348,639 results match your criteria disease virus

Characterization of arrhythmias, evaluation of cardiac biomarkers and their association with survival in calves suffering from foot-and-mouth disease.

J Vet Cardiol 2021 Apr 18;36:64-76. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Regional Campus, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 560024, India.

Introduction: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causes mortality in calves due to myocarditis; however, the effects of FMD virus on cardiac arrhythmogenesis and Purkinje cells are unknown. Identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers in FMD-affected calves may be useful in disease management in the endemic countries.

Materials And Methods: A total of 81 FMD-affected calves were prospectively monitored till death or recovery. Read More

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Fluorescent polymeric nanoparticle for ratiometric temperature sensing allows real-time monitoring in influenza virus-infected cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 1;601:825-832. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan. Electronic address:

Temperature is a key indicator of infection and disease, however, it is difficult to measure at a cellular level. Nanoparticles are applied to measure the cellular temperature, and enhancement of the stability and reliability of the signal and higher biocompatibility are demanded. We have developed fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles loaded with temperature-sensitive units (as rhodamine B) and internal reference units (as coumarin) for imaging and ratiometric sensing of the cellular temperature in the physiological range. Read More

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Genetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel recombinant avian infectious bronchitis virus derived from GI-1, GI-13, GI-28, and GI-19 strains in Southwestern China.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 29;100(7):101210. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China. Electronic address:

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is an acute and highly contagious disease that is extremely harmful to the poultry industry throughout the world. The cross-using of different attenuated live vaccine strains has led to the occurrence of diverse IBV serotypes. In this study, we isolated an IBV strain from a chicken farm in southwest China and designated it CK/CH/SCMY/160315. Read More

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Distribution and molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus in southern China.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 27;100(7):101169. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Guangdong Provincial Animal Virus Vector Vaccine Engineering Technology Research Center, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P.R. China; Key Laboratory of Healthy Animal Husbandry and Environmental Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is causing considerable economic losses in the world poultry industry. The main difficulty of prevention and control of IB disease is the numerous genotypes and serotypes. The genetic analysis of IBV was mainly based on the S1 gene which played an important role in infectivity. Read More

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Characterization and prediction of viral loads of Hepatitis B serum samples by using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 8:102386. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to analyze the body fluids for the purpose of non-invasive disease diagnosis.

Objectives: To develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection from blood serum samples.

Methods: Clinically diagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected serum samples of patients of different levels of viral loads have been subjected for SERS analysis in comparison with the healthy ones by using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based SERS substrates. Read More

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Brivanib alaninate inhibited dengue virus proliferation through VEGFR2/AMPK pathway.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 8:105721. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease of humans and has a major impact on global public health. There is no clinically approved drugs for DENV infection. Since intracellular VEGFR2 is increased in DENV infected patients, we thus hypothesized that VEGFR2 participated DENV proliferation and its inhibitors could be served as antivirals against DENV. Read More

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Changes of avian influenza virus subtypes before and after vaccination in live poultry in Nanchang, China from 2016 to 2019.

Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 8:104848. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Collaboration Unit for Field Epidemiology of State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal-origin and Vector-borne Diseases, Nanchang Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Nanchang 330038, PR China. Electronic address:

We investigated fluctuations in the detection rates of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5, H7, and H9 in live bird markets (LBMs) in Nanchang city, Chinese province Jiangxi, before and after the Chinese nationwide AIV vaccination campaign against highly pathogenic (HP) AIV subtype H5 and H7. Samples were tested for nucleic acid of type A avian influenza virus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology. The H5, H7 and H9 subtypes of influenza viruses were further classified for the positive results. Read More

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Distribution of spreading viruses during COVID-19 pandemic: Effect of mitigation strategies.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Health Sciences Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating respiratory viral pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 during the first year of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with especially focusing on the effects of the national-based mitigation strategies.

Methods: This single-center study was conducted between March 11, 2020-March 11, 2021. All children who were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viral pathogens were included in the study. Read More

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Tim-4 cavity-resident macrophages impair anti-tumor CD8 T cell immunity.

Cancer Cell 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Center of Excellence for Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a remarkable clinical advance for cancer; however, the majority of patients do not respond to ICB therapy. We show that metastatic disease in the pleural and peritoneal cavities is associated with poor clinical outcomes after ICB therapy. Cavity-resident macrophages express high levels of Tim-4, a receptor for phosphatidylserine (PS), and this is associated with reduced numbers of CD8 T cells with tumor-reactive features in pleural effusions and peritoneal ascites from patients with cancer. Read More

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An overview on the COVID-19 complications in pediatric population: A pandemic dilemma.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 11:e14494. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Aim: The primary objective of this article is to understand the various complications caused by the coronavirus in the pediatric population.

Method: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed and incorporated forward and backward research methods on clinical trials, case reports, case series guidelines, and reports from the centre for disease control and prevention (CDC) and the keywords included Covid-19, Paediatrics, Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), Complications, Acute kidney injury, Heart failure. Secondary resources included one study from pre-print servers (www. Read More

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Impact of vitamin D status and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide on adults with active pulmonary TB globally: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252762. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Tuberculosis remains a global threat and a public health problem that has eluded attempts to eradicate it. Low vitamin D levels have been identified as a risk factor for tuberculosis infection and disease. The human cathelicidin LL-37 has both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties and is dependent on vitamin D status. Read More

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Ayurveda botanicals in COVID-19 management: An in silico multi-target approach.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0248479. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

AYUSH-Center of Excellence, Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India.

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Read More

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Dolutegravir/lamivudine as a first-line regimen in a test-and-treat setting for newly diagnosed people living with HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Desert AIDS Project, Palm Springs, CA, USA Bliss Healthcare Services, Orlando, FL, USA Infectious Disease Specialists of Atlanta, Decatur, GA, USA Midway Immunology and Research Center, Fort Pierce, FL, USA ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Objectives: Dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) is indicated for treatment-naive and experienced people with HIV; however, questions remain about its utility in a test-and-treat setting because of potential transmitted resistance and baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection. We present feasibility and efficacy of DTG/3TC in newly diagnosed individuals in a test-and-treat setting.

Design: The single-arm STAT study evaluated DTG/3TC in a US test-and-treat setting. Read More

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Hyperferritinemia: A Diagnostic Marker for Disseminated Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection?

Pediatr Ann 2021 Jun 1;50(6):e264-e267. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Although the prognosis of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has improved with intravenous acyclovir, the morbidity and mortality of disseminated disease remains high. Transaminitis and thrombocytopenia have been reported to be sensitive markers of neonatal HSV disease; however, early diagnosis remains a challenge due to a lack of specific clinical and laboratory indicators for this disease process. Ferritin, an acute phase reactant known for its use in diagnosing hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, has recently been reported as extremely elevated in neonates with disseminated HSV due to its high inflammatory nature. Read More

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Neurological disease caused by Oropouche virus in northern Brazil: should it be included in the scope of clinical neurological diseases?

J Neurovirol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.

We describe two neurological cases of Oropouche virus infection in northern Brazil, where the virus is endemic but neglected as a pathogen. This study reiterates the necessity of developing protocols for diagnosing infections and training medical personnel to recognize the pathogenicity of Oropouche virus in neurological infections. Read More

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Safety Profile of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Immunocompromised Populations: An Overview of Six Trials.

Drug Saf 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300, Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has demonstrated high efficacy against herpes zoster in older adults and immunocompromised populations. We present comprehensive safety data from six clinical trials in immunocompromised populations (autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant and renal transplant recipients, patients with hematologic malignancies, patients with solid tumors, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults) who are at an increased risk of herpes zoster.

Methods: In all trials, immunocompromised adults ≥ 18 years of age were administered RZV or placebo. Read More

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Sterilization and sanitizing of 3D-printed personal protective equipment using polypropylene and a Single Wall design.

3D Print Med 2021 Jun 11;7(1):16. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Basic Sciences, Kansas City University, College of Medicine, Farber-McIntire Campus, Joplin, MO, USA.

Background: The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic during the fall of 2019 and into the spring of 2020 has led to an increased demand of disposable N95 respirators and other types of personal protective equipment (PPE) as a way to prevent virus spread and help ensure the safety of healthcare workers. The sudden demand led to rapid modification, development, and dissemination of 3D printed PPE. The goal of this study was to determine the inherent sterility and re-sterilizing ability of 3D printed PPE in order to provide sterile equipment to the healthcare field and the general public. Read More

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Complete genome sequence of hollyhock vein yellowing virus, a novel monopartite begomovirus infecting hollyhock in Pakistan.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Hollyhock (Alcea rosea, family Malvaceae) is an ornamental plant grown widely in gardens across South Asia. In a bed of ornamental plants near the village of Chakri (Punjab Province, Pakistan) in 2014, hollyhock plants showing two distinct symptom types were identified: yellow vein mosaic and leaf crumple. PCR amplification with universal primers amplified a begomovirus from separate nucleic acid extracts of single plants of each type but amplified a betasatellite only from the plant with the yellow vein mosaic symptoms. Read More

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Evolutionary and Ecological Drivers Shape the Emergence and Extinction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Lineages.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Livestock farming across the world is constantly threatened by evolutionary turnover of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains in endemic systems, the underlying dynamics of which remain to be elucidated. Here, we map the eco-evolutionary landscape of co-circulating FMDV lineages within an important endemic virus pool encompassing Western, Central and parts of Southern Asia, reconstructing the evolutionary history and spatial dynamics over the last 20 years that shapes the current epidemiological situation. We demonstrate that new FMDV variants periodically emerge from Southern Asia, precipitating waves of virus incursions that systematically travel in a westerly direction. Read More

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Comparison of Symptoms and RNA Levels in Children and Adults With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Community Setting.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: The association between COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in children living in the community is not well understood.

Objective: To characterize symptoms of pediatric COVID-19 in the community and analyze the association between symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, as approximated by cycle threshold (Ct) values, in children and adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used a respiratory virus surveillance platform in persons of all ages to detect community COVID-19 cases from March 23 to November 9, 2020. Read More

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GABAA receptor encephalitis associated with human parvovirus B19 virus infection: Case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26324

Faculdades Pequeno Principe.

Rationale: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection can produce a spectrum of clinical syndromes, including neurological manifestations, most notably encephalitis. Although symptoms suggestive of autoimmune disease in patients with B19 infection have been previously described, a clear association of autoimmune encephalitis with B19 infection has yet to be established.

Patient Concerns: We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who was hospitalized due to status epilepticus, which evolved to super-refractory status epilepticus that was only mildly responsive to anticonvulsant drugs. Read More

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Attitudes, beliefs and practice of Egyptian healthcare workers towards seasonal influenza vaccination.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

World Health Organization Country Office, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Seasonal influenza vaccination is highly recommended for healthcare workers (HCWs) every year to protect them and reduce the risk of disease transmission at workplaces. Relatively few studies addressed influenza vaccination in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore the attitudes, beliefs and practice of Egyptian HCWs towards seasonal influenza vaccine. Read More

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Integrated multiple mediation analysis: A robustness-specificity trade-off in causal structure.

Stat Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Statistics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Recent methodological developments in causal mediation analysis have addressed several issues regarding multiple mediators. However, these developed methods differ in their definitions of causal parameters, assumptions for identification, and interpretations of causal effects, making it unclear which method ought to be selected when investigating a given causal effect. Thus, in this study, we construct an integrated framework, which unifies all existing methodologies, as a standard for mediation analysis with multiple mediators. Read More

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Hepatitis B infections among blood donors in England between 2009 and 2018: Is an occult hepatitis B infection a risk for blood safety?

Transfusion 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Microbiology Services, NHS Blood and Transplant, London, UK.

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most frequent infections identified in blood donors in England and represents an ongoing blood safety risk. We have analyzed markers of HBV infections in blood donors in England between 2009 and 2018 and used these to estimate the likelihood of non-detection of occult HBV infection (OBI).

Methods: We collected epidemiological, virological, and genotyping information on HBV cases identified in England, 2009-2018. Read More

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Role of ABO blood system in COVID-19: Findings from a southern Italian study.

Transfus Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Lecce, Italy.

Background: COVID-19 is a worldwide infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 and infects humans by binding to the ACE2 receptor. Blood group ABO glycoproteins can influence the binding of the virus to ACE2. The role of ABO blood system in the susceptibility to infection as well as in the clinical outcome of infected patients is still controversial and needs to be clarified. Read More

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Complexities in viral replication strategies as a potential explanation for prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in Covid-19 infections: analytical observation on SARS-Cov2 genome characteristics.

Theory Biosci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Regional Centre, Lembucherra, Agartala, Tripura, 799210, India.

Analytical observations (in silico) indicate molecular features of SARS-Cov2 genome that potentially explains the high prevalence of asymptomatic cases in Covid-19 pandemic. We observed that the virus maintains a low preference for 'GGG' codon for glycine (3%) in its genome. We also observed multiple putative introns of 26-44 nucleotide (nt) length in the genomic region between the coding regions of Nsp10 and RPol in the viral ORF1ab, like several other beta-coronaviruses of similar infectivity levels. Read More

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Puerarin reduces impairment of intestinal and adipose immune responses to influenza virus infection in mice.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Basic Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 12 Jichang Rd., San Yuanli St., Bai Yun Dist., Guangzhou, 510405, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that can also cause gastroenteritis-like symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Immune dysfunction of adipose tissue is involved in the occurrence and prognosis of influenza viral pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed intestinal and adipose immune responses in mice infected with influenza virus and found that the impairment of intestinal and adipose immunity to influenza virus infection could be reversed by treatment with puerarin, a medicinal compound isolated from Pueraria lobata (called "gegen" in Chinese). Read More

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Plasma Amyloid-β in Relation to Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and .

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2021 Apr 6;5(1):229-235. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Amyloid-β (Aβ), the key constituent of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, has antimicrobial properties.

Objective: To investigate the association between plasma Aβ and antibodies against the AD-related pathogens herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and .

Methods: Plasma from 339 AD cases, obtained on average 9. Read More

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Latent Tuberculosis Infection Status of Pregnant Women in Uganda Determined Using QuantiFERON TB Gold-Plus.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11;8(6):ofab241. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease increases with pregnancy. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with LTBI among pregnant women in Uganda.

Methods: We enrolled 261 pregnant women, irrespective of gestational age. Read More

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Setting a Course for Preventing Hepatitis E in Low and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Burden and Risk Factors.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 13;8(6):ofab178. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for outbreaks of acute jaundice in Africa and Asia, many of which occur among displaced people or in crisis settings. Although an efficacious vaccine for HEV has been developed, we lack key epidemiologic data needed to understand how best to use the vaccine for hepatitis E control in endemic countries.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on hepatitis E in low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Read More

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