormones secreted by adipose tissue with roles in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. Their dysregulation is suggested to contribute to the increased risk of dementia seen with midlife obesity, but longitudinal studies investigating this are scarce. We determined the association between plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin and resistin with the risk of dementia. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of machine learning methods for estimating case fatality ratios: An Ebola outbreak simulation study.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257005. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Machine learning (ML) algorithms are now increasingly used in infectious disease epidemiology. Epidemiologists should understand how ML algorithms behave within the context of outbreak data where missingness of data is almost ubiquitous.

Methods: Using simulated data, we use a ML algorithmic framework to evaluate data imputation performance and the resulting case fatality ratio (CFR) estimates, focusing on the scale and type of data missingness (i. Read More

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September 2021

Early Warning Diagnostics for Emerging Infectious Diseases in Developing into Late-Stage Pandemics.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York 10065, United States.

ConspectusThe spread of infectious diseases due to travel and trade can be seen throughout history, whether from early settlers or traveling businessmen. Increased globalization has allowed infectious diseases to quickly spread to different parts of the world and cause widespread infection. Posthoc analysis of more recent outbreaks-SARS, MERS, swine flu, and COVID-19-has demonstrated that the causative viruses were circulating through populations for days or weeks before they were first detected, allowing disease to spread before quarantines, contact tracing, and travel restrictions could be implemented. Read More

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September 2021

Historical, current, and emerging tools for identification and serotyping of Shigella.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratoire Microbiologie Santé et Environnement (LMSE), Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Tripoli, Lebanon.

The Shigella genus includes serious foodborne disease etiologic agents, with 4 species and 54 serotypes. Identification at species and serotype levels is a crucial task in microbiological laboratories. Nevertheless, the genetic similarity between Shigella spp. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of Primary CNS Lymphoma: Maximizing Clinical Benefit, Minimizing Neurotoxicity.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 Sep 15;23(11):132. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The optimal treatment for newly diagnosed and refractory or relapsed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is not fully defined. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current management strategies for newly diagnosed PCNSL as well as emerging treatments for refractory and relapsed disease.

Recent Findings: In recent decades, the incidence of PCNSL has increased in the elderly population. Read More

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September 2021

Post-traumatic stress disorder in refugee minors in an outpatient care center: prevalence and associated factors.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Due to their likelihood for experiencing a number of traumatic events, refugee minors have an increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the prevalence of PTSD in refugee children varies widely between studies, and it remains somewhat unclear what factors increase children's risk of PTSD. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD in a clinical outpatient sample of refugee minors, and to evaluate the association of different risk factors with a PTSD diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of hysterectomy on cardiovascular disease and different subtypes: a meta-analysis.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The School of Public Health of Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao, 266021, China.

Purpose: To explore the association between hysterectomy and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: Observational studies from eight databases and reference lists of relevant studies were systematically searched up to January 2021. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by the random-effects model. Read More

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September 2021

[Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma: role of radiotherapy].

Chirurg 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Campus Großhadern, LMU Klinikum, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, München, Deutschland.

Background: Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (RPS) include tumors of mesenchymal origin with overall well-defined histological subtypes and heterogenic prognosis. For the first time with the publication of the STRASS study, which investigated the value of neoadjuvant radiotherapy in primary RPS, there is phase III evidence for the use of radiotherapy.

Objective: The primary objective of the present article is to present the role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy in RPS since the publication of the STRASS study. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Clinical Course and Maintenance Drug Treatment of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Children During the First Years of Life. A Cohort Study from Eastern Germany.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department for Pediatric Cardiology, University of Leipzig-Heart Center, Strümpellstr. 39, 04289, Leipzig, Germany.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is considered the most common cause of arrhythmia in children and infants. Regarding the likelihood of a spontaneous resolution of SVTs during the first years of life, drug treatment aims to bridge the time until children 'grow out' out of the arrhythmia. The choice of antiarrhythmic agents and the planning of maintenance therapy are mainly based on clinical experience and retrospective single- and multi-institutional analyses and databases from all over the world approaching differently to this topic. Read More

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September 2021

Prospective study of clinical characteristics of melanoma patients with retinopathy caused by a high-dose interferon α-2b.

Melanoma Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Retinopathy is a rare side effect of interferon α-2b treatment. The goal of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical characteristics of Chinese patients with melanomas who developed retinopathy following high doses of interferon α-2b (HD-IFN) therapy. The study included 56 melanoma stage I-III patients that were treated with HD-IFN. Read More

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September 2021

Staphylococcus aureus infections in children.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Oct;34(5):510-518

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

Purpose Of Review: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common invasive bacterial pathogen infecting children in the U.S. and many parts of the world. Read More

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October 2021

The future of Clostridioides difficile diagnostics.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Oct;34(5):483-490

Division of Medical Microbiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Although the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile has changed, this organism continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review addresses current and future approaches to the diagnosis of C. difficile disease. Read More

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October 2021

Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Its Association With Mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Do Not Focus on Not Reliable Markers!

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Ambroise Paré Hospital, APHP, Boulogne-Billancourt, France, INSERM UMR 1018, Clinical Epidemiology Team, CESP, Université de Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France Joint Research Unit JCL-bioMérieux, EA 7426 « Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosupression » (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1-Hospices Civils de Lyon-bioMérieux), Lyon, France Anestesia and Critical Care Medicine Department, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France.

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September 2021

Deep Learning for Identification of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Media (Reddit and Twitter): Exploratory Analysis of Alcohol-Related Outcomes.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 15;23(9):e27314. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH, United States.

Background: Many social media studies have explored the ability of thematic structures, such as hashtags and subreddits, to identify information related to a wide variety of mental health disorders. However, studies and models trained on specific themed communities are often difficult to apply to different social media platforms and related outcomes. A deep learning framework using thematic structures from Reddit and Twitter can have distinct advantages for studying alcohol abuse, particularly among the youth in the United States. Read More

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September 2021

Physical therapists should play a greater role in managing patients with opioid use and opioid misuse.

Subst Abus 2021 Sep 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Program for Addiction Research, Clinical Care, Knowledge and Advocacy (PARCKA), Division of Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

The U.S. opioid crisis necessitates that health care providers of all types work collaboratively to manage patients taking prescription opioid medications and manage those who may be misusing prescription opioids. Read More

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September 2021

Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Recovered from Diseased Salmonids in China.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0033021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State Universitygrid.17088.36, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, causes great economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Recent molecular studies have uncovered important epidemiological and ecological aspects of this pathogen; however, such data are lacking for F. psychrophilum populations affecting aquaculture in China. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Validation of a Tool for the Prediction of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Colonization Persistence-the PREVENT Score.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0035621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens with increasing prevalence worldwide. Extensive hygiene measures have been established to prevent infection transmission in hospitals. Here, we developed a predictive score system (the dictive ancomycin-resistant erococci [PREVENT] score) to identify the clearance or persistence in patients with a history of VRE carrier status at readmission. Read More

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September 2021

Cigarette Smoking and Opium Use in Relation to the Oral Microbiota in Iran.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0013821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institutegrid.48336.3a, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Cigarettes and opium contain chemicals and particulate matter that may modify the oral microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the association between cigarette and opium use with the oral microbiota. A total of 558 participants were recruited from Iran between 2011 and 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Protective efficacy of rhesus adenovirus COVID-19 vaccines against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0097421. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has sparked intense interest in the rapid development of vaccines as well as animal models to evaluate vaccine candidates and to define immune correlates of protection. We recently reported a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus strain (MA10) with the potential to infect wild-type laboratory mice, driving high levels of viral replication in respiratory tract tissues as well as severe clinical and respiratory symptoms, aspects of COVID-19 disease in humans that are important to capture in model systems. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vaccines against MA10 challenge in mice. Read More

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September 2021

UK Healthcare Workers' Experiences of Major System Change in Elective Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Reflections on Rapid Service Adaptation.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Targeted Intervention, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the delivery of elective surgery in the United Kingdom. The majority of planned surgery was cancelled or postponed in March 2020 for the duration of the first wave of the pandemic. We investigated the experiences of staff responsible for delivering rapid changes to surgical services during the first wave of the pandemic in the United Kingdom, with the aim of developing lessons for future major systems change (MSC). Read More

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September 2021

Genetic variation in genes regulating skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodelling associated with weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. COPD patients with cachexia or weight loss have increased risk of death independent of body mass index (BMI) and lung function. We tested the hypothesis genetic variation is associated with weight loss in COPD using a genome-wide association study approach. Read More

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September 2021

Myocardial Dysfunction and Heart Failure in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have almost twice the risk of heart failure (HF) of patients without RA, even when adjusting for presence of ischemic heart disease. Moreover, RA patients remain at two-fold higher risk of mortality from HF compared to non-RA patients. These observations suggest that RA specific inflammatory pathways are significant contributors to this increased risk of HF. Read More

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September 2021

Development and evaluation of standardized pregnancy identification and trimester distribution algorithms in U.S. IBM MarketScan® Commercial and Medicaid data.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Value Evidence Outcomes Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Creation of new algorithms to identify pregnancies in automated health care claims databases is of public health importance, as it allows us to learn more about medication use and safety in a vulnerable population. Previous algorithms were largely created using international classification of disease codes, but despite the U.S. Read More

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September 2021

Non-pharmacological measures implemented in the setting of long-term care facilities to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections and their consequences: a rapid review.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 15;9:CD015085. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology (IBE), Chair of Public Health and Health Services Research, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Starting in late 2019, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, spread around the world. Long-term care facilities are at particularly high risk of outbreaks, and the burden of morbidity and mortality is very high among residents living in these facilities.

Objectives: To assess the effects of non-pharmacological measures implemented in long-term care facilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents, staff, and visitors. Read More

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September 2021

Differences in the skin microbial community between patients with active and stable vitiligo based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

Australas J Dermatol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Dermatology, Hangzhou Third People's Hospital, Affiliated Hangzhou Dermatology Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background/objective: Recent studies have described an association between altered skin microbial community and epidemiology of skin diseases, such as vitiligo, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In this study, we conducted microbiological analysis on patients at different stages of vitiligo to determine whether the dysbiosis is associated with disease progression.

Methods: To characterise the skin microbes in vitiligo patients, we profiled samples collected from 40 patients with active and stable vitiligo using the Novaseq sequencer. Read More

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September 2021