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Fifteen years of the proficiency testing program for HIV-1 viral load testing laboratories in China, 2005-2019.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jul 14;142:104911. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Background: HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is essential for monitoring the effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. In order to identify factors that impact testing performance of HIV-1 VL testing laboratories, this study performed a retrospective analysis on data from the domestic HIV-1 VL proficiency testing (PT) program in China during 2005 to 2019.

Methods: Analysis was conducted on testing results of 155 PT panel specimens that were distributed to HIV-1 VL testing laboratories nationwide during 2005 to 2019. Read More

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NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101775. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, pessac & INSERM U1053, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare and chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and characterized by progressive obliterative fibro-inflammation of the biliary tree. Although the natural course is highly variable, PSC is often progressive, leading to biliary cirrhosis and its complications. In addition, PSC is a condition harbouring broad neoplastic potential with increased susceptibility for the development of both biliary and colon cancer. Read More

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NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF CHRONIC INFECTION WITH HEPATITIS B VIRUS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101773. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Saint Joseph & INSERM UMR 1252 IRD SESSTIM Aix Marseille Université, Marseille.

Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, initial staging of infection and monitoring of treated and untreated patients are mainly based on clinical, biological and imaging criteria allowing a complete non-invasive management for the majority of patients. Along to the conventional virological tools, rapid diagnostic tests and blotting paper tests for HBV DNA are validated alternatives. After diagnosis, the initial work-up should include HIV, HCV and HDV serologies, HBeAg status, and HBsAg and HBV DNA quantification. Read More

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NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF CHRONIC INFECTION WITH HEPATITIS C VIRUS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101771. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, pessac & INSERM U1053, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical care for patients with HCV-related liver disease has advanced considerably with developments in screening, diagnostic procedures to evaluate liver fibrosis and improvements in therapy with pangenotypic direct antivirals and prevention. These AFEF guidelines on the non-invasive diagnosis and follow up of chronic infection with HCV describe the optimal management of HCV positive patients with non-invasive methods in screening, in assessing viral disease and liver fibrosis and the follow-up of these patients according to the value of FibroScan®, Fibrotest® or Fibrometer®. Read More

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Tuberculosis recurrence over 7-year follow-up period in successfully treated patients in a routine programme setting in China: a prospective longitudinal study.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France.

Objectives: To determine tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in previously successfully treated patients in routine program setting and baseline characteristics associated with TB recurrence.

Methods: A prospective longitudinal study in Jiangxi Province, China. Patients, ≥14 years old, were consecutively registered and were followed-up for 7-year to assess TB recurrence against patients' individual baseline data that was entered into a database at TB registration. Read More

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Has COVID-19 lockdown improved glycaemic control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes? An analysis of continuous glucose monitoring metrics.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 28:108988. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age "Gaetano Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Aims: Our observational study aimed to evaluate the impact of the lockdown period due to 2019 Coronavirus disease pandemic on glycaemic control in a cohort of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Methods: Eighty-five patients with T1D aged 5-18 years using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems were enrolled. Demographic and clinical data, including glucose metrics generated by CGM-specific web-based cloud platforms, were collected in three different periods (pre-lockdown phase, lockdown phase, and post-lockdown phase) of 90 days each and were statistically analysed. Read More

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Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Quantitative Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden: A Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Study.

Chest 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery-Sleep Medical Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.2 Anzhen Road, Beijing 100029, China; The Key Laboratory of Upper Airway Dysfunction-Related Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, No.2 Anzhen Road, Beijing 100029, China; Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, No.2 Yabao Road, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

Background: Limited evidence is available regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and coronary plaque assessed using quantitative coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA).

Research Question: Are there any associations of OSA severity-related indices with the presence and burden of coronary plaque?

Study Design And Methods: Cross-sectional data from 692 patients who underwent sleep monitoring and CCTA were used for this study. Of these patients, 120 (17. Read More

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Early diagnosis of fibrotic interstitial lung disease: challenges and opportunities.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Reference Coordinating Centre for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Louis Pradel Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR754, IVPC, Lyon, France.

Many patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) develop pulmonary fibrosis, which can lead to reduced quality of life and early mortality. Patients with fibrotic ILD often have considerable diagnostic delay, and are exposed to unnecessary and costly diagnostic procedures, and ineffective and potentially harmful treatments. Non-specific and insidious presenting symptoms, along with scarce knowledge of fibrotic ILD among primary care physicians and non-ILD experts, are some of the main causes of diagnostic delay. Read More

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Characteristics and outcomes of unsuccessful percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: To examine predictors and outcomes of unsuccessful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases in a contemporary Australian registry cohort.

Background: With improvements in techniques and pharmacotherapy in PCI, more complex lesions in older patients are now being attempted. In the context of PCI performance assessment, there are limited data regarding the characteristics and outcomes of unsuccessful PCI. Read More

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COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plans from 106 countries: a review from a health systems resilience perspective.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Universal Health Coverage and Life Course, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has exposed long-standing fragmentation in health systems strengthening efforts for health security and universal health coverage while these objectives are largely interdependent and complementary. In this prevailing background, we reviewed countries' COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plans (CPRPs) to assess the extent of integration of non-COVID-19 essential health service continuity considerations alongside emergency response activities. We searched for COVID-19 planning documents from governments and ministries of health, World Health Organization (WHO) country offices and United Nations (UN) country teams. Read More

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Implementation of a Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) with a Controlled Distribution System (CDS) for the Generic Teratogenic Phthalimides Thalidomide, Lenalidomide and Pomalidomide.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Chief Medical Office and Patient Safety, Global Drug Development, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Wehr, Germany.

Thalidomide (α-phthalimidoglutaride) was marketed in the 1950s and early 1960s; it was promoted as a sedative-hypnotic agent with minimal hangover. It was available in some countries as an over-the-counter medicine. Publications reporting profound teratogenic effects with thalidomide brought about major revisions to the monitoring of the safety of medicines. Read More

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Incidence and risk factors for early readmission after hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 infection: results from a retrospective cohort study.

Infection 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Infectious Diseases Department, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: We aim to assess risk factors related to early readmission in previous hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. Early readmission was defined as the need for hospitalization within a period of 60 days after discharge. Read More

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Preanalytic and analytic factors affecting the measurement of haemoglobin concentration: impact on global estimates of anaemia prevalence.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jul;6(7)

Population Health and Immunity Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The accuracy of haemoglobin concentration measurements is crucial for deriving global anaemia prevalence estimates and monitoring anaemia reduction strategies. In this analysis, we examined and quantified the factors affecting preanalytic and analytic variation in haemoglobin concentrations. Using cross-sectional data from three field studies (in children, pregnant and nonpregnant women), we examined the difference in haemoglobin concentration between venous-drawn and capillary-drawn blood measured by HemoCue (ie, preanalytic) and modelled how the bias observed may affect anaemia prevalence estimates in population surveys and anaemia public health severity classification across countries. Read More

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Lithium use in a patient on haemodialysis with bipolar affective disorder and lithium-induced nephropathy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 30;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Renal and Transplant, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

Lithium is an effective mood stabiliser used to treat bipolar affective disorder (BPAD); however, it can also adversely affect the kidneys, causing acute toxic effects, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, chronic renal dysfunction and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in a minority of patients. We describe the case of a man with a 34-year history of BPAD type-1 and a 2-year history of ESKD secondary to lithium-induced nephropathy who experienced a manic relapse. He previously responded well to lithium but, following a deterioration in kidney function, was switched to olanzapine and sodium valproate. Read More

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Development and validation of a prediction model for 1-year mortality among older adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma who receive dose-intense chemotherapy.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute for Clinical Research & Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States of America; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Older adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) have poorer outcomes than younger patients. There are little data about which baseline patient and disease factors inform prognosis among older patients. We sought to create a prediction model for 1-year mortality among older patients with new HL who received dose-intense chemotherapy. Read More

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Nutrition guidelines for critically ill adults admitted with COVID-19: Is there consensus?

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 25;44:69-77. Epub 2021 May 25.

Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Nutrition Department, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed hospital systems globally, resulting in less experienced staff caring for critically ill patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). Many guidelines have been developed to guide nutrition care.

Aim: To identify key guidelines or practice recommendations for nutrition support practices in critically ill adults admitted with COVID-19, to describe similarities and differences between recommendations, and to discuss implications for clinical practice. Read More

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Prevalence of breastfeeding in children with congenital heart diseases and down syndrome.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 15;44:458-462. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: According to the World Health Organization, the worldwide incidence of Down syndrome is one in a thousand live births a year. Of these, it is estimated that 20-60% have congenital heart disease, a factor that hinders breastfeeding. Considering the numerous benefits of breastfeeding, a study verifying this prevalence in children with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease is indispensable, and this is not yet evidenced in the literature. Read More

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Healthcare professionals' perceptions of malnutrition management and oral nutritional supplement prescribing in the community: A qualitative study.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 7;44:415-423. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland; UCD Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland. Electronic address:

Background & Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition is under-recognised in the community despite being common in older adults due to physiological and social changes which are often compounded by chronic disease. This qualitative study aimed to explore the opinions of healthcare professionals (HCPs) working in the primary care and community settings about the management of malnutrition and the prescription of oral nutritional supplements (ONS), often included in the treatment of malnutrition.

Methods: Twelve healthcare professional (HCP) focus groups with 75 participants were conducted: community dietitians (n = 17), registered dietitians working in industry (n = 5), community and residential care nurses (n = 22), physiotherapists (n = 12), pharmacists (n = 9), occupational therapists (n = 6) and speech and language therapists (n = 4). Read More

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Review: Multiplexed profiling of biomarkers in extracellular vesicles for cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 15;1175:338633. Epub 2021 May 15.

Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale vesicles secreted by normal and pathological cells. The types and levels of surface proteins and internal nucleic acids in EVs are closely related to their original cells, tumor occurrence, and development. Thus, the sensitive and accurate detection of EV biomarkers is a reliable approach for noninvasive disease diagnosis and treatment response monitoring. Read More

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Monitoring the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists in the treatment of Ankylosing spondylarthritis: a pilot study based on MR relaxometry technique.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Jul 30;21(1):117. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Shengli Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Radiology Department of Fujian Provincial Hospital, 134 East Street, Gulou District, Fuzhou City, 350001, Fujian Province, China.

Background: SpA is a disease that seriously affects the quality of life and working ability of patients. At present, there is a lack of scientific and effective quantitative indicators to evaluate the activity of sacroilitis and the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists in the treatment of active sacroilitis. MRI STIR sequence is the most commonly used method for the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint inflammation, but its response to the disease still lags behind the pathological changes and cannot provide quantitative indicators. Read More

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Development and evaluation of a new method to combine clinical impression survey data with existing laboratory data for veterinary syndromic surveillance with the Canada West Swine Health Intelligence Network (CWSHIN).

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jul 24;194:105444. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

The Canada West Swine Health Intelligence Network (CWSHIN) is a surveillance system imbedded in an intelligence network. It has been conducting syndromic surveillance in the four western provinces of Canada since 2012. The quarterly activities include repeated clinical impression surveys, compilation of laboratory data, discussion of trends with an expert group (practitioners, laboratory diagnosticians) and swine health reports for producers and swine practitioners. Read More

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Treatment Algorithm for Managing Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: 2021 Update.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Gastroenterology, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background And Aims: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection remains the most frequent etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma globally as well as a major cause of cirrhosis. Despite vaccination, substantial numbers of persons have already been infected with hepatitis B virus and remain at risk of progressive liver disease.

Methods: In 2004, a CHB management algorithm was developed by a panel of North American hepatologists which was subsequently updated in 2006, 2008, and 2015. Read More

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High prevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in cattle in Amazonas, Peru.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jul 27:102428. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Instituto de Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad Nacional Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza de Amazonas (UNTRM), Amazonas, Peru; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering, Universidad Pablo de Olavide Seville, Spain; Biomedical Research Network for Diabetes and Related Metabolic Diseases-CIBERDEM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola spp. which cause an important loss to the livestock industry. The objectives of this study were: to estimate the prevalence of fascioliasis in three provinces of Amazonas, to evaluate possible risk factors of infection in cattle and to genetically characterize the Fasciola haplotypes circulating in this area. Read More

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Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Read More

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Dose-dense brentuximab vedotin plus ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for second-line treatment of relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a single centre, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e562-e571

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma could be treated with multiagent salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The aim of this study is to establish the safety and activity of dose-dense brentuximab vedotin combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (BV-ICE) chemotherapy in second-line treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 study of dose-dense BV-ICE at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington (Seattle, WA, USA). Read More

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Household availability of dietary fats and cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective evidence from Russia.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The aim of this analysis was to examine the prospective association between household availability of lard, butter, margarine and vegetable oil with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in a general population sample in Russia.

Methods: Data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey were used. 6618 adult individuals with no previous CVD who were recruited for the study in 1994 and followed-up in subsequent years were included in the analysis. Read More

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Beyond the mean: Quantile regression to differentiate the distributional effects of ambient PM constituents on sperm quality among men.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 8;285:131496. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Ambient PM (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) constituents have been related to mean changes in semen quality, but focusing on the mean response may not well capture distributional and heterogeneous effects of PM constituents on semen quality. In this study, 2314 semen samples of 622 men between Jan 1, 2019 and Dec 31, 2019 from Guangdong Human Sperm Bank were subjected to semen quality analysis. Read More

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Plasma hsa-mir-19b is a potential LevoDopa therapy marker.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Neurology, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly, the diagnostic and prognostic of which is based mostly on clinical signs. LevoDopa replacement is the gold standard therapy for PD, as it ameliorates the motor symptoms. However, it does not affect the progression of the disease and its long-term use triggers severe complications. Read More

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Atypical HUS and Crohn's disease-interference of intestinal disease activity with complement-blocking treatment.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

First Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, HU, 1083, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: In atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), various defects of the complement system have been reported to explain pathophysiology. Therapeutic options for complement inhibition are well-recognized; however, the links between various immune-derived diseases and aHUS are unclear, and their interference with treatment efficacy during long-term complement-blocking therapy is scarcely known.

Case-diagnosis/treatment: We present a pediatric patient who developed aHUS with acute kidney injury in parallel with the onset of Crohn's disease (CD), and who required long-term complement-blocking therapy with eculizumab (ECU). Read More

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Predicting Depressive Symptom Severity Through Individuals' Nearby Bluetooth Device Count Data Collected by Mobile Phones: Preliminary Longitudinal Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jul 30;9(7):e29840. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Research in mental health has found associations between depression and individuals' behaviors and statuses, such as social connections and interactions, working status, mobility, and social isolation and loneliness. These behaviors and statuses can be approximated by the nearby Bluetooth device count (NBDC) detected by Bluetooth sensors in mobile phones.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the value of the NBDC data in predicting depressive symptom severity as measured via the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Read More

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