1,316,800 results match your criteria diseases cancer

Tobacco Use and the Kidney: A Review of Public Policies and Studies on Kidney Disease Progression.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 4;199:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Centro de Nefrología/Universidad de la República/Hospital de Clínicas "Dr Manuel Quintela", Montevideo, Uruguay.

Clinical Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, the effects of tobacco use on chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less widespread. Epidemiology: Smoking tobacco is associated with proteinuria and attenuation of glomerular filtration rate in the general population of different ethnicities. Read More

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The Role of Perfluorinated Compound Pollution in the Development of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 4;199:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza (IRRIV), San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Clinical Background: Poly- and perfluorinated compound (PFCS) pollution has been found to be the driver of different diseases, including glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia, thyroid diseases, gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension, testicular and genitourinary cancer, as well as impaired kidney function. This review focuses on the renal effects of PFCS, intending to clarify their occurrence and pathogenetic mechanisms. Epidemiology: Between October 31st, 2017, and March 31st, 2020, most frequently analyzed PFCS were perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, sodium perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate, perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid, and perfluoro-n-decanoic acid. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Oral Mucositis Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients With Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

3Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy predisposes patients to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Data are limited regarding the incidence, management, and outcomes of one such irAE: mucositis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics, disease course, treatment, and outcomes of ICI-mediated mucositis. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Durvalumab Plus Chemotherapy in the First-Line Treatment of Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

1Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan.

Background: In the CASPIAN trial, durvalumab + chemotherapy demonstrated significant improvements in overall survival compared with chemotherapy alone in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of durvalumab in patients with extensive-stage SCLC from the US healthcare system perspective.

Patients And Methods: A comprehensive Markov model was adapted to evaluate cost and effectiveness of durvalumab combination versus platinum/etoposide alone in the first-line therapy of extensive-stage SCLC based on data from the CASPIAN study. Read More

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Melanoma Metastases to the Adrenal Gland Are Highly Resistant to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

3Center for Rare Melanomas.

Background: Adrenal gland metastases (AGMs) are common in advanced-stage melanoma, occurring in up to 50% of patients. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has markedly altered the outcome of patients with melanoma. However, despite significant successes, anecdotal evidence has suggested that treatment responses in AGMs are significantly lower than in other metastatic sites. Read More

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GNEN-1: a spontaneously immortalized cell line from gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia.

Endocr Connect 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

J Arola, Deparement of pathology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MINEN) are rare tumors that consist of at least 30% of both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components. The data concerning pathogenesis of MINEN suggest a monoclonal origin. We describe a spontaneously immortalized cell line derived from gastric MINEN called GNEN-1. Read More

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Squamousness gain defines pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma hepatic metastases phenotype, and gemcitabine response.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Aug 1;155:42-53. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), INSERM U1068, CNRS UMR 7258, Aix-Marseille Université and Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a dismal disease with a survival rate of less than 7%, mainly due to the hepatic metastatic spread. Despite the importance of understanding PDAC metastases, central questions remain concerning their biology and chemosensitivity. Moreover, the transcriptomic divergence between primary tumor (PT) and hepatic metastases (HM) has been poorly studied and without a clear dissection of the confounding tumoral-surrounding tissue. Read More

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Trends in palliative care consultations in critically ill patient populations, 2013-2019.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Context: Critically ill patients have important palliative care (PC) needs in the intensive care unit (ICU), but specialty PC is often underutilized.

Objective: To evaluate changes in utilization and reasons for PC consultation over time METHODS: : Data from a national multi-site network of inpatient PC visits were used to identify patients age ≥18 years admitted to an ICU between 2013 and 2019. Year of ICU admission was the exposure. Read More

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Establishing cost-effective allocation of proton therapy for patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville and Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Purpose: For curative treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma, radiotherapy benefit must be weighed against toxicity. Although more costly, proton radiotherapy reduces dose to healthy tissue, potentially improving the therapeutic ratio compared to photons. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of proton versus photon therapy for mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (MHL) based on reduced heart disease. Read More

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Regulatory Considerations in the Development of Radiation-Drug Combinations.

Amanda J Walker

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Health Care and Surgery Center6420 Rockledge Dr. Bethesda, MD 20817, 301-896-2012, 301-896-6331. Electronic address:

Radiation therapy remains a fundamental treatment for patients with cancer. Despite an increasing number of targeted molecular therapies that are FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, there has been very little progress made in terms of drugs used concurrently with radiation. This article reviews the existing regulatory framework in which cancer drugs may be developed for use in combination with radiation therapy from the perspective of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More

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Pancreatic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with or without Hypofractionated Elective Nodal Irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose/objectives: Pancreatic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is limited to gross tumor without elective coverage for subclinical disease. Given a better understanding of recurrence patterns, we hypothesized that the addition of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) to pancreatic SBRT would be tolerable and would decrease locoregional progression.

Materials/methods: We conducted a retrospective 1:2 propensity-matched cohort study to compare toxicity and locoregional progression among patients treated with pancreatic SBRT with or without ENI. Read More

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The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is activated by steroid hormone signaling to govern neuronal remodeling.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(5):109466

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore. Electronic address:

The evolutionarily conserved Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is a key antioxidant response pathway that protects cells/organisms against detrimental effects of oxidative stress. Impaired Nrf2 function is associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. However, the function of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in the developing nervous systems has not been established. Read More

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Exploring the longitudinal glioma microenvironment landscape uncovers reprogrammed pro-tumorigenic neutrophils in the bone marrow.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(5):109480

The School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Recent multi-omics studies show different immune tumor microenvironment (TME) compositions in glioblastoma (GBM). However, temporal comprehensive knowledge of the TME from initiation of the disease remains sparse. We use Cre recombinase (Cre)-inducible lentiviral murine GBM models to compare the cellular evolution of the immune TME in tumors initiated from different oncogenic drivers. Read More

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Hypertension, diabetes, and corresponding annual clinical testing utilization: Comparison between Asian Indians and other races/ethnicities.

Prev Med 2021 Aug 1:106761. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA; EVMS-Sentara Healthcare Analytics and Delivery Science Institute, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Asian Indians are at increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. We sought to determine differences between Asian Indians and other races/ethnicities in hypertension and diabetes prevalence and associated annual blood pressure (BP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) testing. A total of 257,652 adults ≥18 years from the 2011-2018 U. Read More

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Antibody and T cell immune responses following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in patients with cancer.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Academy of Geriatric Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; OPEN-Open Patient data Exploratory Network, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. Electronic address:

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Isthmin-1 is an adipokine that promotes glucose uptake and improves glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis.

Cell Metab 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Stanford Diabetes Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease, there is still an unmet need to better treat hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Here, we identify isthmin-1 (Ism1) as an adipokine and one that has a dual role in increasing adipose glucose uptake while suppressing hepatic lipid synthesis. Ism1 ablation results in impaired glucose tolerance, reduced adipose glucose uptake, and reduced insulin sensitivity, demonstrating an endogenous function for Ism1 in glucose regulation. Read More

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Dying Alone during a Pandemic.

J Palliat Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Palliative Care, Rehabilitation and Integrative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented experience that has had profound impact and consequences for health care providers, visitation policies, and procedures. Hospitals and health care facilities were forced to implement changes to visitation policies, in an effort, to minimize transmission of the virus, which unfortunately had negative impact on patients' and family members' well-being as well as moral distress for the staff. We present here a case illustration of the impacts of such a response to the pandemic situation at our institution, including challenges for uniformly implementing such a change along with suggestions to support patients during these difficult times. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Regeneration to Drug Delivery Systems.

Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2021 ;38(3):33-73

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad (GCUF), Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad-38000, Pakistan.

Targeting drug delivery has been a focus of researchers in recent years for cancer and other diseases. Many approaches such as liposomes, exosomes, nanoparticles (magnetic), encapsulation etc. have been developed and investigated for their clinical applications. Read More

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January 2021

Could Harnessing Natural Killer Cell Activity Be a Promising Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

Jennifer Wu

Crit Rev Immunol 2021 ;41(2):101-106

Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Harnessing natural killer (NK) cell activity, either endogenous NK or NK-cell-based therapy, is in the forefront development for many tumor types. There are compelling clinical evidence demonstrating the significant relevance of loss of NK cell activity with prostate cancer (PCa) disease progression to the lethal phenotype, metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC). Given that mCRPC is generally regarded as a "cold" tumor and has only elicited marginal response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy to revive CD8 T cell activity, NK cell targeted therapy may present a viable opportunity not only to directly target mCRPC and also to "fire up" the cold mCRPC tumor. Read More

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January 2021

Probiotics in Health and Disease: Distinct Roles of Different Strains in Natural Killer Cell Activation and Regulation.

Crit Rev Immunol 2021 ;41(2):1-19

Division of Oral Biology and Medicine, The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA School of Dentistry and Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Elucidating the role of probiotic bacteria in health and disease perhaps constitutes one of the most exciting and fastest growing fields in medicine as we uncover the beneficial roles of these bacteria in many disease processes including cancer. We and others have reported previously that probiotic bacteria play a significant role in the activation of many cells including the cancer fighting natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are the key immune effectors which control tumor growth and metastasis due to their ability to mediate direct cytotoxicity and/or differentiation of cancer stem cells/undifferentiated tumors through secreted and membrane bound interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Read More

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January 2021

Transcriptional and Post-Translational Control Mechanisms for EphB4 Expression in Physiology and Cancer Disease.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2021 ;31(2):83-88

Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA 19122; The ISOPROG-Somatolink EPFP Research Network, Philadelphia, USA 19102 and Caltanissetta, Italy 93100.

EphB4 is a membrane tyrosine kinase receptor involved in a number of physiologic and pathologic conditions, cancer being the one drawing the highest attention. In mammalians, EphB4 regulates blood vessel growth and differentiation. EphB4 also mediates a number of cancer promoting effects including angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Read More

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January 2021

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Difficult Cancer to Treat.

Crit Rev Oncog 2021 ;26(2):11-25

Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council (CNR), Palermo, Italy; Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo, Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very peculiar cancer because it presents several molecular alterations linked to the activation of survival and antiapoptotic signal pathways that are protein in form and not easily targetable by even the newest targeted therapies. In addition, it is almost always a consequence of liver cirrhosis, a serious disease condition in which several drugs are often not tolerated. This is why the study of HCC was such a challenge for Professor Natale D'Alessandro, to whom this work is dedicated, during the latter years of his career. Read More

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January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Variants in Patients with Immunosuppression.

N Engl J Med 2021 Aug;385(6):562-566

From the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (L.C., T.B.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (C.B.), the Center for Infectious Disease Research (N.L.M.) and the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (M.R.), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda (M.R.) - all in Maryland; and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (M.S.C.).

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Subcutaneous REGEN-COV Antibody Combination to Prevent Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - both in Seattle (R.V.B.); the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.H.B.); the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (M.S.C., C.B.H.); the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (D.R.B., M.A.M.); Clinical Trials of Florida (J.K.) and Medical Research of Westchester (R.P.-P.) - both in Miami; and the Catalina Research Institute, Montclair, CA (R.M.).

Background: REGEN-COV (previously known as REGN-COV2), a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, has been shown to markedly reduce the risk of hospitalization or death among high-risk persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whether subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevents severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent Covid-19 in persons at high risk for infection because of household exposure to a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown.

Methods: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, participants (≥12 years of age) who were enrolled within 96 hours after a household contact received a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to receive a total dose of 1200 mg of REGEN-COV or matching placebo administered by means of subcutaneous injection. Read More

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A novel multiplex qPCR method for assessing the comparative lengths of telomeres.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Aug 4:e23929. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The comparative length of telomeres is considered to be related to diseases such as cancer, aging, and cardiovascular diseases. qPCR is currently one of the main methods for detecting telomere length. However, due to the unique sequence of telomeres (highly repetitive six-base sequence), it is difficult to design primers and probes to expand and detect telomere and to put internal reference gene and telomere into the same tube for detection to reduce the possible inter-pore errors and improve amplification efficiency. Read More

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Impact of initial chemotherapy regimen on outcomes for patients with double-expressor lymphoma: A multi-center analysis.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma featuring overexpression of MYC and B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (double expressor lymphoma, DEL) is associated with poor outcomes. Existing evidence suggesting improved outcomes for DEL with the use of more intensive regimens than R-CHOP is restricted to younger patients and based on limited evidence from low patient numbers. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of intensive frontline regimens versus R-CHOP in a multicenter analysis across 7 academic medical centers in the United States. Read More

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